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IST16-01 - Introduction to Interoperability and Semantic Technologies

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The first lecture of the course I'm giving on "Interoperability and Semantic Technologies" at Politecnico di Milano in the academic year 2015-16

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IST16-01 - Introduction to Interoperability and Semantic Technologies

  1. 1. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Interoperability and Semantic Technologies 2015-16 Introduction Emanuele Della Valle DEIB - Politecnico di Milano http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle
  2. 2. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Share, Remix, Reuse — Legally This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Your are free: to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work to Remix — to adapt the work Under the following conditions Attribution — You must attribute the work by inserting “by E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle” at the end of each reused slide To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2
  3. 3. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Definitions of Interoperability • Interoperability • the ability of information and communication technology (ICT) systems to exchange data and to enable sharing of information and knowledge • Functional interoperability • Information has to be transmitted reliably between heterogeneous applications • Semantic interoperability • Transmission must occur without loss of meaning, and thus without loss of computability • E.g., Semantic Interoperability in healthcare information systems • It is the ability to share information without loss of computable meaning, across multiple applications concerned with clinical (primary use) and related administrative, financial, and research domains (secondary uses). 3
  4. 4. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Once upon a time … 4 …, in an happy organization, users were happy of the application the IT department prepared for them, but … application […] … the organization was not alone. Another organization developed a complementary application … complementary application […] … so, one day, the two organizations decided to integrate the two applications. Organizational boundaries application […] complementary application […] Organizational boundaries application […] ? Having much to gain the happy organization decided to invest in a bi-lateral solution complementary application […] Organizational boundaries application […] adapter !
  5. 5. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle … this went on for a while, but … 5 […] ! … the more bi-lateral integrations, the sadder the organizations became. […] […] […] […] […] […] ! ! !! !! !! !?! !!! ! !! !?!?!? ?!? ?!? ! OK !! Good !!! Very Good !?! Very Good … ?!? Have I done the right thing? ??? Does it make sence? ?#@ Why am I doying it!!! Legend
  6. 6. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle … So, they standardized and … 6 […] […] […] […] […] […] […] standard … and they lived happily ever after!
  7. 7. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Well, not really :-( Actually … 7 […] […] […] […] […] […] […] ??? KEEP CALM AND WAIT FOR 1 YEARS10100
  8. 8. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Why? The Standardization dilemma! Comprehensive Handles all use cases Good High quality Timely Completed quickly Pick two! Pick two! 8
  9. 9. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle There are a variety of them 9 Standards are like plumbs
  10. 10. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Over 100 in the Healthcare domain! AIR ALT AOD AOT BI CCC CCPSS CCS CDT CHV COSTAR CPM CPT CPTSP CSP CST DDB DMDICD10 DMDUMD DSM3R DSM4 DXP FMA HCDT HCPCS HCPT HL7V2.5 HL7V3.0 HLREL ICD10 ICD10AE ICD10AM ICD10AMAE ICD10CM ICD10DUT ICD10PCS ICD9CM ICF ICF-CY ICPC ICPC2EDUT ICPC2EENG ICPC2ICD10DUT ICPC2ICD10ENG ICPC2P ICPCBAQ ICPCDAN ICPCDUT ICPCFIN ICPCFRE ICPCGER ICPCHEB ICPCHUN ICPCITA ICPCNOR ICPCPOR ICPCSPA ICPCSWE JABL KCD5 LCH LNC_AD8 LNC_MDS30 MCM MEDLINEPLUS MSHCZE MSHDUT MSHFIN MSHFRE MSHGER MSHITA MSHJPN MSHLAV MSHNOR MSHPOL MSHPOR MSHRUS MSHSCR MSHSPA MSHSWE MTH MTHCH MTHHH MTHICD9 MTHICPC2EAE MTHICPC2ICD10AE MTHMST MTHMSTFRE MTHMSTITA NAN NCISEER NIC NOC OMS PCDS PDQ PNDS PPAC PSY QMR RAM RCD RCDAE RCDSA RCDSY SNM SNMI SOP SPN SRC TKMT ULT UMD USPMG UWDA WHO WHOFRE WHOGER WHOPOR WHOSPA 10 [source: dbooth.org/2014/yosemite/yosemite-project-slides.pdf]
  11. 11. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle And they keep changing :-( 11 [Credits: Rafael Richards]
  12. 12. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Why? 12 [source http://xkcd.com/927/ ]
  13. 13. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle … sometime the variety is required 13 standards are like plumbs
  14. 14. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Why variety is required 14 [Source: http://www.slideshare.net/HINZ/hl7-whats-hot-and-whats-not ]
  15. 15. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle One standard does not fit all Different use cases need need different data, granularity and representations 15 [source: dbooth.org/2014/yosemite/yosemite-project-slides.pdf]
  16. 16. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle … thus translation is needed 16 standards are like plumbs
  17. 17. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle And counting on translation between standards is even convenient while working on increasing the comprehensiveness of a standard over time 17 Translation is unavoidable! Comprehensive 0% 100% Time Translation Standard
  18. 18. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle But be aware of the cost of ad hoc translation! 18 standards are like plumbs
  19. 19. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle …in healthcare costs $30000 Million per year in USA [source: http://www.calgaryscientific.com/blog/bid/284224/Interoperability-Could- Reduce-U-S-Healthcare-Costs-by-Thirty-Billion] 19 The luck of interoperability …
  20. 20. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle So What?!? “It is not necessarily the strongest of the species that survives nor the most intelligent, but the one that is most responsive to change.” --- Charles Darwin “The Origin of Species” 20
  21. 21. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Embrace change! 21
  22. 22. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Semantic Technologies embrace change 22 subject objectobject property Proposing a simple data model: RDF E.g., Flexible enough to represent: Tables Amoxi- cillin bacterial disease bacterial disease treats Trees Graphs
  23. 23. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Providing a powerful query language: SPARQL E.g., what does Amoxicillin treat? ?x={Bacterial disease, Urinary tract infection, Sinus infection, …} Flexible enough to query RDF data even without knowing the schema E.g., can you describe Amoxicillin ? ?p={treats} ?x={Bacterial disease, Urinary tract infection, Sinus infection, …} ?p={hasSideEffects} ?x={Diarrhoea} ?p={belongsTo} ?x={β-Lactam antibiotic, Penicillin-class Antibacterial} … Semantic Technologies embrace change 23 Amoxi- cillin ?x?x treats Amoxi- cillin ?x?x ?p
  24. 24. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Providing a formal language for conceptual modelling: OWL E.g., Heart Heart is a muscular organ that is part of the circulatory system ∀x.[ Heart(x)→ MuscolarOrgan(x)∧ ∃y.[isPartOf(x,y )∧ CirculatorySystem(y)]] OWL is a modular standard that offers different trade-offs OWL-QL OWL-RL OWL-EL Semantic Technologies embrace change 24 TermsData Terms Data Terms Data
  25. 25. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Semantic Technologies embrace change 25 Standard in OWL […] Ontology Based Data Access as a prototypical solution to interoperability problems <XML><XML> Translator Translator Translator
  26. 26. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Semantic Technologies embrace change 26 Standard in OWL […] SPARQL Queries Ontology Based Data Access as a prototypical solution to interoperability problems RDBMS <XML><XML> Translator Translator Translator
  27. 27. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Semantic Technologies embrace change 27 Standard in OWL Results { , , } Ontology Based Data Access as a prototypical solution to interoperability problems […] RDBMS <XML><XML> Translator Translator Translator
  28. 28. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Those ideas at work at scale 28 Google for "amoxicillin" Model: Google knowledge graph A variety of sources: •http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ •http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/ •http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/ •http://micromedex.com/
  29. 29. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Interoperability and Semantic Technologies 2015-16 Introduction Emanuele Della Valle DEIB - Politecnico di Milano http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle

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