You Already Speak Arabic! : Arabic Loanwords in European Languages

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You Already Speak Arabic! : Arabic Loanwords in European Languages

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You Already Speak Arabic! : Arabic Loanwords in European Languages

  1. 1. You Already Speak Arabic! Arabic Loanwords in European Languages Mourad DIOURI eLearning Lecturer in Arabic Language Studies Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World University of Edinburgh | University of Manchester | University of Durham
  2. 2. Hello & Welcome Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  3. 3. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  4. 4. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  5. 5. ْ ‫اب ِذ‬ ‫ْنان‬ baadhinjaan Aubergine Eng, Fr Meaning “the eggplant”. From Persian “bâdinjân” ultimately from Sanskrit “vatin gana” Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  6. 6. ‫اخلُ ْرشوف‬ al-khurshuuf Artichoke Eng Artichoux, Alcachofa Sp, Fr Early Spanish “carchiofa” (1423), is reasonably close to the Arabic precedent and so are today's Spanish “alcachofa”. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  7. 7. sabaanikh Spinach Eng From Persian “isfānākh/aspanakh”. It was the Arabs who introduced the spinach into Spain, whence it spread to the rest of Europe. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  8. 8. laymoun Lemon Eng The cultivation of lemons, limes, and bitter oranges was introduced to the Mediterranean Basin by the Arabs in the Middle Ages. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  9. 9. liimah Lime Eng "type of citrus fruit," 1638, from Sp. lima, from Arabic limah "citrus fruit," a back- formation or a collective noun from limun "lemon" Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  10. 10. naranj Orange Eng From Old French orenge from M.L. ,“pomum de orenge”, from Italian. arancia, originally narancia , alteration of Arabic naranj, from Persian narang, from Sanskrit. naranga-s "orange tree,” The Persian orange, grown widely in southern Europe after its introduction in Italy 11c., was bitter; sweet oranges were brought to Europe 15c. from India by Portuguese traders Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  11. 11. Al-barquuq Apricot Eng Arabic is traceable back to Byzantine Greek and then to classical Latin “praecoqua”, which was a type of peach in ancient Rome. The Arabic was passed onto the 14th century Portuguese “albricoque” and Catalan “albercoc”. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  12. 12. ّّ ‫ي‬ ِ ِ‫ث َ ْمره ْند‬ tamr hindiyy Tamarind Eng Meaning "dates of India" Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  13. 13. ‫ـد‬َ‫الق ْن‬ al-qand Candy Eng Meaning „liquid of sugar cane‟ ‫ قندي‬qandi, sugared. Arabic is from Persian qand = "cane [sugar]", and possibly from Sanskritic before that, since cane sugar developed in India. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  14. 14. ‫ه َْوة‬ َ‫قـ‬ qahwa Coffee, Café Eng “Qahwa” begot Turkish “kahveh” which begot Italian “caffè”. The latter form entered most Western languages in and around the early 17th century. Cafe “mocha”, a type of coffee, is named after the city of Mocha, Yemen, which was an early coffee exporter. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  15. 15. ‫حول‬ُ‫الك‬ al-kohūl Alcohol Eng From Arabic “al-kuhl” i.e " the fine powder used to darken the eyelids”. This definition was later extended to "any sublimated substance, the pure spirit of anything" Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  16. 16. َّ‫سك‬ ‫ُ ر‬ sukkar Sugar Eng Azucar, Sucre Sp, Fr Sugar is derived from Arabic sukkar, and originally from Persian Shaker i.e. "ground or candied sugar“ Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  17. 17. َ ‫َشاب‬ sharāb Syrup, Sherbet, Sorbet From French sirop and perhaps from Italian siroppo, both from Arabic sharab "beverage, wine," lit. "something drunk," from verb shariba "he drank" Spanish jarabe, jarope, are from Arabic; Derived from the root-word “ ‫ شرب‬sh-r-b” i.e. “to drink”. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  18. 18. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  19. 19. ّ‫ميْياء‬ ‫الك‬ ‟ al-kīmyā‟ Chemistry, Alchemy Derived from the Arabic “Alchimia ”‫ الكيمْياء‬which entered Latin but was originally based on the Greek word “khēmeia”. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  20. 20. ‫َب‬ ّ َ ‫ع ْن‬ „anbar Amber Meaning ambergris, i.e. a waxy material produced in the stomach of sperm whales and used historically for perfumery. Amber passed into the Romance languages from Arabic in the later medieval era. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  21. 21. How do you feel when looking at this picture? Headache? ‫صداع‬ ُ sodā3‟ Soda, Sodium Eng Soda (sodium carbonate) is based on the Arab word “sudaa3” meaning “headache” for which the plant, containing soda, was used as a remedy. Hence sodium (chem.) metal forming the base of soda. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  22. 22. ‫الزهـْر‬ َّ az-zahr Hazard Eng, Fr Evidence is incomplete but the English+French word is usually reported to be َّ descended through Spanish “azar” from an Arabic ‫ الزه ْـر‬az-zhr i.e "the dice". The original sense was certainly a game of dice. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  23. 23. qaalib Calibre Meaning mold. The original Western meaning was 'diameter of a bullet or cannon-ball‟ derived from the Arabic sense 'mould for casting met‟ Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  24. 24. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  25. 25. ‫راحـة‬ َ rāha Racket Eng Meaning "device used in tennis, etc.," probably originally "tennis-like game played with open hand" (late 14c.), from Fr. requette "racket, palm of the hand," perhaps Sp. raqueta, both from Arabic rahat, a form of raha "palm of the hand." Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  26. 26. ‫العواريَّة‬ ِ َ al- 3awāriyah Average The early meaning of the word was a lot different from what it is today. Original meaning was "financial loss incurred through damage to goods in transit," from O.Fr. avarie "damage to ship," from It. avaria, a word from 12c. Mediterranean maritime trade. Sometimes traced to Arabic 'arwariya "damaged merchandise,“ Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  27. 27. ‫وب‬ّ‫الط‬ aṭ-ṭūb Adobe From Sp. adobe, from oral form of Arabic al-tob "the brick," from Coptic tube "brick," a word found in hieroglyphics. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  28. 28. ‫َمسخ َرة‬ َ ْ makharah Mask Late medieval Italian maschera = mask and/or Spanish mascara = mask is/are the source for the French and English set of words. The source for the Italian and Spanish is is the Arabic precedent buffoon, jester. In the context where mask was used, "the sense of entertainment is the usual one in old authors” Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  29. 29. ّ ‫ب‬ ْ َ‫اجل‬ al-jabr Algebra Eng Al-jabr means "reunion of broken parts" or „combination‟ initially used by al-Khwarizmi as the title of his famous treatise on equations ("Kitab al-Jabr w'al-Muqabala" "Rules of Reintegration and Reduction") Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  30. 30. ِ‫اخلَوار ْزم‬ ّّ‫ِ ي‬ al-Khawārizmi Algorithm Eng, Fr Surname of a Muslim Mathematician from Baghdad, Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, who pioneered sophisticated mathematics, including Algebra. Algorithm (an anglicized form of al- khawārizmī), is currently used for calculation, computer science, and many other related fields. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  31. 31. ‫ر‬ ِ ْ‫صف‬ Sifr Zero, Cipher Eng Cipher came to Europe with Arabic numerals. Original meaning zero, then any numeral, then a numerically encoded message. The last meaning, and decipher, date from the 1520s in English. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  32. 32. ‫ة‬ َ‫ث َ ْعريف‬ ta‟riifah Tariff Arab root meant “a notification”. In late medieval Mediterranean commerce it meant a statement of inventory on a merchant ship, or a bill of lading. The association between the statement of inventory and the import taxes payable gave rise to the modern meaning. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  33. 33. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  34. 34. waziir Vizier Eng From Turkish vezir "counsellor," from Arabic wazir "viceroy," lit. "one who bears (the burden of office)," lit. "porter, carrier," from wazara "he carried.“ Arabic wazir is from Avestan viçira "arbitrator, judge." And replaced Arabic katib, lit. "writer," in the sense "secretary of state." Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  35. 35. ّ ‫الشـاهّمات‬ ash-shāh māt Checkmate, Check “ash-shāh māt” means „the king died‟. The many uses of the word "check" in English are all descended from Persian shah = king and the use of this word in the game of chess. Chess was introduced to Europe by Arabs, who pronounced the last h in ‫الشاه‬shāh hard, giving rise to the Old French form eschac, which the English is derived from. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  36. 36. ّ ‫الشـاهّمات‬ ash-shāh māt Cheque, Exchequer Meaning widened from chess to general sense of "adverse event" (c.1300), "sudden stoppage" (early 14c.), and by c.1700 to "a token used to check against loss or theft" (surviving in hat check) and "a check against forgery or alteration," which gave the modern financial use of "bank check, money draft" (first recorded 1798 and often spelled cheque), probably influenced by exchequeur. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  37. 37. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  38. 38. ‫َرح‬ ْ‫َمط‬ matrah Mattress Originally borrowed in Sicily from Arabic, and derived from the root-word t-r-h i.e. to throw down. The literal meaning of mattress is “is the thing thrown down" Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  39. 39. ‫َمخازن‬ ِ makhaazin Magazine Eng, Fr Taken from the Arabic “makhzan” i.e. "storehouse”. Originally it meant “a printed list of military stores and information”. In the West the meaning evolved to arsenal, gunpowder store, and receptacle for storing bullets. A magazine in the publishing sense of the word started out meaning a storehouse of information about military or navigation subjects. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  40. 40. َّ‫صف‬ ‫ُ ـة‬ suffa Sofa Eng A couch or bench. This word was adopted into Turkish and entered Western Europe from Turkish in the 16th century. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  41. 41. ‫قيثارة‬ َ qithaarah Guitar a kind of guitar. "The name reached English several times, including 14th century giterne from Old French. The modern word is directly from Spanish guitarra, from Arabic qitar." (Harper (2001)). The Arabic is descended from ancient Greek kithara (which might be connected to ancient Persian Tar meaning string, and string instrument). Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  42. 42. ّ‫ِس‬ ّ ُ ِ ‫ك ْر‬ )...‫(الطب, احلديث, إخل‬ kursiyy Chair-Person Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  43. 43. ‫مـ ََرة‬ َ‫الق‬ al-qamarah Camera Eng Meaning "a darkened room;" c.1730, "a device for project pictures; Camera Obscura, In a darkened room (qamara) in Arabic, Ibn Al Haitham (a Persian or Arab scientist ) observed light coming fthrough a small hole in the window shutters producing an up-side down image on the opposite wall. This early pin hole camera has led to the camera we know today Ibn al-Haytham also gave the first clear description and correct analysis of the camera obscura and pinhole camera. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  44. 44. ‫ن‬ْ‫ُقط‬ quTn Cotton Eng Entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century and English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans but it was rare in the Romance- speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the later medieval era at transformatively lower prices. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  45. 45. ‫مريال ِبحار‬ ُ َ‫أ‬ amīr al-bihār Admiral “amir [commander] of the seas", a title in use in Arabic Sicily and continued by the Normans in Sicily in a Latinised form, and adopted successively by Genoese and French. Modern French is "amiral". An English form under King Edward III (14th century) was "Amyrel of the Se". Insertion of the 'd' was doubtless influenced by allusion to common Latin "admire". Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  46. 46. ‫جبَّة‬ ُ jubbah Jumper “jubbah “ a "loose outer garment". But this derivation is a little insecure: The French “jupe” = dress is certainly from Arabic jubbah, but the connection of the French to English is incompletely documented. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  47. 47. jarrah Jar Eng, Fr “Jarrah” meaning „earthen vase‟. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  48. 48. ‫دارّالصناعَة‬ ِّ ُ daar as-sinaa‟a Arsenal “house of manufacturing” Arsenal's nickname is the Gunners. The club was formed by people working at the Royal Arsenal - a weapons factory Ibn Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a daar ssiaaʿa for the construction of everything necessary for the equipment and armament of [seagoing] vessels.“ In English the word originally meant a dock-yard for repairing or building ships. This is still the meaning of the modern Italian darsena. Italian also has „arsenale‟ meaning the storage of munitions. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  49. 49. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  50. 50. jamal Camel Eng O.E. camel, perhaps via O.N.Fr. camel (O.Fr. chamel, Mod.Fr. chameau), from L. camelus, from Gk. kamelos, from Heb. or Phoen. gamal,related to Arabic jamala "to bear." Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  51. 51. ّ‫ة‬َ‫َزراف‬ zarāfah Giraffe Eng Entered Italian and French in the late 13th century Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  52. 52. ghazaalah Gazelle 1600, from Fr. gazelle, from N.African pronunciation of Arabic ghazal. Entered medieval Latin in the early 12th century Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  53. 53. ‫اس‬ ّ‫الغَط‬ al-ghatās Albatros Eng, Fr Literally "the diver", The derived Spanish „alcatraz‟ is attested 1386 as a type of pelican. The albatross family of birds was unknown to both Arabs and Europeans in the medieval era. Beginning in the 17th century, every European language adopted the word "albatros" with a 'b' for these birds, the 'b' having been mobilized from Latinate alba = white. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  54. 54. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  55. 55. ْ‫َستّالرأ‬ ّ‫َ ْ َّ س‬ samt ar-ra's Zenith Eng late 14c., from O.Fr. cenith (Fr. zénith), from M.L. cenit, senit, bungled scribal transliteration of Arabic samt "road, path," abbreviation of samt ar-ras, lit. "the way over the head. Origin in texts of Astronomy in medieval Islam. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  56. 56. ‫السموت‬ ُّ as-sumūt Atlas Azimuth Meaning the paths, the directions. Origin in texts of Astronomy in medieval Islam. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  57. 57. ‫س‬َ‫أَطـل‬ ْ „atlas Atlas Eng, Fr, Sp. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  58. 58. َ‫سف‬ ‫َر‬ safar Safari Safari is from Arabic: ‫سفر‬‎“safar” meaning journey. ‎ Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  59. 59. ْ ‫َصراء‬َ sahraa‟ Sahara Eng, Fr, Sp. Sahara from Arabic çahra "desert" (pl. çahara), according to Klein, "prop. fem. of the adj. asharu 'yellowish red,' used as a noun." Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  60. 60. ‫غَ ّّر‬ َ‫الط َرفّاأل‬ َّ at-taraf al-‟agharr Trafalgar Eng, Fr, Sp. Cape Trafalgar‎( in Arabic at-taraf al-‟agharr) is a point in the south west shore of the Iberian penninsula, north of Gibraltar. This is the place where the famous battle of Cape Trafalgar happened in October of 1805, and Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the combined fleet of France and Spain, assuming supremacy of the seas for Britian for a century. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  61. 61. • Dozens of the stars in the night sky have Arabic name etymologies. • In Western astronomy, most of the accepted star names are Arabic, a few are Greek and some are of unknown origin. • Very old star names originated among people who lived in the Arabian Peninsula more than a thousand years ago, before the rise of Islam. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  62. 62. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  63. 63. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  64. 64. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  65. 65. Quizz Can you guess how many English words of Arabic origin there are in the paragraph below? Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  66. 66. After a game of chess with his mates, the admiral checked a safari magazine for a camera and an Atlas of Europe. He is planning a trip to Gibraltar. He went to the souq to buy a jar of candies, apricots, spinach, aubergine, artichoke and oranges. He also got himself a Zenith watch and a tennis racket. He paid by cheque an average 10 dollards (probably followed by two zeros!) Then he went to a Café near Trafalgar square to relax on a cotton sofa. He had coffee with sugar and some syrup while watching a game of Arsenal. After that, he had an alocohol-free drink: a lime sherbet followed by a soda. At night, he laid down on his mattress, listened to guitar music and looked a the bright stars from his window. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com
  67. 67.  Video Documentaries ◦ An Islamic History of Europe (BBC) ◦ Science and Islam (BBC) ◦ What the Ancients did for us? The Islamic World ◦ Islam Empire of Faith  Books ◦ Muslim Heritage in Our World ◦ Europe Speaks Arabic  Contact Mourad Diouri e-Learning Lecturer in Arabic Studies Centre for the Adv. Study of the Arab World, University of Edinburgh mourad.diouri@e-arabic.com
  68. 68. Thank You Arabic Loanwords in European Languages © Mourad Diouri | Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World (CASAW) | Universities of Edinburgh, Durham & Manchester e-Arabic.com | v-Arabic.com

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