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HSC Chemistry Preparation Tips Part - II

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HSC Chemistry Preparation Tips Part - II

  1. 1. 12th Chemistry Preparation Tips www . ednexa . com
  2. 2. Chemistry Section – I Unit Unit Max. Marks No. Marks with Option 01 Solid State 4 6 02 Solutions and Colligative Properties 5 7 03 Chemical Thermodynamics and Energetics 6 8 04 Electrochemistry 5 7 05 Chemical Kinetics 4 6 06 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of 3 5 Elements 07 P – Block Elements 8 10 Total 35 49 www . ednexa . com
  3. 3. Chemistry Section – II Unit Unit Max. Marks No. Marks with Option 08 d & f – Block Elements 5 6 09 Co-ordination Compounds 3 4 10 Halogen Derivatives of Alkanes ( & Arenes) 4 6 11 Alcohols, Phenols & Ethers 4 6 12 Aldehydes, Ketones & Carboxylic acids 5 7 13 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen 4 6 14 Biomolecules 4 6 15 Polymers 3 4 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life 3 4 Total 35 49 www . ednexa . com
  4. 4. Paper Format for Section I & II [ 35 marks each ] Q – 1 ] Select and write most appropriate answer from the given alternative for each sub – question. [7] Q – 2 ] Answer any six [ out of eight ] of the following [ 12 ] Q – 3 ] Answer any three [ out of four ] of the following [9] Q – 4 ] Answer any one [ out of two ] of the following [7] www . ednexa . com
  5. 5. 1 – Mark Questions - Definition / Statement / Objective Questions 2 – Mark Questions Big structures of last two topics Two step conversion, Polymerization processes Difference - 4 points ( example No Mark ) / Distinguish by reaction Short Notes, Salient Features of Theory ( 4 points ) Relation between ΔH & ΔU etc Derivations / Laws of electrolysis Structures of oxides of Nitrogen / www . ednexa . com
  6. 6. 2 – Mark Questions Mfg. Processes ( Haber’s Process for ammonia/ Contact Process) Allotropes of P or S Oxy – acids of chlorine Defects in crystal / limitations / Rault’s law / Diagrams Resonating structures / Electronic Configurations 2 – point answers / Isomerism, Naming of co – ordination compounds Numericals 3 – Mark Questions ABC type crystal structures Laws and Derivations Daniel, Cell SHE, Calomel Electrode, Lead Accumulator 3 – point answers / Reaction mechanism / SN1, SN2, Optical activity Multi step reactions ( balancing not required ) / Methods of preparation Numericals - Calculations in same units throughout www . ednexa . com
  7. 7. 12th Chemistry 8 ] d - f Block Elements www . ednexa . com
  8. 8. d – Block Elements :- The atoms of the elements in which the last electron enters the d – orbital of penultimate ( last but one ) energy level are known as d – block elements. This indicates that in these elements, last two shells are incompletely filled.
  9. 9. Electronic Configuration of first ( 3d ) Transition Series ( 21 Sc – 30 Zn ) [ Ar ] 3d 1 – 10 4 s 1 – 2 www . ednexa . com
  10. 10. Oxidation States of first transition series www . ednexa . com
  11. 11. Electronic configuration of lanthanides :- www . ednexa . com
  12. 12. Electronic configuration of lanthanides :- www . ednexa . com
  13. 13. Lanthanide contraction : - Lanthanide contraction is a term used in chemistry to describe different but closely related concepts associated with smaller than expected atomic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series. Definition :- The decrease in the atomic and ionic radii of the lanthanide elements with increasing atomic number is known as lanthanide contraction. Thus, the first element lanthanum has the largest, while the last element lutetium has the smallest radius among these elements. www . ednexa . com
  14. 14. 12th Chemistry 9 ] Co - ordination Compounds www . ednexa . com
  15. 15. Isomerism in Coordination Compounds www . ednexa . com
  16. 16. Stereoisomerism in metal complexes with coordination number 6. Stereoisomerism in metal complexes with coordination number 6 ( octahedral complex ) of the type [ M a4 b2 ] n±
  17. 17. Stereoisomerism in metal complexes with coordination number 6. Stereoisomerism in metal complexes with coordination number 6 ( octahedral complex ) of the type [ M a3 b3 ] n±
  18. 18. Stereoisomerism in metal complexes with coordination number 6. Stereoisomerism in metal complexes with coordination number 6 ( octahedral complex ) of the type [ M a3 b3 ] n± For example, consider a complex [ Cr ( NH3 ) 3 Cl 3 ]. The structures of cis and trans isomers are
  19. 19. Structure of complex compounds based on valence bond theory E ] Structure of Hexaamminecobalt (III) ion, [ CO ( NH3 ) 6 ] 3 + 1.Hexaamminecobalt ( III ) ion, [ CO ( NH3 ) 6 ] 3 + is a cationic complex, oxidation state of Co is +3 and CN = 6 Electronic configuration : 27Co [ Ar ] 3 d7 4 s2 Electronic configuration : Co 3 + [ Ar ] 3 d6 4s0 4p0 NH3 is a strong ligand, due to spin pairing effect, all the four unpaired electrons in 3d orbital are paired giving two vacant 3d orbitals.
  20. 20. Structure of complex compounds based on valence bond theory E ] Structure of Hexaamminecobalt (III) ion, [ CO ( NH3 ) 6 ] 3 + The coordination number is 6, Co 3 + ion gets six vacant orbitals by hybridisation of two 3d vacant orbitals, one 4s and three 4p orbitals forming six d2sp3 hybrid orbitals giving octahedral geometry. It is an inner complex. 6 lone pairs of electrons from 6NH3 ligands are accommodated in the six vacant d2sp3 hybrid orbitals. The six hybrid orbitals of Co 3 + overlap with filled orbitals of NH3 forming 6 coordinate bonds giving octahedral geometry to the complex.
  21. 21. Structure of complex compounds based on valence bond theory E ] Structure of Hexaamminecobalt (III) ion, [ CO ( NH3 ) 6 ] 3 + Geometry of complex : Hexaamminecobalt ( III ) ion has a octahedral geometry due to d2sp3 hybridisation. Magnetic property : Hexaamminecobalt ( III ) ion has no unpaired electrons. Hence the complex is diamagnetic. (Magnetic moment, μ = 0 ) Effect of ligands : Ammonia ligands causes 3d electrons to be shifted to 3d – orbitals so that all the ten electrons are paired up in 3d – orbitals.
  22. 22. 12th Chemistry 10 ] Halogen Derivatives 11 ] Alcohol Phenol Ether 12 ] Aldehyde Ketone Carboxylic Acid 13 ] Compounds containing Nitrogen www . ednexa . com
  23. 23. 12th Chemistry Nomenclature : Common – IUPAC Methods of preparation / Name Reactions Chemical Properties / Action of different reagents Physical Properties Reaction Mechanism / Effect of Substituent Resonating Structures Intext & Exercise Question - MCQ’S Exceptional Questions www . ednexa . com
  24. 24. Exceptional Questions What is hydride shift ? Consider the following reaction : 3 – methylbutan – 2 – ol heated with Hi to form 2 – iodo – 2 – methylbutane ( and not 2 – iodo – 3 – methylbutane ). This can be explained on the basis of hydride shift. www . ednexa . com
  25. 25. Exceptional Questions What is hydride shift ? www . ednexa . com
  26. 26. Exceptional Questions Secondary carbocation rearranges to a more stable tertiary carbocation by a hydride ion shift. Nucleophile P ion attacks tertiary carbocation to give tertiary alkyl iodide. www . ednexa . com
  27. 27. Exceptional Questions Phenol is therefore ortho and para directing. These resonance structures (canonical forms) have negative charge at ortho and para positions as shown above. Hence phenol gives electrophilic substitution reactions at ortho or para or at both the positions but never at meta positions. Phenol is therefore ortho and para directing. www . ednexa . com
  28. 28. Exceptional Questions The ortho and para nitrophenol can be separated by steam distillation. O – nitrophenol is steam volatile due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding while p – nitrophenol is less volatile due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding which causes the association of molecules. www . ednexa . com
  29. 29. 12th Chemistry 14 ] Biomolecules 15 ] Polymers 16 ] Chemistry in Every Day Life www . ednexa . com
  30. 30. 12th Chemistry Classification of carbohydrates, Theory, Definitions, Structures Different classes of drugs, Uses, Side effects Polymers, Classification, Methods of preparation, Uses Reaction of glucose, Pyranose, Fructanose Structures. Intext & Exercise Question - MCQ’S Exceptional Questions
  31. 31. Structure of Cellobiose The celloboise contains 1 → 4 β glycoside bond.
  32. 32. Peptide linkage formation The structure of proteins show that large number of α - amino acid molecules are linked to one another through peptide ( – CO – NH – ) linkage. The peptide linkage is formed by elimination of water molecule from the amino ( – NH2 ) group of one α – ammo acid molecule and the – carboxylic ( – COOH ) group of the next neighbouring α - amino acid molecule. These carboxylic ( – COOH ) and amino ( – NH2 ) groups undergo condensation with other α – amino acids. Many peptide linkages thus formed are called polypeptide. If the molecular weight of such peptides is up to 10,000 then, it is known as polypeptide and those having molecular weight above 10,000 are known as protein.
  33. 33. Vitamins Some important Vitamins, their Sources and their Deficiency Diseases No Name of Vitamines Sources Deficiency diseases . 1. Vitamin A Fish liver oil, carrots, butter Xerophthalmia ( hardening of cornea of eye ) and milk Night blindness 2. Vitamin B1 Yeast, milk, green Beri beri ( loss of appetite, retarded growth ) ( Thiamine ) vegetables and cereals 3. Vitamin B2 Milk, eggwhite, liver, Cheilosis ( fissuring at corners of mouth and lips ( Riboflavin ) kidney ), digestive disorders and burning sensation of the skin. 4. Vitamin B6 Yeast, milk, egg yolk, Convulsions ( Pyridoxine ) cereals and grams 5. Vitamin B12 Meat, fish, egg and curd Pernicious anaemia ( RBC deficient in haemoglobin ) 6. Vitamin C Citrus fruits, amla and Scurvy ( bleeding gums ) ( Ascorbic acid ) green leafy vegetables 7. Vitamin D Exposure to sunlight, fish Rickets (bone deformities in children ) and egg yolk And osteomalacia ( soft bones and joint pain in adults ) 8. Vitamin E Vegetable oils like wheat Increased fragility of RBCs and muscular germ oil, sunflower oil, etc. weakness 9. Vitamin K Green leafy vegetables Increased blood clotting time
  34. 34. Preparation of some important addition polymers Polyacrylonitrile ( PAN or Orlon ) : - The addition polymerization of acrylonitrile in presence of a peroxide catalyst leads to the formation of polyacrylonitrile. Polyacrylonitrile is used as a substitute for wool in making commercial fibres as orlon or acrilan. www . ednexa . com
  35. 35. Antiseptics : The chemical substances which either kill or prevent the growth of micro-organisms are called antiseptics. They are safe to be applied on to the living tissues. e.g. Dettol, iodine, iodoform, boric acid etc. General uses of antiseptics : These are not harmful to living tissues and can be safely applied to wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces These are used to reduce odors, resulting from bacterial decomposition of the body or in mouth. Therefore they are mixed with face powders, deodorants and breath purifiers. These are used in antiseptic cream like soframycin and furacin. www . ednexa . com
  36. 36. Examples of Antiseptics Phenol : They are used for dressing of small wounds. It causes severe burns, hence other phenolic compounds are used. Dettol : It is solution of chloro - xylenol is used in antiseptic cream and for disinfecting surgical instruments. Bithional : It is a bacteriostatic agent (inhibits the growth of micro organisms), used as an agricultural fungicide. It is used as an anti-infective in deodorants, shampoos & surgical soaps. lt can cause skin allergy when exposed sunlight hence not used in cosmetics. www . ednexa . com
  37. 37. Examples of Antiseptics Iodine ( I2) : Tincture of iodine is used as a topical antiseptic to kill bacteria. It is also used in cleaning wounds and sterilizing skin before surgery. It is also used for disinfection of water, air and sanitization of food utensils. Iodoform ( CHI3 ): It is used as an external antiseptic for wounds. Boric acid ( H3BO3 ) : It is a mild antiseptic, used by swimmers as ear drops to destroy fungal growth. It is also used for eyewash and also as a food preservative Hydrogen peroxide : It is used as a mild antiseptic, for cleaning ears, sterilizing surgical or medical instruments. It is also used in treating skin spots, killing the fungus, dental hygiene and for avoiding contagious diseases. It is used as germicidal due to release or nascent oxygen. www . ednexa . com
  38. 38. Cleansing agents : Soaps and detergents. Mechanism of cleansing action of soaps and detergents : - Soap and detergents have two parts, a long chain of hydrocarbon tail soluble in oil and other part (head) soluble in water. When soap is added to an oily part of cloth or vessel, the hydrocarbon part of soap dissolves in oil and ionic end of soap dissolves in water. The soap molecules form micelles where one of the molecules is towards the oil droplet while ionic end faces out side. This results in an emulsion in water. The soap micelle assist in dissolving the dirt in water, thus we can wash our clothes. www . ednexa . com
  39. 39. Tranquilizers www . ednexa . com
  40. 40. www . ednexa . com

Editor's Notes

  • Electronic configuration : 27 Co [ Ar ] 3 d 7 4 s2 Electronic configuration : Co 3 + [ Ar ] 3 d6 4s0 4p0
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