Differentiated Instruction


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An overview icluding basic principles and references. It was presented during a workshop on Differentiation for EFL teachers of the Alpha Athens School district. (There are problems with the content in the slides, which is not properly viewed. I don't have a clue why this is happening. Should I upload the file in a different format?). My sincerest apologies, anyway..

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Differentiated Instruction

  1. 1. DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION AN OVERVIEW Androniki Nistikaki EFL Teacher at 1ST Senior High School of Vyronas Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, Culture and Sports Athens, Greece
  2. 2. Students are different regarding.. Prior knowledge- Experiences Personality Cultural Background Preferences Readiness Gender Interests
  3. 3. Differentiation It concerns… •Exploring different ways to cater for students’ diverse needs in learning. •Recognizing and supporting individuality while creating learning opportunities for all (Combine grade level expectations and individual learning needs). •It’s about Equity and Respect in the learning process. http://www.diffcentral.com/what-is-differentiated- instruction.html It does not concern planning individualize d lesson plans for every student.
  4. 4. Why is it important? •Ensures equal access to learning content •Fosters strong connections between teacher, learner and content •Relieves conflict in the learning environment •Fosters independent, life-long learning •Builds on students’ skills, strengths and interests. •Increases motivation and participation. •Boosts self-confidence and feelings of self-worth.  http://www.diffcentral.co m/what-is-differentiated- instruction.html  http://bcove.me/0r9eoeua  https://www.teachingchan nel.org/videos/differentiat ing-instruction  http://bcove.me/7qgzg87l  http://www.edutopia.org/s tw-differentiated- instruction-learning- styles-video  http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=PTWXt1Sl3GU &feature=player_embedd ed#at=91
  5. 5. Basic Components http://www.diffcentral.com/model.html
  6. 6. Framework-Basic Components to address Content-whattoteach (skills,knowledge)andthe meansusedtoachieve learninggoals curriculum • Clear, well-defined (goals and objectives shared and assessed) • Learner-centered (student needs, readiness, learning profile) curriculum • Consistent with National/regional standards • Goal-oriented (short-term, long-term goals) Teacher • Knowledgeable ⇨ master the content before pre- assessing/planning/implementing • Effective Decision-maker ⇨ What to teach, when, how to do/ assess/reflect upon
  7. 7. Framework-Basic Components to address Process- Making choices on: activities Assessme nt materialsLearning environment Teaching- learning strategies Process-Howto teach
  8. 8. Activities and Strategies  Tiered ⇨ using various levels of difficulty to address the same content  Scaffold ⇨ working a step further of what a learner can do alone (Zone of Proximal Development)  Varied (Multi-  Flexible grouping ( readiness, interests, learning preference, randomly)  Cooperative learning strategies  Setting classroom routines and classroom contracts  Multi-leveled activities (texts, questions)  Choice Boards  Web quests  Modified Assessment Methods  Re-teaching, Reviewing, Paraphrasing, Rephrasing, Retelling key concept ideas.  Chunking instruction into shorter segments or Expanding assignments over longer periods (Variable pacing)  Extending wait time for Activities Strategies
  9. 9. Flexible grouping ⇨ varied and flexible grouping arrangement Plenary,small group,dyads,independent work  Students work with a variety of peers either as instructed by the teacher or by their own choice.  The teacher can adopt different roles in the process (guide, monitor, supervisor, facilitator, mediat or).  Groups can be formed by standards of Readiness, Interests, Learning preference or randomly.  Different techniques can be applied to group students and manage the process. http://www.learner.org/workshops/readingk2/se ssion6/byw1.html
  10. 10. List of Activities to make key content accessible and meaningful  Visual Representatio ns ( Graphs, Chart s, Mind maps)  Role plays  Participating in Group Discussions  Drawing  Reading or creating Comic strips  Participating in Drama activities  Producing Journal entries  Pointing to pictures, objec ts  Describing characters, sc enes, objects  Summarizing  Providing Examples  Engaging in Hands-on Activities (use of manipulatives)  Making Speeches  Engaging in Peer Interviews  Filling in Questionnaire s  Conducting Brainstorming activities  Previewing (text, video)  Video viewing activities (video casts ) Engaging in Individual reading/ Team reading Sessions  Responding to Open, multiple choice, True/F alse, Yes/ no Questions  Writing Learning logs  Making Use of word banks  Doing Follow- up activities  ( Enrichment and reflection)  Reviewing  Expressing emotions and feelings  Sharing opinions, prod ucts, informati on, materials  Thinkdots  Tic-tac-toes  Cubing
  11. 11. List of materials to engage students and illustrate content  Different types of Dictionaries (Picture Dictionaries, Bilingual, Mon olingual, Thesaurus et al)  Videos with or without subtitles, transcripts  Picture files  Flashcards  Realia (Newspapers, magazines, o bjects)  Works of Art/ Graffiti  Encyclopedias  Screen projectors  Video Games  Crossword puzzles  Listening material  An infinite number of digital products like infographs and word clouds.  Audio Recordings  Poems  Fiction  Songs  Rhymes  Plays  Fairy tales  Comic Strips  Story Books
  12. 12. Student Product-what students Know, Understand, are able to Do Learning Preferences Readiness levels Interests Student Product-varied, multimodal
  13. 13. Assessment ⇨ On-going, tightly linked to instruction  Continual, accurate  Varied  Explorative  Precious feedback provider to all stakeholders  Guide to next steps or actions to be taken  Encourages reflection and dialogue  http://youtu.be/gFXbuE- 21I4  Formal  Standardized  Focused on outcomes and end products  Takes place at the end of a unit, term or school year  Certifies and rates according to achievement outcomes Summative Assessment Formative Assessment : A roadmap to effective instruction
  14. 14. Types of Assessment Pre- assessment and Formative/S ummative Assessment types to learn about student mastery of content, read iness level, backgr ound and interests.  Initial skills assessment  End-of- year exams  Mid-term exams  Informal Tests  Diagnostic tests/Placement tests  Individual student performance notebooks  Portfolios  Questionnaires  Student surveys  Writing samples  Oral participation in various activities ( e.g. Classroom Discussion)  Responses to various types of input information inventories  Teacher/ peer Observation  Checklists  Self-assessment/ Group Assessment docs  Student created products  Student reflection (learning journal entries, Exit slips  Technology tools to assess levels of retention and foster engagement and expansion of content
  15. 15. Learning Environment in a Differentiating Class  Physical arrangement of the classroom  Learning stations  Materials/tools available  Level of noise  Atmosphere, Classroom climate  Associations with community or state bodies, educational institutions, experts, agents.  Mentor support  Classroom Aides  Student Services  Peer Support Systems  Available Resources  Use of technology to enhance enrichment of information, creativity and collaboration (social media, professional networks, technology co- coordinators)  TEACHER-STUDENTS
  16. 16. Affect- the key to effective learningHOWSTUDENTSPERCEIVE THEMSELVES,THEIR PERFORMANCE,THEIR CLASSROOM,THEIRLEARNINGASA WHOLE  Engagement of senses and emotions in the learning process.  The Learning environment is a crucial factor either in hindering or promoting learning.  Provides all interested parts with a sense of community and self-worth.  Changes in value systems (beliefs, ideas, attitudes) pace with changes in the cognitive domain.
  17. 17. Asks crucial questions before setting off with the process 1. Who am I teaching? Who are my students? 2. What do they need to learn and be able to do? What is the key content about? How much is there to know about the main concept/s of the lesson? 3. How are they going to achieve these goals? 4. What resources and tools shall I need to facilitate and expand learning? 5. How will I know the choices made have worked? Believes that all children can learn. The teacher in the differentiating process
  18. 18. Learning outcomes Any knowledge, skill or attitude the student exhibits at the end of a learning experience Assessment Action Change Conclusions
  19. 19. Learning modalities theory- Perceptual model (V.A.K.) Despite being a popular, widely-accepted model in differentiating instruction to cater for a variety of learner preferences, it should not serve as set of criteria to categorize people. People learn through well- designed learning programs using a variety of multi-modal materials, instructional activities and assessment methods. As quoted below: “..it is far more important to match the presentation with the nature of the subject, such as providing correct learning methods, strategies, and context; rather than matching individual preferences” (Coffield, et. al., 2004). Retrieved on 24/8/13 from: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles.html Learning Styles • Visual • Auditory • Kinesthetic
  20. 20. Auditory Learner-learns by Hearing and Speaking  Use recordings of content material instead of reading through.  Read-out loud (notes, assignments, texts) .  Say new information out loud.  Talk problems/new ideas through with teacher/peers/friends.  Use self-talk to process and memorize information. Suggested Activities Tips for Auditory learners  Listening to lectures, audio scripts  Participating in whole class/small group discussions  Reciting information  Story-telling  Making speeches or presentations
  21. 21. Visual learner-Learns by seeing and visualizing information  Use various kinds of visual organizers (maps, graphs, charts, outline s)  Visual brainstorming activities  Images, pictures, comic strips, illustrations to illustrate content and engage students in the process  Digital mind mapping software to organize concepts and ideas.  Video clips and films with subtitles  Well organized hand outs  Take detailed notes  Highlight key concept/main ideas. Use color.  Write down new information repeatedly to memorize it.  Observe speakers closely, paying attention to body language and facial expressions.  Use visual organizers extensively. (maps, graphs, charts, outline s, timetables, schedules, age ndas, planners)  Use multimedia material to enhance learning. Suggested activities and materials Tips for visual learners
  22. 22. Kinesthetic Learner - Learns by doing and touching PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES Dancing Participating in Games (Action, Card, floor games) Writing on the Board Acting-out Role-playing Making presentations Operating multimedia Resources EXPERIMENTS (Chemistry lab, physics lab) EDUCATIONAL VISITS ( museums, galleries, institutions) FIELD TRIPS (zoos, archaeological sites, nature trails, theme parks, castles) ARTS AND CRAFTS  Image making and editing  Drawing  Comic Creations  Advertisements  Book Cover Designs  Video production  Collages  Graffiti  Building Structures
  23. 23. Kinesthetic learner tips for the teacher Use 1. Practice a lot of team work (seat changes, movement) 2. Allow for frequent breaks while studying 3. Encourage pacing or moving around while learning new material 4. Provide opportunities to handle physical objects Avoid 1. Prolonged seating, writing, liste ning or reading tasks 2. Assigning Tasks without prior explanation/guidanc e/ modeling 3. Abstractions 4. Unstructured lessons or
  24. 24. Small Tips for teachers  Get to know your students well before planning or implementing anything.  Have a variety of tools in your “tool kit”.  Observe closely and reflect on things you have spotted. It’s an effective way to learn about your students and adapt instruction respectively.  Inform both students and parents of your differentiated class. Share your ideas and expectations.  Allow some time for energy-saving and tension relief.  Build a support group of colleagues to learn from and share with (physical school environment,
  25. 25. Food for Thought…  Mistakes are allowed, and ways to rectify things are always there to trace and put into practice. In fact, it’s a good way to learn.  Good intentions and understanding of the human nature are valuable tools in your “big bucket”.  Learning is a dynamic process that changes the world we live in. As it is, it leads to action and progress. So, gather experience because….  “Experience is the teacher of all things”. Julius Caesar  “Experience is not what happens to you; it's what you do with what happens to you”. Aldous Huxley
  26. 26. Conclusion…  “Differentiating instruction alone will not automatically improve student performance. Tomlinson (2000) points out that efforts to differentiate are most successful when they are combined with the use of a high-quality curriculum, research-based instructional strategies, well-designed activities that address the needs and interests of students, active learning, and student satisfaction with the lesson.”  http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref
  27. 27. Quotes to think about "If a doctor, lawyer, or dentist had 40 people in his office at one time, all of whom had different needs, and some of whom didn't want to be there and were causing trouble, and the doctor, lawyer, or dentist, without assistance, had to treat them all with professional excellence for nine months, then he might have some conception of the classroom teacher's job." Donald Quinn (commercial artist and cartoonist) “Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.” ― Benjamin Franklin
  28. 28. Resources and Credits  http://minnetesol.org/journal/vol25_html_pages/17_Dahlman.htm Classroom strategies and tools for Differentiating Instruction in the ESL Classroom  http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html Flexible Grouping  http://irvington.k12.nj.us/depts/sdv/post_sub/12-13_Diff_Instr_Handbook.pdf Differentiated Instruction - How to Ensure Success for All Students  http://www.ericdigests.org/2001-2/elementary.html Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades-Carol Ann Tomlinson  http://www.edutopia.org/stw-differentiated-instruction-replication-tips Professinal development tools  http://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&ved=0CH0QFjAI&url=http%3A%2F% 2Feducation.alberta.ca%2Fapps%2Faisi%2Fliterature%2Fpdfs%2FFinal_Differentiated_Instruction.pdf&ei =XV8kUr7dAqjR7Abt2oDADw&usg=AFQjCNF0ixuedDVIF3ItUSC0KgBWDoQyUw&sig2 Differentiated Instruction: A Research Brief for Practitioners  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiated_instruction Article on Wikipedia  http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Professional+Development+Tools Professional Development Tools on Differentiation including valuable videos.  http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Choice+Boards Choice boards  http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Flexible+Grouping Flexible Grouping  http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/info/baldrige/staff/qualitytools.shtmQuality tools for building a positive classroom climate  http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/8-lessons-learned-differentiating-instruction 8 Lessons Learned on Differentiating Instruction  http://cainc.com/professional-development/topics/DiffInstruction/index.htm Differentiated instruction: success for every student  http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Planning+for+and+Managing+Differentiation Planning for and managing Differentiation  http://www.nldontario.org/articles/DifferentiatedClassroom.html Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom
  29. 29. Resources and Credits (con’t)  http://www.bsu.edu/gate/Instruction/criticalquestions.htm Critical Questions about Tiered Lessons  http://challengebychoice.wordpress.com/tiered-instruction-and-assessment/ Tiered Instruction and Assessment Tiered Instruction and Assessment  http://sped.lausd.net/sepg2s/pd/schwideintegration/diffinstruction/toolboxes/toolboxmod2.pdf Steps to provide differentiated instruction  http://irvington.k12.nj.us/depts/sdv/post_sub/12-13_Diff_Instr_Handbook.pdf  Differentiated Instruction - How to Ensure Success for All Students  http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/C607%20Information%20and%20Communication _WEB%20ONLY_FINAL.pdf  Innovations in learning technologies for English language teaching  http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/109954/1/A_Dahlman_P_Hoffman_S_Brauhn.pdf Classroom strategies and tools for differentiated instruction in the Esl classroom http://www.wida.us/ World class instructional design and assessment  http://www.eqa.edu.au/site/framingthought.html Framing thought. Literacy and Thinking  http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/classroom-solutions/2010/11/using-context-clues-create- independent-readers Predictograms Improve Reading Comprehension  http://www.learner.org/workshops/readingk2/session6/byw1.html Differentiating Instruction: Before You Watch  http://www.diffcentral.com/ Ann Tomlinson’s website  http://www.diffcentral.com/what-is-differentiated-instruction.html video illustrating the meaning of differentiation.  http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Teacher_s_Guide/ A Teacher's Guide to Differentiating Instruction