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Differentiating Instruction:
Beginning the Journey
"In the end, all learners need
your energy, your heart and
your mind. T...
Differentiated
Instruction
Defined

“Differentiated instruction is a teaching
philosophy based on the premise that
teacher...
Research
Brain research suggests three broad and
interrelated principles that point clearly to
the need for differentiated...
Research
Brain Research confirms what experienced
teachers have always known:





No two children are alike.
No two c...
Brain Research
• An enriched environment gives students
the opportunity to make sense out of what
they are learning.
• The...
Research says . . .
• Most teachers and students have not been in effective
differentiated classrooms.
• Most teachers bel...
A New Paradigm
• Curriculum is defined as to what a student will
be able to demonstrate
• Each student experiences success...
Ways Individuals Can Differ—Know
Your Students
•
•
•
•
•
•

Cognitive and Affective Domains
Prior Knowledge and Skill Expe...
Differentiation:
Differentiated Instruction
Differentiation is a teaching concept in which the
classroom teacher plans for...
Insanity is

doing the same thing
over and over again
and expecting
different results
--Albert Einstein
25-Year History in Education
• Acknowledge that one size does not fit all
• Research showed students benefited
most from h...
Differentiate
Differentiate
(Verb) To:
“mark as different, a distinctive feature or
attribute or characteristic; become di...
What is Differentiation?
• A teacher’s response to learner needs
• The recognition of students’ varying
background knowled...
In a Differentiated Classroom
Teachers Differentiate
• Content
• Process
• Products
According to a student’s
• Readiness
•...
Good Teaching is Differentiating
Content, Process, and Products
• Pace/Level
Compacting, Learning Stations, Tiered Activit...
The Key
The Key to a differentiated classroom is that all
students are regularly offered CHOICES and
students are matched ...
Key Characteristic of a
Differentiated Classroom
An obvious feature of the differentiated
classroom is that it is “student...
Teachers Can Differentiate
Content

Process

Product

According to Students’
Readiness

Interest

Adapted from The Differe...
Some Differentiation Strategies
• Choice Boards
• Tiered Activities
• Learning Contracts
Differentiation Strategies
Low Preparation Differentiation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Choice of books
Homework options
Multiple level texts
Multiple level ques...
High Preparation Differentiation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Tiered Activities
Tiered Projects
Multiple Texts
Multiple Testing Op...
Where do I Go From Here?
Some Tips for Implementing
Differentiation in your Classroom
• Start slowly
• Organize your class...
Teacher Station 1

Inboxes

Bookshelf

Teacher
Station
2

Schedule

Group
Assignments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Concrete  Abstract
Simple  Complex
Basic  Transformational
Fewer  Multi-facets
Smaller Leaps  Greater ...
Where do I Go From Here?
Some Tips for Implementing
Differentiation in your Classroom
•
•
•
•
•
•

Start student files
Sta...
Differentiation is . . .
• A way of thinking about teaching and learning
• A philosophy based on a set of beliefs
• A blen...
If everyone is doing the same
thing, it is not differentiation.
What Differentiated Instruction Is Not
•
•
•
•
•

A recipe for teaching
What the teacher does when he/she has time
Groupin...
Concept of Differentiated
Instruction
• As old as Confucious
who taught over 3,000 students
was willing to teach anyone
ad...
More about the one-room
schoolhouse . . .
• Teachers had to be flexible in use of time,
space, materials, groupings, and
i...
The past 25 years in education
• Consolidated schools
• Assigned students to classrooms
according to age
• Had wisdom that...
Teaching is one of the greatest
joys of life.
• Let all students have an equal chance to
learn.
• Since the 1970s the numb...
Today
• High-stakes testing
• Testing mandates
• Appear to be moving beyond one-size fits
all
• Hearing about the concept ...
Research reports . . .
Most teachers persist with a singlesize approach and are repeatedly
disappointed by test scores and...
Students learn best when
• Supportive adults push them slightly
(moderately) beyond where they can work
without assistance...
Why Differentiate?
• At school every student’s job is to learn
• Ultimate goal is effective classroom
practices
• Every st...
How to Differentiate
• Survey student interests, learning styles, and
multiple intelligences
• Assess prior knowledge
• Va...
Differentiate Content
• Determine what you want the student to
be able to know, understand, and do
• Requires pretesting
•...
Differentiate Process
• Use a variety of learning activities and strategies
• Give students alternate paths
• Use varied c...
Layered Curriculum
•
•
•

C Level
Most assignments, general understanding, 15-20 choices
B Level
where student looks forwa...
TIERED INSTRUCTION
A PLANNING STRATEGY
FOR MIXED ABILITY
CLASSROOMS
“A Different Spin
on an Old Idea.”
SOURCE: based on wo...
WHAT CAN BE TIERED?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

ASSIGNMENTS
ACTIVITIES
CENTERS & STATIONS
LEARNING CONTRACTS
ASSESSMENTS
MATERIALS
...
IDENTIFY OUTCOMES

WHAT SHOULD THE STUDENTS KNOW, UNDERSTAND, OR BE ABLE
TO DO?

THINK ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS

PRE-ASSESS REA...
Planning Tiered Assignments
Concept to be Understood
OR
Skill to be Mastered
Create on-level task first then adjust up and...
When Tiering:
Adjust--• Level of Complexity
• Amount of
Structure
• Materials
• Time/Pace
• Number of Steps
• Form of Expr...
Develop Tiered Activities for
Advanced Learners
•
•
•
•
•

Tiered means different work not more work
Encourage broader rea...
The “Equalizer”
1. Foundational

Transformational

2. Concrete

Abstract

3. Simple

Complex

5. Smaller Leap

6. More Str...
Differentiate Products
• Vary the complexity of the product to
demonstrate mastery of concepts
• Have reduced performance ...
to Differentiate Product
• Choices based on readiness, interest, and
learning profile
• Clear expectations
• Timelines
• A...
Curriculum Tells Us What To Teach
Differentiation Tells Us How To Teach
What do you want students to know,
understand, and...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

A Student who UNDERSTANDS
Something can…

Explain it clearly, giving examples
Use it
Compare an...
Skills
These are the basic skills of any discipline. They include the
thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and s...
Build Self-Efficacy
• Can-do Attitude
• Successes build belief
• Most effective is through mastery
experiences
• Failures ...
A New Paradigm in Education
• People learn at different rates
• Students are not learning enough
• Students need mastery l...
Our new mission is Learning
• Produce learning with every student
• Work backwards by design—identify the desired
outcomes...
Differentiation—Goal of the Teacher
Become an expert on differentiation
• Powerful curriculum is what will make the best
d...
Differentiation Instruction

for
Interest – Readiness – Learning Profile
by
Self – Peers - Teachers
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  1. 1. Differentiating Instruction: Beginning the Journey "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
  2. 2. Differentiated Instruction Defined “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.” Carol Ann Tomlinson
  3. 3. Research Brain research suggests three broad and interrelated principles that point clearly to the need for differentiated classrooms, that is, classrooms responsive to students’: • Varying language readiness levels, • Varying interests, and • Varying learning profiles.   http://www.ascd.org/pdi/demo/diffinstr/tomlinson.html How the Brain Learns, Carol Ann Tomlinson and M. Layne Kalbfleisch
  4. 4. Research Brain Research confirms what experienced teachers have always known:     No two children are alike. No two children learn in the same identical way. An enriched environment for one student is not necessarily enriched for another. In the classroom, children should be taught to think for themselves. Marian Diamonds: Professor of Neuroanatomy at Berkeley http://www.ascd.org/cms/objectlib/ascdframeset/index.cfm?publication=http://www.ascd.org/publications/ed_lead/199811/darcangelo.html
  5. 5. Brain Research • An enriched environment gives students the opportunity to make sense out of what they are learning. • The brain constantly seeks connections between the new and the known. • Allow the child to be an active participant rather than a passive observer. • Students need appropriate challenge.
  6. 6. Research says . . . • Most teachers and students have not been in effective differentiated classrooms. • Most teachers believe differentiated instruction would benefit students but do not believe it is feasible. • Most teachers who try differentiated instruction often are more reactive than proactive in planning. • Even special class settings seldom differentiate for multiple exceptionalities. Tomlinson, 2005 Schumm & Vaughn, 1991
  7. 7. A New Paradigm • Curriculum is defined as to what a student will be able to demonstrate • Each student experiences successful outcomes • Essential that we understand what the student knew at the beginning and move forward from that point in a successful manner • Need to understand how each student learns best • Need to build on what each student already knows
  8. 8. Ways Individuals Can Differ—Know Your Students • • • • • • Cognitive and Affective Domains Prior Knowledge and Skill Experience Learning Rate Learning Style Preferences Motivation, Attitudes, and Effort Interests, Multiple Intelligence Strengths, and Talents
  9. 9. Differentiation: Differentiated Instruction Differentiation is a teaching concept in which the classroom teacher plans for the diverse needs of students. The teacher must consider such differences as the students’: • Learning styles, skill levels, and rates • Learning difficulties • Language proficiency • Background experiences and knowledge • Interests • Motivation • Ability to attend • Social and emotional development • Various intelligences • Levels of abstraction • Physical needs
  10. 10. Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results --Albert Einstein
  11. 11. 25-Year History in Education • Acknowledge that one size does not fit all • Research showed students benefited most from heterogeneous classes • Demand to eliminate segregation based on color, disability, and language • Look at Learning Styles, Multiple Intelligences, Cognitive and Affective Domains—Physical, Social, and Emotional
  12. 12. Differentiate Differentiate (Verb) To: “mark as different, a distinctive feature or attribute or characteristic; become different during development; develop in a way most suited to the environment; become distinct and acquire a different character.”
  13. 13. What is Differentiation? • A teacher’s response to learner needs • The recognition of students’ varying background knowledge and preferences • Instruction that appeals to students’ differences
  14. 14. In a Differentiated Classroom Teachers Differentiate • Content • Process • Products According to a student’s • Readiness • Interest • Learning Profile
  15. 15. Good Teaching is Differentiating Content, Process, and Products • Pace/Level Compacting, Learning Stations, Tiered Activities • Depth/Breadth Integrated Curriculum, Learning Styles, Creative Processes • Grouping Cluster, Interest, Tiered, Independent Smutney & Von Fremd, 2004
  16. 16. The Key The Key to a differentiated classroom is that all students are regularly offered CHOICES and students are matched with tasks compatible with their individual learner profiles. Curriculum should be differentiated in three areas: 1. Content: Multiple options for taking in information 2. Process: Multiple options for making sense of the ideas 3. Product: Multiple options for expressing what they know
  17. 17. Key Characteristic of a Differentiated Classroom An obvious feature of the differentiated classroom is that it is “student centered.” Shifting the emphasis from the "teacher and instruction" focus to the "student and learning" focus means redefining the role of the teacher.
  18. 18. Teachers Can Differentiate Content Process Product According to Students’ Readiness Interest Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999) Learning Profile
  19. 19. Some Differentiation Strategies • Choice Boards • Tiered Activities • Learning Contracts
  20. 20. Differentiation Strategies
  21. 21. Low Preparation Differentiation • • • • • • • • Choice of books Homework options Multiple level texts Multiple level questions Journal prompts Explore by interest Think-Pair-Share Flexible groups by readiness, interest, and learning profile • Computer programs • Multiple levels of questions • Work alone or together • Reading buddies • Vary pacing • Negotiated criteria • Open-ended activities • Jigsaw • Games Tomlinson, 2001
  22. 22. High Preparation Differentiation • • • • • • • • • • Tiered Activities Tiered Projects Multiple Texts Multiple Testing Options Alternative Assessments Course Compacting Spelling by Readiness Varying Organizers Learning Contracts Compacting • Tiered Centers • Interest Centers/Group Stations • Group Investigations • Choice Boards • Think-Tac-Toe • Graduated Rubrics Tomlinson, 2001
  23. 23. Where do I Go From Here? Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom • Start slowly • Organize your classroom space
  24. 24. Teacher Station 1 Inboxes Bookshelf Teacher Station 2 Schedule Group Assignments
  25. 25. • • • • • • • Concrete  Abstract Simple  Complex Basic  Transformational Fewer  Multi-facets Smaller Leaps  Greater Leaps More Structure  More Open Slower  Quicker
  26. 26. Where do I Go From Here? Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom • • • • • • Start student files Start student portfolios Use a clipboard Use of technology Start class with familiar tasks Use task cards, a tape recorder, or an overhead for directions • Have systems for student questions
  27. 27. Differentiation is . . . • A way of thinking about teaching and learning • A philosophy based on a set of beliefs • A blend of whole class, small group, and individual instruction • A teaching theory based on the premise that instructional approaches should vary and be adaptable to diverse students • Not new and not whole class all the time • Is necessary but not needed every day
  28. 28. If everyone is doing the same thing, it is not differentiation.
  29. 29. What Differentiated Instruction Is Not • • • • • A recipe for teaching What the teacher does when he/she has time Grouping by scholastic ability Synonymous with individual instruction Lines of students waiting for help from the teacher • Hard to keep track of student knowledge • Just about student choice
  30. 30. Concept of Differentiated Instruction • As old as Confucious who taught over 3,000 students was willing to teach anyone advised that people differ in their abilities counseled you have to start where they are • As old as a one-room school house students vary greatly in age, experience, abilities, and proficiency
  31. 31. More about the one-room schoolhouse . . . • Teachers had to be flexible in use of time, space, materials, groupings, and instruction. • Teachers had to plan for different instruction based on what level of mastery the student performed.
  32. 32. The past 25 years in education • Consolidated schools • Assigned students to classrooms according to age • Had wisdom that teacher’s job would be easier if age was factored out of the teaching/learning equation. • Believed one lesson worked for the whole group—teaching to the middle
  33. 33. Teaching is one of the greatest joys of life. • Let all students have an equal chance to learn. • Since the 1970s the numbers in special education have increased 400%. • Now the ratio is 7:1. For every 7 students there is 1 special education student. • Why? Assessment instruments, Psychologists, better informed parents, and teachers have become more compassionate
  34. 34. Today • High-stakes testing • Testing mandates • Appear to be moving beyond one-size fits all • Hearing about the concept of Differentiated Instruction • Advanced learners likely to suffer in heterogeneous placement unless opportunities are consistently available
  35. 35. Research reports . . . Most teachers persist with a singlesize approach and are repeatedly disappointed by test scores and shortfall in student achievement.
  36. 36. Students learn best when • Supportive adults push them slightly (moderately) beyond where they can work without assistance • They make connections between curriculum and interests in life experiences • Learning opportunities are natural • Classrooms and schools create a sense of community where students feel significant and respected
  37. 37. Why Differentiate? • At school every student’s job is to learn • Ultimate goal is effective classroom practices • Every student learning—whatever it takes
  38. 38. How to Differentiate • Survey student interests, learning styles, and multiple intelligences • Assess prior knowledge • Vary content, process (activities), and product • Keep it simple, start small, take small steps, take it slow • Use learning centers • Use Different Grouping Strategies • Use Technology (Internet research and Webquests)
  39. 39. Differentiate Content • Determine what you want the student to be able to know, understand, and do • Requires pretesting • Compacting curriculum to identify students who do not require direct instruction who can proceed to tasks of solving a problem or accelerating rate of progress • Means some students can work independently and cover content faster
  40. 40. Differentiate Process • Use a variety of learning activities and strategies • Give students alternate paths • Use varied complexity of graphic organizers, maps, diagrams, and charts to display comprehension • Grouping strategies • Provide variety of resources • Provide extension activities • Ongoing assessment to modify strategies • Provide frequent feedback
  41. 41. Layered Curriculum • • • C Level Most assignments, general understanding, 15-20 choices B Level where student looks forward to finishing C and getting to B A Level—ultimate goal Turn out students who can critically think about issues, analyze, research, and form an opinion Kathy Nunley’s Layered Curriculum http://help4teachers.com/samples2.htm
  42. 42. TIERED INSTRUCTION A PLANNING STRATEGY FOR MIXED ABILITY CLASSROOMS “A Different Spin on an Old Idea.” SOURCE: based on work by Carol Ann Tomlinson
  43. 43. WHAT CAN BE TIERED? • • • • • • • • • ASSIGNMENTS ACTIVITIES CENTERS & STATIONS LEARNING CONTRACTS ASSESSMENTS MATERIALS EXPERIMENTS WRITING PROMPTS HOMEWORK
  44. 44. IDENTIFY OUTCOMES WHAT SHOULD THE STUDENTS KNOW, UNDERSTAND, OR BE ABLE TO DO? THINK ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS PRE-ASSESS READINESS, INTEREST, OR LEARNING PROFILE INITIATING ACTIVITIES USE AS COMMON EXPERIENCE FOR WHOLE CLASS GROUP 1 TASK GROUP 2 TASK GROUP 3 TASK
  45. 45. Planning Tiered Assignments Concept to be Understood OR Skill to be Mastered Create on-level task first then adjust up and down. Below-Level Task On-Level Task “Adjusting the Task” Above-Level Task
  46. 46. When Tiering: Adjust--• Level of Complexity • Amount of Structure • Materials • Time/Pace • Number of Steps • Form of Expression • Level of Dependence
  47. 47. Develop Tiered Activities for Advanced Learners • • • • • Tiered means different work not more work Encourage broader reading Focus on problem solving Develop creative talents Provide meaningful work with peers of similar interests • Promote higher level thinking
  48. 48. The “Equalizer” 1. Foundational Transformational 2. Concrete Abstract 3. Simple Complex 5. Smaller Leap 6. More Structured 7. Clearly Defined Problems 8. Less Independence 4. Fewer Facets Greater Leap More Open Fuzzy Problems Greater Independence Multi-facets 9. Slower Quicker
  49. 49. Differentiate Products • Vary the complexity of the product to demonstrate mastery of concepts • Have reduced performance expectations for students working below grade level • Require more complex and advanced thinking for advanced learners • Offer a choice of products to address multiple intelligence strengths and motivate student learning
  50. 50. to Differentiate Product • Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile • Clear expectations • Timelines • Agreements • Product Guides • Rubrics • Evaluation
  51. 51. Curriculum Tells Us What To Teach Differentiation Tells Us How To Teach What do you want students to know, understand, and do? • • • • • Need a flexible learning environment Need student-centered focus on student interests Encourage independence Modifications in content, process, and projects Richer, more rigor, more diverse, and encourage abstract and complexity
  52. 52. • • • • • • • • • • • • • A Student who UNDERSTANDS Something can… Explain it clearly, giving examples Use it Compare and contrast it with other concepts Relate it to other instances in the subject studies, other subjects and personal life experiences Transfer it to unfamiliar settings Discover the concept embedded within a novel problem Combine it appropriately with other understandings Pose new problems that exemplify or embody the concept Create analogies, models, metaphors, symbols, or pictures of the concept Pose and answer “what-if” questions that alter variables in a problematic situation Generate questions and hypotheses that lead to new knowledge and further inquiries Generalize from specifics to form a concept Use the knowledge to appropriately assess his or her performance, or that of someone else. Adopted from Barell, J. (1995) Teaching for thoughtfulness: Classroom Strategies
  53. 53. Skills These are the basic skills of any discipline. They include the thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing. These are the skills of planning, the skills of being an independent learner, the skills of setting and following criteria, the skills of using the tools of knowledge such as adding, dividing, understanding multiple perspectives, following a timeline, calculating latitude, or following the scientific method. The skill portion encourages the students to “think” like the professionals who use the knowledge and skill daily as a matter of how they do business. This is what it means to “be like” a doctor, a scientist, a writer or an artist.
  54. 54. Build Self-Efficacy • Can-do Attitude • Successes build belief • Most effective is through mastery experiences • Failures can undermine • One’s judgment of one’s capability to perform given activities Siegle, 2005
  55. 55. A New Paradigm in Education • People learn at different rates • Students are not learning enough • Students need mastery learning and sense of self-efficacy • Make continuous progress • Teacher as coach/facilitator • Need for thinking skills and problem solving skills • Strengthen Interpersonal skills
  56. 56. Our new mission is Learning • Produce learning with every student • Work backwards by design—identify the desired outcomes • Provide a variety of learning strategies • Provide more opportunities to learn • Offer different pacing • Increase collaboration between students and teachers • Differentiate the core curriculum by modifying content, process, and product based on students interests, learning profile, and readiness
  57. 57. Differentiation—Goal of the Teacher Become an expert on differentiation • Powerful curriculum is what will make the best difference in student achievement • Increase challenge in the core curriculum • Reflective understanding • Network with other teachers • Attend professional development workshops • Become a professional in the field of differentiation.
  58. 58. Differentiation Instruction for Interest – Readiness – Learning Profile by Self – Peers - Teachers

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