Arabic alphabets


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Arabic alphabets

  1. 1. Arabic Alphabets<br />  <br />   <br />  <br />  <br />Writing Arabic <br />          <br />Writing arabic can be fun and easy once you learn to recognize the different shapes that an alphabet can appear as. 22 of the 28 Arabic letters have 4 variants: <br />  1. Standing alone.   2. As the first letter in a word.   3. Inside the word, between two other letters.   4. As the last letter in a word, joining to the letter in front.       As for the remaining 6, they never join to the succeeding letter, even when they are inside a word. This means that the writer has to lift his pencil, and even if he is inside the same word. The following letter will have to be written as if it was the first in a word. Examples of these odd 6, see 'alif and wâw. The following lists each alphabet and its possible         'a/'u/i/â ('alif)             b (bā')           <br />  t (tā')             th (thā')             j (jīm)             h (hā') stressed h- always             kh (khā')             d (dāl)             dh (dhāl)             r (rā')             z (zāy)             s (sīn)             sh (shīn)             s (sād) stressed s, always transliterated as bold s             d (dād) stressed d, always transliterated as bold d             t (tā') stressed t, always transliterated as bold t             z (zā') stressed z, always transliterated as bold z             c (cayn)             gh (ghayn)             f (fā')             q (qāf)             k (kāf)             l (lām)             m (mīm)             n (nūn)             w/û (wāw)             h (hā')             ' (hamza)             y/î (yā')    <br />rabic<br />The Arabic script evolved from the Nabataean Aramaic script. It has been used since the 4th century AD, but the earliest document, an inscription in Arabic, Syriac and Greek, dates from 512 AD. The Aramaic language has fewer consonants than Arabic, so during the 7th century new Arabic letters were created by adding dots to existing letters in order to avoid ambiguities. Further diacritics indicating short vowels were introduced, but are only generally used to ensure the Qur'an was read aloud without mistakes. <br />There are two main types of written Arabic:<br />Classical Arabic - the language of the Qur'an and classical literature. It differs from Modern Standard Arabic mainly in style and vocabulary, some of which is archaic. All Muslims are expected to recite the Qur'an in the original language, however many rely on translations in order to understand the text. <br />Modern Standard Arabic - the universal language of the Arabic-speaking world which is understood by all Arabic speakers. It is the language of the vast majority of written material and of formal TV shows, lectures, etc. <br />Each Arabic speaking country or region also has its own variety of colloquial spoken Arabic. These colloquial varieties of Arabic appear in written form in some poetry, cartoons and comics, plays and personal letters. There are also translations of the Bible into most varieties of colloquial Arabic. <br />Arabic has also been written with the Hebrew, Syriac and Latin scripts. <br />Notable Features<br />Type of writing system: abjad <br />Direction of writing: words are written in horizontal lines from right to left, numerals are written from left to right <br />Number of letters: 28 (in Arabic) - some additional letters are used in Arabic when writing placenames or foreign words containing sounds which do not occur in Standard Arabic, such as /p/ or /g/. Additional letters are used when writing other languages. <br />Used to write: <br />Arabic, Azeri, Baluchi, Bosnian, Dari, Hausa, Kabyle, Konkani, Kashmiri, Kazakh, Kurdish, Kyrghyz, Malay, Mandekan, Morisco, Pashto, Persian/Farsi, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Shabaki, Sindhi, Siraiki, Tatar, Tausūg, Turkish, Urdu, Uyghur <br />Most letters change form depending on whether they appear at the beginning, middle or end of a word, or on their own. (see below) <br />Letters that can be joined are always joined in both hand-written and printed Arabic. The only exceptions to this rule are crossword puzzles and signs in which the script is written vertically. <br />The long vowels /a:/, /i:/ and /u:/ are represented by the letters 'alif, yā' and wāw respectively. <br />Vowel diacritics, which are used to mark short vowels, and other special symbols appear only in the Qur'an. They are also used, though with less consistency, in other religious texts, in classical poetry, in books for children and foreign learners, and occasionally in complex texts to avoid ambiguity. Sometimes the diacritics are used for decorative purposes in book titles, letterheads, nameplates, etc. <br />Arabic script<br />Arabic consonants<br />The transliteration of consonants used above is the ISO version of 1984. There are various other ways of transliterating Arabic. <br />This chart shows how the letters change in different positions <br />Arabic vowel diacritics and other symbols<br />Download<br />Download an Arabic alphabet chart in Word or PDF format <br />Arabic numerals and numbers<br />These numerals are those used when writing Arabic and are written from left to right. In Arabic they are known as "Indian numbers" (أرقام هندية arqa-m hindiyyah). The term 'Arabic numerals' is also used to refer to 1, 2, 3, etc. <br />The first set of numbers are Modern Standard Arabic. The second set are Egyptian Arabic and the third set are Moroccan Arabic. <br />The Arabic language<br />Arabic is a Semitic language with about 221 million speakers in Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Palestinian West Bank & Gaza, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, Uzbekistan and Yemen. <br />There are over 30 different varieties of colloquial Arabic which include: <br />Egyptian - spoken by about 50 million people in Egypt and perhaps the most widely understood variety, thanks to the popularity of Egyptian-made films and TV shows <br />Algerian - spoken by about 22 million people in Algeria<br />Moroccan - spoken in Morocco by about 20 million people<br />Sudanese - spoken in Sudan by about 19 million people<br />Saidi - spoken by about 19 million people in Egypt<br />North Levantine - spoken in Lebanon and Syria by about 15 million people <br />Mesopotamian - spoken by about 14 million people in Iraq, Iran and Syria<br />Najdi - spoken in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan and Syria by about 10 million people<br />For a full list of all varieties of colloquial Arabic click here (format: Excel, 20K). <br />Source: <br />Sample Arabic text<br />Sample Arabic text (with diacritics)<br />Transliteration<br />Yūladu jamī'u n-nāsi aḥrāran mutasāwīna fī l-karāmati wa-l-ḥuqūq. Wa-qad wuhibū 'aqlan wa-ḍamīran wa-'alayhim an yu'āmila ba'ḍuhum ba'ḍan bi-rūḥi l-ikhā'. <br />Listen to a recording of this text by زين العابدين شبيب (Zein Al-A'bideen Shabeeb)<br />Translation<br />All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) <br />ARABIC WORDS & MEANINGS<br />Arabic, sacred language of the Qur'an, is the official language of Saudi Arabia, and is spoken throughout the Kingdom. English is widely used in commercial and business circles. <br />Zero = Sifr <br />One = Wahed <br />Two = Ithnayn <br />Three = Thalatha <br />Four = Arbaa <br />Five = Khamsa <br />Six = Sitta <br />Seven = Sabaa <br />Eight = Thamania <br />Nine = Tiss'a <br />Ten = Ashara <br />Airport = Mataar <br />Bread = Khubz <br />Car = Sayyara <br />Coffee = Qahwa <br />Food = Akl <br />Friend = Sadiq <br />Gift = Hadiyya <br />Give me = A'tinee, Haat <br />God = Allah <br />God willing = Insha'allah <br />Hello,Welcome = Marhaba <br />How are you? = Kaif Halak(to a man) Kaif Halik(to a woman) <br />Market = Souk <br />Milk = Halib <br />Money = Nuquud <br />My name is = Ismi <br />Please = Min Fadlak <br />No = La <br />Yes = Na'am <br />Telephone = Hatif, Talifon <br />Water = Maa' <br />Thanks = Shukran <br /> HYPERLINK "" Return to The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia GenWeb<br />Email: HYPERLINK ""<br />English PhrasesArabic Phrases English GreetingsArabic Greetings:Hi!Salam!   سلامGood morning!Sabah el kheer   صباح الخير Good evening!Masaa el kheer   مساء الخير Welcome! (to greet someone)Marhaban   مرحباHow are you?Kaifa haloka/ haloki ( female)   كيف حالك؟I'm fine, thanks!Ana bekhair, shokran!   أنا بخير شكراAnd you?Wa ant? / Wa anti? (female)   و أنت؟Good/ So-So.Jayed/ 'aadee   جيد / عاديThank you (very much)!Shokran (jazeelan)   (شكرا (جزيلاYou're welcome! (for "thank you")Al’afw   ألعفوHey! Friend!Ahlan sadiqi/ sadiqati! (female)   أهلا صديقي /صديقتي!I missed you so much!Eshtaqto elaika/ elaiki (female) katheeran   إشتقت إليك كثيراWhat's new? Maljadeed?   مالجديد؟Nothing muchLashai jadeed   لا شيء جديدGood night!Tosbeho/ tosbeheena (female) ‘ala khair/   تصبح/ تصبحين على خيرSee you later!Araka/ Araki (female) fi ma ba'd   أراك في مابعدGood bye!Ma’a salama   مع السلامةAsking for Help and DirectionsI'm lostAda'tu tareeqi!     أضعت طريقي! أضعت طريقي!Can I help you?Hal beemkani mosa’adatuk?   هل بإمكاني مساعدتك؟Can you help me?Hal beemkanek mosa’adati?   هل بإمكانك مساعدتي؟Where is the (bathroom/ pharmacy)?Ayna ajedu (al merhaad/ assaidaliah)?   أين أجد (المرحاض/ الصيدلية)؟Go straight! then turn left/ right!imshy ala tool, thumma ‘arrij yaminan/ shimalanأمشٍ على طول ثم عرّج يمينا/ شمالا!I'm looking for john.Abhatu ‘an John   أبحث عن جونOne moment please!Lahda men fadlek/ fadleki (female)   لحظة من فضلكHold on please! (phone)ibqa/ ibqay (female) ala al khat raja'an   إبقى/ أبقي علي الخط رجاءا!How much is this?Kam howa thamanoh? (th as in bath)    كم هو ثمنه؟Excuse me ...! (to ask for something)Men fathlek/ fathleki (female) (th as in that)   من فضلكExcuse me! ( to pass by)Alma'derah   المعذرةCome with me!Ta'ala/ ta'alay (female) ma'ee!   تعال معي!<br />۞  To Save this Page Press (CTRL D) or HYPERLINK "" t "page" E-mail this Page!  ۩   HYPERLINK "" Free Translation<br />How to Introduce Yourself Do you speak (English/ Arabic)?Hal tatakallamu alloghah alenjleziah/ alarabiah? هل تتكلم اللغة الإنجليزية /العربية؟Just a little.Qaleelan!   قليلا!What's your name?Ma esmouk? Ma esmouki?   ما إسمك؟My name is ...Esmee…   إسمي....Mr.../ Mrs.…/ Miss…Assayed…/ Assayeda…/ Al anesah ...   السيد... /السيدة/ الانسة...Nice to meet you!Motasharefon/ motasharefatun (f) bema'refatekمتشرف / متشرفة بمعرفتكYou're very kind!Anta lateef/ Anti lateefa   أنت لطيف! أنتِ لطيفة!Where are you from?Men ayna anta/ anti (female)?   من أين أنت؟I'm from (the U.S/ Morocco)Ana men (amreeka/ almaghrib)   أنا من (أمريكا/ المغرب)I'm (American)Ana (amreeki/ amrekiah (female)   أنا أمريكي/أمريكيةWhere do you live?Ayna taskun?/ Ayna taskuneen? (female)   أين تسكن؟ أين تسكنين؟I live in (the U.S/ France)A'eesho fel welayat almotaheda/ faransaأعيش في الولايات المتحدة/ فرنساDid you like it here?Hal istamta'ta bewaqtika/ bewaqtiki (f) huna?   هل استمتعت بوقتك هنا؟Morocco is a wonderful countryAl maghrib baladun jameel!   المغرب بلد جميل!What do you do for a living?Ma mehnatuk? Mehnatuki (female)   ما مهنتك؟I work as a (translator/ businessman)A'mal ka(motarjim/ rajul a'maal)   أعمل كمترجم/ كرجل أعمالI like ArabicOhibbu allughah al arabia   أحب اللغة العربيةI've been learning Arabic for 1 monthadrusu allughah al arabia mundu shahr   أدرس اللغة العربية منذ شهرOh! That's good!Hada shay'un Jameel   هذا شيء جميلHow old are you?Kam howa umruk? umroki (female)   كم هو عمرك؟I'm (twenty, thirty...) years old.Umri ( 'eshreen/ thalatheen) sanah (th as in bath)عمري (عشرين/ ثلاثين) سنةI have to goYajebu an athhaba al aan! (th as in that)   يجب أن اذهب الآنI will be right back!Sa arje’o halan   سأرجع حالاWish Someone SomethingGood luck!Bettawfeeq   بالتوفيق!Happy birthday!Eid meelad sa'eed!   عيد ميلاد سعيدHappy new year!Sana sa'eedah!   سنة سعيدةMerry Christmas!A'yaad meelad Saeedah   أعياد ميلاد سعيد!Happy EidEid mobarak!   عيد مبارك!Happy RamadanRamadan mobarak!   رمضان مباركCongratulations!Mabrook!   مبروك!Enjoy! (for meals...)Shahia tayebah!   شهية طيبةI'd like to visit Iraq one dayArghabu bezeyarat al iraq.   أرغب بزيارة العراقSay hi to John for meSallem ‘ala John men ajlee   سلِّم على (جون) من أجليBless you (when sneezing)Rahimaka Allah   رحمك اللهGood night and sweet dreams!Laila sa'eda wa ahlaam ladida   ليلة سعيدة و أحلام لذيذة!Solving a MisunderstandingI'm Sorry! (if you don't hear something)‘Afwan!   !عفواSorry (for a mistake)Aasef!   !أسفNo Problem!La moshkelah   لامشكلةCan You Say It Again?A’ed men fadlek!/ A’eedi men fadleki (fem)   أعد من فضلكCan You Speak Slowly?Takalam bebot’ men fadlek/ fadleki (fem)   تكلم ببطء من فضلكWrite It Down Please!Oktobha men fadlek/ Oktobiha men fadleki (fem)أكتبها من فضلك! / أكتبيها من فضلك!I Don't Understand!La afham!   !لا أفهمI Don't Know!La a’ref!   !لآ أعرفI Have No Idea.La adri!   لاأدريWhat's That Called In Arabic?Ma esmoho bel arabiah?   ما أسمه بالعربية؟What Does "gato" Mean In English?Mada ta'ni kalemat "qit" bel inglizia?   ماذا تعني كلمة "قط" بالانجليزية؟How Do You Say "Please" In Arabic?Kaifa taqoulu kalimat "please" bel arabia?   كيف تقول كلمة "بليز" بالعربية؟ What Is This?Ma hatha (th as in that)   ما هذا؟My Arabic is bad.Lughati al arabic laisat kama yajib   لغتي العربية ليست كما يجبI need to practice my ArabicAhtaaju an atadarraba 'ala al arabia!   احتاج ان اتدرب على العربيةDon't worry!La taqlaq! La taqlaqi (fem)   !لاتقلق/ لا تقلقيArabic Expressions and WordsGood/ Bad/ So-So.Jayed/ saye'/ 'adee   جيد / سيء / عاديBig/ SmallKabeer/ Sagheer   كبير / صغيرToday/ NowAlyawm/ Al aan   اليوم / الآن Tomorrow/ YesterdayGhadan/ Albareha   غدا / البارحة غدا / البارحةYes/ NoNa’am/ Laa   نعم / لاHere you go! (when giving something)Khod!   !خدDo you like it?Hal a’jabak? Hal a’jabaki? (female)   هل أعجبك؟I really like it!A’jabani haqqan!   أعجبني حقاI'm hungry/ thirsty.Ana jae’/ ana ‘atshaan   أنا جائع/ أنا عطشانIn The Morning/ Evening/ At Night.Sabahan/ masa’an/ laylan   صباحا/ مساءا/ ليلاThis/ That. Here/ThereHatha/ thalek. Huna/ hunaak (th as in that)   هذا /ذلك. هنا/هناكMe/ You. Him/ Her.Ana/ anta/ anti (you female). Houwa/ Hiya   أنا/ أنت. هو/ هيReally!Haqqan   !حقاLook!Onzor / Onzori (female)   !أنظر! أنظريHurry up!Asre'/ Asre'ee (female)   !أسرع! أسرعيWhat? Where?Matha? Ayn? (th as in that)   ماذا؟ أين؟ ماذا؟ أين؟What time is it?kam essa'a?   كم الساعة؟ It's 10 o'clock. 07:30pm.Enaha al 'ashera. Ennaha assaabe'a wa nesf.إنها العاشرة. إنها السابعة و النصف مساءاGive me this!A'teni hatheh! (th as in that)   !أعطني هذهI love you!Uhibbok/ uhibboki (female)   أحبكI feel sick.ana mareed.   .أنا مريضI need a doctorahtaju tabeeban!   !أحتاج طبيباOne, Two, Threewahed, ithnaan, thalatha (th as in think).   واحد, إثنان, ثلاثةFour, Five, Sixarba'a, khamsa, sitta   أربعة, خمسة, ستةSeven, Eight, Nine, Tensab'a, thamania (th as in think), tis'a, 'ashara.<br />You won't need a pdf converter to view this page, although it is sometimes needed to view certain documents and files.<br />April - Nisan, AbreelAugust - Ab, AghustusRETURN TO INDEX<br />Big - (m): Kebir, (f): KebiraBlack - AswadBlue - AzrakBread - KhubzBreakfast - IftarBrother - AkhBrown - Jauzi, BuniRETURN TO INDEX<br />Coffee - QahwaCold - (m): Barid, (f): BaridahRETURN TO INDEX<br />Daughter (of) - BintDay - YomDecember - Kanun Illau'wal, DesemberDinner - AshaaRETURN TO INDEX<br />Eight - ThamaniyaEngineer - MohandisRETURN TO INDEX<br />Father - AbFebruary - Shbat, FebrayerFish - SamakFive - KhamsaFour - Arba'aFriday - Yom alJuma'ahRETURN TO INDEX<br />God - AllahGod knows best - Allah alimGod willing - Insha'allahGod's will - Masha'allahGoodbye (Go in peace) - Ma'assalama  Reply: Fi aman Allah or Ma'assalamaGood Afternoon/Evening - Masa alkhair  Reply: Masa alnurGood Morning - Sabah alkhair  Reply: Sabah alnurGood Night - Leila Sa'eedaGrandfather - JaddGrandmother - JaddahGreen - AkhdarGrey - RamadiRETURN TO INDEX<br />Happy Birthday - Eid Milad Sa'eedHave a safe journey - BissalamaHe - HuwwaHello - MarhabaHot - HarrHow are you? - (m): Kaif halak, (f): Kaif halikRETURN TO INDEX<br />I (am)... - AnaI am fine - Ana bekhairI am sorry - Ana asifI don't know - Ana la a'arifRETURN TO INDEX<br />January - Kanun Ittani, YanayirJuly - Tammuz, YulyuJune - Huzairan, YunyuRETURN TO INDEX<br />Library - MaktabaLunch - GadaaRETURN TO INDEX<br />March - Adar, MarisMay - Ayar, MaayoMilk - HaleebMonday - Yom alIthnainMonth - ShahrMother - UmmMuseum - MatihafMy name is... - Ana ismi...RETURN TO INDEX<br />Nine - Tis'aNo - LaNovember - Tishrin Ittani, NofemberRETURN TO INDEX<br />Ocean - MohitOctober - Tishrin Ilau'wal, OctoberOne - WahidOnion - BasalOrange - BurdukaliRETURN TO INDEX<br />Peace be upon you - Assalamu alaikum  Reply: Walaikum assalam...and mercy - wa rahmatullahi...and blessings - wa barakatuhuPlease - (m): Min fadlak, (f): Min fadlikPurple - Urjuwani, Banafsaji (violet)RETURN TO INDEX<br />Red - AhmarRETURN TO INDEX<br />Salad - SalataSaturday - Yom alSabtSchool - MadrassaSeptember - Ailul, SeptemberSeven - Sab'ahShe - HiyyaSister - AkhtSix - SittaSmall - (m): Sagheer, (f): SagheerahSon (of) - IbnStudent - (m): Talib, (f): TalibaSummer - Al Sa'ifSunday - Yom alA'hadRETURN TO INDEX<br />Tea - ShaayTen - 'AshraThank God - AlhamdulillahThank you - ShukranThey - HummaThousand - AlfThree - ThalathaTuesday - Yom alThulutha'Thursday - Yom alKhamisToday - Al YoumTourist - (m): Sa'ih, (f): Sa'ihaTwo - IthnanRETURN TO INDEX<br />Valley - WadiRETURN TO INDEX<br />Water - Ma'aWednesday - Yom alArba'aWeek - Usbuu'Welcome - Ahlan wa sahlan  Reply: Ahlan bekumWhat do you want? - (m): Matha tureed?, (f): Matha tureedeen?Where - AinWhere is...? - Ayna...?...the bathroom - alHammam...the hotel - alFunduq...the library - alMaktaba...the police station - Qism alShurtah...the post office - Maktab alBareed...the telephone - alHatif, alTilifounWhite - AbyadRETURN TO INDEX<br />Yellow - AsfarYes - Na'amYou... - (m): Inta, (f): Inti, (pl): IntuRETURN TO INDEX<br />RETURN TO INDEX<br />home > arabic > phrases<br />© 1999-2008, christina m<br />A collection of useful phrases in Modern Standard Arabic. Click on the English phrases to see them in many other languages. <br />Key to abbreviations: m = said by men, f = said by women, >m = said to men, >f = said to women. <br />English(Arabic) العربيةWelcome(ahlan wa sahlan) أهلاً و سهلاً Hello(as-salām 'alaykum) السلام عليكمrsp - (wa 'alaykum as-salām) و عليكم السلامinf - (marḥaban) مرحباon phone - ('āllō) آلو How are you?(f. kayfa ḥālik / m. kayfa ḥālak) كيف حالك؟ Long time no see(lam naraka mundhu muddah) لم نرك منذ مدة What's your name?My name is ... (mā ismak/ik?) ما اسمك؟ (... ismee) ... اسميWhere are you from?I'm from ... (f. min ayn anti / m. min ayn anta?) من أين أنت؟ (Anā min ...) أنا من ...Pleased to meet youm (motasharefon bema'refatek) متشرف بمعرفتكf (motasharefatun bema'refatek) متشرفة بمعرفتك Good morning(ṣabāḥul kẖayr) صباح الخير Good afternoon/evening(masā' al-khayr) مساء الخير Good night(tuṣbiḥ 'alā khayr) تصبح على خير(laylah sa'īdah) ليلة سعيدة Goodbye(ilā al-liqā') إلى اللقاء (ma'a as-salāmah) مع السلامة Good luck(bit-tawfīq) بالتوفيق!Have a nice dayاتمنى لك يوما طيبا Bon appetit(bil-hanā' wa ash-shifā') بالهناء والشفاء / بالهنا والشفاmay you have your meal with gladness and health Bon voyagehappy journey (riḥlah saʿīdah) رحلة سعيدةsuccessful journey (riḥlah muwaffaqah) رحلة موفق I don't understand(lā afham) لا أفهم Please speak more slowly(takallam bibuṭ' min fadlak/ik) تكلم ببطء من فضلك Please say that again(f - a'īd min fadlik / m - a'id min fadlak!) أعد من فضلك Please write it down(uktubhā min fadlak/ik) أكتبها من فضلك Do you speak Arabic?Yes, a little (hal tatakallam al-lughah al-'arabīyah?) هل تتكلم اللغة العربية؟ (na'am, qalīlan) نعم, قليل How do you say ... in Arabic?كيف تقول كلمة ... بالعربية؟(kayfa taqūlu kalimah ... bil-'arabīyah?) Excuse meto attract attention - (min faḍlak/ik) من فضلك!to ask someone to move (al-ma'dirah) المعذرة! How much is this?f - (bikam hādihi?) بكم هذه؟ m - (bikam hādhā?) بكم هذا؟ Sorry(āsif!) أسفThank youReply (You're welcome) (shukran jazīlan) شكرا جزيل (shukran) شكرا (al'afw) ألعفو Where's the toilet?(ayn al-ḥammām?) أين الحمّام؟ Would you like to dance with me?>m (hal tuħibb an tarqus̱?) هل‮ ‬تحبْ‮ ‬أن‮ ‬ترقص؟>f (tuḥibbīn an tarquṣī?) تحبْين‮ ‬أل‮ ‬ترقصي؟ I love you(>f uḥibbik / >m uħibbak) أحبكLeave me alone!f - (idrukkini) اتركيني m - (idrukni) اتركني Call the police!(nād ash-shariṭah) ناد الشرطة! Merry Christmasand a Happy New Yearأجمل التهاني بمناسبة الميلاد و حلول السنة الجديدة(ajmil at-tihānī bimunāsabah al-mīlād wa ḥilūl as-sanah al-jadīdah) Happy Easter(fiṣḥ sa'īd) فصح سعيدChrist has risen (el maseeh qam) المسيح قامrsp - Truly he has risen (haqan qam) حقاً قام Happy Birthday(kul 'am wa antum bekheir) كل عام و أنت بخير(eid mīlad sa'aīd) عيد ميلاد سعيد My hovercraft is full of eels(ḥawwāmtī mumtil'ah bi'anqalaysūn) حَوّامتي مُمْتِلئة بِأَنْقَلَيْسونOne language is never enough(lugha wāhidah lā takfī) لغة واحدة لا تكفي <br />Recordings by Amr Dawish via Apex TranslationsTransliterations and corrections by Alex Karas <br />Download all the sound files (Zip format, 1.5MB) <br />If you would like to make any corrections or additions to this page, please contact me. <br />Arabic TranslationGet names and phrases translated into Arabic <br />Information about written and spoken Arabic <br />  Arabic language learning materials <br />Links<br />Other collections of Arabic phrases (some with audio) <br />Phrases in related languages<br />Arabic (Egyptian), Arabic (Modern Standard), Arabic (Moroccan), Hebrew, Maltese <br />Phrases in other languages <br />amic Resources for BeginnersThe Holy Qur'anIslamic Resources for BeginnersAdditional Islamic ResourcesVarious ArticlesDownloadsFor English | For Spanish | For Portuguese EnglishCommonly Used IslamicWords and Phrases To better understand Islam it is necessary to know the meaning of certain key words and phrases used by Muslims in everyday conversation. Most of them are in the Arabic language, and there is often no equivalent in English or in other tongues. ---------------A ALAIHISSALATU WASSALAM(See Sallallahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam)AL-HAMDU LILLAHI RABBIL 'ALAMIN This is a verse from the Qur'an that Muslims recite and say many times per day. Other than being recited daily during prayers, a Muslim reads this expression in every activity of his daily life. The meaning of it is: "Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds." A Muslim invokes the praises of Allah before he does his daily work; and when he finishes, he thanks Allah for His favors. A Muslim is grateful to Allah for all His blessings. It is a statement of thanks, appreciation, and gratitude from the creature to his Creator.ALLAHU AKBAR This statement is said by Muslims numerous times. During the call for prayer, during prayer, when they are happy, and wish to express their approval of what they hear, when they slaughter an animal, and when they want to praise a speaker, Muslims do say this expression of Allahu Akbar. Actually it is most said expression in the world. Its meaning: "Allah is the Greatest." Muslims praise Allah in every aspect of life; and as such they say Allahu Akbar.ASSALAMU 'ALAIKUM This is an expression Muslims say whenever they meet one another. It is a statement of greeting with peace. The meaning of it is: "Peace be upon you." Muslims try to establish peace on earth even through the friendly relation of greeting and meeting one another. The other forms are: "Assalamu 'Alalikum Wa Rahmatullah," which means: "May the peace and the Mercy of Allah be upon you" "Assalamu Alalikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh," which means :"May the peace, the mercy, and the blessings of Allah be upon you."ASTAGHFIRULLAH This is an expression used by a Muslim when he wants to ask Allah forgiveness. The meaning of it is: "I ask Allah forgiveness." A Muslim says this phrase many times, even when he is talking to another person. When a Muslim abstains from doing wrong, or even when he wants to prove that he is innocent of an incident he uses this expression. After every Salah (payer), a Muslim says this statement three times.A'UZU BILLAHI MINASHAITANIR RAJIM This is an expression and a statement that Muslims have to recite before reading to Qur'an, before speaking, before doing any work, before making a supplication, before taking ablution, before entering the wash room, and before doing many other daily activities. The meaning of this phrase is: "I seek refuge from Allah from the outcast Satan." Allah is the Arabic name of God. Satan is the source of evil and he always tries to misguide and mislead people. The Qur'an states that Satan is not an angel but a member of the Jinn, which are spiritual beings created by Allah. So the belief that Satan is a fallen angel is rejected in Islam.B BARAKALLAH This is an expression which means: "May the blessings of Allah (be upon you)." When a Muslim wants to thank to another person, he uses different statements to express his thanks, appreciation, and gratitude. One of them is to say "Baraka Allah."BISMILLAHIR RAHMANIR RAHIM This is a phrase from the Qur'an that is recited before reading the Qur'an. It is to be read immediately after one reads the phrase: "A'uzu Billahi Minashaitanir Rajim." This phrase is also recited before doing any daily activity. The meaning of it is: "In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful."I IN SHA' ALLAH When a person wishes to plan for the future, when he promises, when he makes resolutions, and when he makes a pledge, he makes them with permission and the will of Allah. For this reason, a Muslim uses the Qur'anic instructions by saying "In Sha ' Allah." The meaning of this statement is: "If Allah wills." Muslims are to strive hard and to put their trusts with Allah. They leave the results in the hands of Allah.INNA LILLAHI WA INNA ILAHI RAJI'UN When a Muslim is struck with a calamity, when he loses one of his loved ones, or when he has gone bankrupt, he should be patient and say this statement, the meaning of which is : "We are from Allah and to Whom we are returning." Muslims believe that Allah is the One who gives and it is He takes away. He is testing us. Hence, a Muslim submits himself to Allah. He is grateful and thankful to Allah for whatever he gets. On the other hand, he is patient and says this expression in times of turmoil and calamity.J JAZAKALLAHU KHAYRAN This is a statement of thanks and appreciation to be said to the person who does a favor. Instead of saying "thanks" (Shukran), the Islamic statement of thanks is to say this phrase. Its meaning is: "May Allah reward you for the good." It is understood that human beings can't repay one another enough. Hence, it is better to request Almighty Allah to reward the person who did a favor and to give him the best.KALAM "Talk" or "speech" as in "kalamu Allah"; has also been used through the ages to mean "logic" or "philosophy".L LA HAWLA WA LA QUWWATA ILLA BILLAH The meaning of this expression is: " There is no power and no strength save in Allah." This expression is read by a Muslim when he is struck by a calamity, or is taken over by a situation beyond his control. A Muslim puts his trust in the hands of Allah, and submits himself to Allah.LA ILAHA ILLALLAH This expression is the most important one in Islam. It is the creed that every person has to say to be considered a Muslim. It is part of the first pillar of Islam. The meaning of which is: " There is no lord worthy of worship except Allah." The second part of this first pillar is to say: "Muhammadun Rasul Allah," which means: "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."M MA SHA' ALLAH This is an expression that Muslims say whenever they are excited and surprised. When they wish to express their happiness, they use such an expression. The meaning of "Ma sha' Allah" is: "Whatever Allah wants." or "Whatever Allah wants to give, He gives." This means that whenever Allah gives something good to someone, blesses him, honors him, and opens the door of success in business, a Muslim says this statement of "Ma Sha' Allah." It has become a tradition that whenever a person constructs a building, a house, or an office, he puts a plaque on the wall or the entrance with this statement. It is a sign of thanks and appreciation from the person to Almighty Allah for whatever he was blessed with.MUHAMMADUN RASULULLAH This statement is the second part of the first pillar of Islam literally meaning "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah." The meaning of this part is that Prophet Muhammad is the last and final prophet and messenger of Allah to mankind. He is the culmination, summation, purification of the previous prophets of Allah to humanity. P P.B.U.H. These letters are abbreviations for the words "Peace Be Upon Him" which is the meaning of the Arabic expression " 'Alaihis Salam", which is an expression that is said when the name of a prophet is mentioned. This expression is widely used by English speaking Muslims. It is to be noticed here that this expression does not give the full meaning of "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam". Therefore it is recommended that people do not use (p.b.u.h.) after the name of prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.); they should use "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam" instead, or they may use the abbreviated form of (s.a..w) in writing.R RADHIALLAHU 'ANHU This is an expression to be used by Muslims whenever a name of a companion of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) is mentioned or used in writing. The meaning of this statement is: "May Allah be pleased with him." Muslims are taught to be respectful to the elderly and to those who contributed to the spread and success in Islam. They are to be grateful to the companions of the prophet (s.a.w.) for their sacrifices, their leadership, and their contributions. Muslims are advised to use this phrase when such names are mentioned or written.SSADAQALLAHUL 'AZIM This is a statement of truth that a Muslim says after reading any amount of verses from the Qur'an. The meaning of it is: "Allah says the truth." The Qur'an is the exact words of Allah in verbatim. When Allah speaks, He says the truth; and when the Qur'an is being recited, a Muslim is reciting the words of truth of Allah. Hence, he says: "Sadaqallahul 'Azim."SALLALLAHU 'ALAIHI WA SALLAM ( Abbreviated as: S.A.W.) When the name of Prophet Muhammad (saw) is mentioned or written, a Muslim is to respect him and invoke this statement of peace upon him. The meaning of it is: "May the blessings and the peace of Allah be upon him (Muhammad)". Another expression that is alternatively used is: "Alaihissalatu Wassalam." This expression means: "On Him (Muhammad) are the blessings and the peace of Allah." Allah has ordered Muslims, in the Qur'an, to say such an expression. Muslims are informed that if they proclaim such a statement once, Allah will reward them ten times.SUBHANAHU WA TA'ALA (Abbrviated as: S.W.T.) This is an expression that Muslims use whenever the name of Allah is pronounced or written. The meaning of this expression is: "Allah is pure of having partners and He is exalted from having a son." Muslims believe that Allah is the only God, the Creator of the Universe. He does not have partners or children. Sometimes Muslims use other expressions when the name of Allah is written or pronounced. Some of which are: "'Azza Wa Jall": He is the Mighty and the Majestic; "Jalla Jalaluh": He is the exalted Majestic. W WA 'ALAIKUMUS SALAM This is an expression that a Muslim is to say as an answer for the greeting. When a person greets another with a salutation of peace, the answer for the greeting is an answer of peace. The meaning of this statement is: "And upon you is the peace." The other expressions are: " Wa Alaikums Salam Wa Rahmatullah." and "Wa 'Alaikums Salam Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh."<br /> <br />Brief List of Arabic Roots<br />Introduction to the Use of Arabic Roots:<br />Arabic words are generally based on a root that uses three consonants to define the underlying meaning of the word. Various vowels, prefixes and suffixes are used with the root letters to create the desired inflection of meaning.<br />Each set of root letters can lead to a vast number of words, all predictable in form and all related to the basic meaning of the three root letters. <br />For example, the root k-t-b has the basic meaning of marking, inscribing or writing. The root may be conjugated in simple past tense (perfect) verb forms such as:<br />kataba   he wrotekatabû   they wrotekatabat   she wrotekatabnâ   we wrote<br />Similarly, there are simple and predictable rules for present (imperfect) and imperative forms of  the basic root, such as:<br />yaktubu   he writesyaktabunâ   they writetaktubu   you writenaktubu   we write'uktub   write!<br />And then the vastness really begins to be seen as additional forms such as verbal nouns are created from the same simple root k-t-b to describe things such as:<br />katîb   writerkitâbathe act of writingkitâb   some writing, bookkutub   bookskutubîbookdealerkutayyibbookletmaktûb   lettermaktab   school, officemaktaba   library, literaturemaktabî   individual officemiktâb   typewritermukâtaba   correspondenceiktitâb   registrationistiktâb   dictation<br />.... and on and on. This is only a limited sample of the immense variety of words that can be formed by simple and predictable usage of the basic root which was only the three consonants k-t-b.<br />A Brief List of some Arabic Roots:<br />The following list of roots is sorted according to the English alphabet, ignoring any diacritical marks. <br />Examples of typical usage of the root are shown in parenthesis.<br />a-b2father, ancestor, forefather (ab, abû)'a-b-d685to serve, worship, be devote to, show veneration ('abd, 'ibâda, ma'bûd)'a-d-l696to act justly, equitably or to make straight, set in order ('adl, a'dâla, ta'dîl)'a-d-m698to be non-existent, disappeared, destroyed, devoid of ('adam, 'adîm)'a-f-w731to be obliterated, effaced, eliminated (al-'afûw, 'afwîya, 'afâ', isit'fâ', 'âfin, mu'fan)a-h-d7to unify, be one (al-ahad, ahadîya, uhâdî)a-kh-r9to postpone, defer, be last, final, ultimate (al-âkhir, âkhar, ukhrâ, ta'khîr, mu'akhkhara)a-l-h30to adore, deify, turn to another with intense feeling (ilâh, ilâhî)'a-l-m743to know, have knowledge, be informed, teach, notify  (al-'alîm, 'ilm, 'ilmiya, 'allam, u'lûma)a-m-l35to hope, to look attentively, meditate, consider (amal, âmâl, âmil, muta'ammil)a-n-s38to be familiar, friendly, sociable (uns, insî, ins, anîs)'a-q-d734to tie, knit, make a knot, put together, join ('aqd, 'aqîda)'a-q-l737to have the faculty of reasoning, comprehension  ('aql, 'aqlî)'a-r-f708to know, to perceive, discover, to announce ('arîf, 'irfân, ma'rîfa, ta'rîf, ma'rûf)'a-s-m722to hold back, restrain, preserve, to take refuge, guard ( 'asama, 'isâmî)'a-z-m729to be great, powerful, mighty (a'zam, al-'azîm, 'izâmî, 'azîma)'a-y-d774to celebrate, to feast ('îd ul adhâ, mu'âyada)'a-z-z712to be strong, powerful, respected, to fortify, strengthen (al-'azîz, 'izz, ta'zîz, ma'azza)b-d-'57to introduce, originate, start, do for the first time (al mubdi', bdi', badî'a, abda', ibtidâ')b-q-y84to remain, continue, endure, be ever-lasting ( al- baqî', baqâ', abqâ, bâqin)d-a'-â326to call, summon, appeal to, invite, invoke (du'â, da'wa)dh-k-r358to remember, recollect, bear in mind (dhikr, tadhkâr, dhâkira)d-w-n350to record, write down, enter, collect (dîwân)d-y-n352to be obedient, submissive, to be indebted, to owe (dîn, diyâna)f-l-q851to split open, cleave, tear asunder, burst (falq, falaq)f-n-y854to wane, dwindle, recede, come to an end, cease to exist (fanâ', fânin)f-q-h847to understand, comprehend or to teach, instruct  (fiqh)f-t-h811to open, unlock, reveal, conquer ( fattâh, mifatâh, miftâhî, al-fâtiha)f-t-m to wean, relinquish, disengage, abstain, cut-off (Fâtima)gh-f-r793to cover, hide, forgive, guard, protect (al-ghafûr, 'astaghfirullâh)gh-n-y803to be rich, wealthy, free or to sing praises, extol (ghanâ', istighnâ' )gh-s-l788to wash, clean, cleanse, purge (ghusl)h-â-l251to change, be transformed, become, to be transferred (hâla, tahwîl, ihâla)h-a-t249to guard, protect, encircle, encompass, surround  (ihâta, muhît)h-b-b179to love, to endear, to make dear, to like, to prefer (hubb, habîb, mahbûb)h-b-l182to catch, ensnare, or to be pregnant (habîl, habila, hublâ)h-f-z220to protect, guard, preserve, take care of   (hafîz, tahfîz)h-m-d238to praise, commend, laud, extol  (hamîd, mahmûd, muhammad, al-hamdulillâh)h-m-l240to carry, bear, lift, take along, transport, convert, bring around (hamîla, haml)h-m-s239to be zealous, ardent, enthusiastic, excited (hamâs, tahammus)h-q-q224to be true, right, correct  (al-haqq, haqîq, tahqîq)h-s-d207to envy,  to be envious ( hâsid)h-s-n208to be beautiful, lovely. fine, proper  (husnâ, hasan)h-s-n214to fortify, be accessible, to be chaste, pure (ihsân hasâna)h-y-y256to live, to exist  (al-hayy, tahîya, ihyâ', hayâh, hayya)j-â-'177to come, to get to, reach, arrive, set forth, set out to do (jai'a, majî', jâ'iât)j-â-d172to be good, to improve, to be skilled, proficient  (jûd, tajwîd, jayyid)j-â-l176to roam, wander, move freely, circulate (jawwâl, tajwâl, majâl)j-h-d168to struggle, endeavor, strive, labor, strain, fight (jihâd, majhûd, ijtihâd)j-n-n164to hide, conceal, put under cover (janna, junna, junûn, jinn, jinnî)j-w-d173to be good, be better, to grant generously, liberally (jûd, jayyid, jawâd, tajwîd)k-b-r947to be older, esteemed, big, great, large, famous, admired (kabîr, 'akbar, takbîr)k-f-â977to be enough, sufficient, to meet all needs (kifâya, iktifâ', mukâfâh)k-l-m981to speak, talk, converse, express (kalima, kalâm)k-m-l984to be whole, complete, perfect, finished (kamâl, kâmil, kamâla, takmîl, ikmâ, istikmâll)k-s-b966to earn, acquire, win, gather, attain  (kâsib, iktisâb)k-w-n993to be, exist, happen, take place or make, create, bring forth (yakûn, kiyân, kaun)kh-l-f297to be a successor, take the place of, substitute or to differ, argue  (khalîfa)kh-l-s294to be pure, refined, purged,  free, liberated, redeemed, sincere  (ikhlâs, takhlîs)kh-l-q299to create, make, form, mold, pattern (khulq, khulqî, khalîq, al-khâliq, akhlâqî)l-h-b1032to flame, burn, blaze, kindle, excite  (iltihb, lahab)l-t-f1018to be kind, friendly, amicable, benevolent (latîf)m-l-k1081to possess, rule, own, have dominion over (mâlik, malîk)m-r-'1058to be wholesome, healthy, manly (imra', marî')m-s-h1064anoint, rub, wipe off, stroke with hand (masîhî)m-w-l1093the have wealth, to become rich, finance something  (mâl, amwâl)n-d-r1118to dedicate, consecrate, vow, notify, warn  (nadîr, indâr, mandûr)n-f-k1152to blow, puff, breathe, inflate  (nafk, manfûk)n-s-r1138to help, aid, assist, defend, protect  (nasîr, mansûr)n-s-y1130to forget, neglect, omit   (nasy, mansîy)n-w-r1182to illuminate, light, enlighten, to clarify, be revealed, disclosed (nârî, nûr, munîr, munawwar)n-z-l1122to come down, descend, reveal  (tanzîl, nazîl)n-z-m1147to arrange, put in order, determine the details of something (nizâm, munazzam)q-â-m934to rise up, get up, ascend, to begin, to remain, to exist   (al-qayyûm, qiyâm, maqâm, qâ'im)r-â-d425to walk about, prowl, search, seek   (irâda, murîd)r-b-b370to bring up, to foster, to nourish, a master, lord, owner   (rabb)r-h-m384womb, kinship, mercy, compassion    (al-rahmân, al-rahîm)r-sh-d395to be on the right track, rightly guided   (murshid, irshâd, rashâd, rashîd)r-z-q389to provide, supply, grant means of subsistence (al-razzâq, rizq, marzûq, murtazak)s-b-h457to glorify, praise, to be swimming in   (subhan allâh, tasbîh)s-b-r585to be patient, to make durable   (al-sabûr, sabbâr, asbar, musâbara, istibâr)s-l-m495to be safe, secure, protected, to surrender, to submit   (al-salâm, islâm, salîm, muslim)s-l-w611to pray, worship, bless (salât, musallâ, salawâtun)s-m-d613to be unaffected, or turn to someone or to resist, oppose (al-samad)s-m-'501to hear, to listen, pay attention, be told, hear about (al-samî', samâ')s-w-m621to abstain, to refrain, a particular form of abstinence e.g. fast (saum, sâ'im, siyâm)sh-k-r563to thank, to be grateful, laud, offer thanks   (al-shakûr)sh-r-k547to share, become a partner, participant  (shirk)sh-r-q546to radiate, shine, beam,  to rise like the sun (sharq)sh-r-r539to be evil, bad, wicked  (sharr, sharîr)t-b-b108to perish, be destroyed, stabilized  (tabban lahâ)t-w-b119to turn toward, to repent, renounce   (al-tawwâb)w-b-l1226to be unwholesome, unhealthy, noxious, heavy rain  (wabâl)w-h-d1236to be one, unique, without equal   (wahîd, wâhid)w-k-l1283to entrust, assign, commission, empower   (wakil, tawakkul)w-l-d1285to give birth, make, create   (walid, maulûd)w-l-y1288to be near, close, friend, servant, defender, supporter, protector   (walîy, wâlî, maulânâ)w-s-w-s1254to whisper, to temp, to awaken doubts  (waswâs)y-d1295hand, handle, control, power  (yad)y-q-n1298to be certain, convinced, certitude   (yaqan, yaqîn, mûqin)z-h-r682to be visible, perceptible, manifest, distinct   (al-zâhir)z-l-m681to do wrong, treat unjustly or to grow dark, gloomy  (zulm, zalâm)<br />Useful References:<br />An Arabic-English Lexicon, Edward W. Lane... an eight volume masterpiece of classical Arabic which includes plentiful examples of classical usage and the meanings of the words during the time period that the Qur'ân was revealed. Indexed by Arabic roots, with definitions in English.<br />Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, edited by J.M. Cowan.<br />Dictionary of the Holy Qur'ân, Abdul Mannân Omar... truly a precious gift to those who speak English, this magnificent dictionary translates every Arabic word used used in the Qur'ân into English, giving the Arabic root word followed by English translations of every form of that root which appears in the Qur'ân. This dictionary is easy to use, is relatively inexpensive and is based on classical Arabic as used in the Qur'ân. <br />Online dictionary of Islamic philosophical terms:<br />Diacritical marks: <br />In Arabic, just as in English, many words have similar sounds and similar spelling, so the proper use and interpretation of the diacritical marks is often very important. <br />Consider for example the following three words which might all be found written simply damma in some English texts:<br />damma636to bring together, join, combine, gather, embracedamma336to coat, dye, smeardhamma360to blame, criticize<br /> <br />Incomplete Verbs<br /> <br />Incomplete verbs الأَفْعَاْلُ النَّاْقِصَةُ (or الأَفْعَاْلُ النَّاْسِخَةُ = canceling verbs) are verbs which give incomplete meanings if they were expressed alone. <br />Example, let's take the verb "to be."<br />Verb - Subject<br />كَاْنَ الْوَلَدُ<br />kaan(a) ('a)l-walad(u)<br />= was/existed the boy<br />Translation: the boy was/existed<br />The Arabic verb kaan(a) = was/existed can be both a complete and an incomplete verb. If the verb was understood as a complete verb, the meaning of the last sentence will be:<br />The boy existed<br />And this is a complete sentence with a complete meaning.<br />If the same verb was understood as an incomplete verb, the meaning of the same sentence will become:<br />The boy was<br />And this is not a complete sentence with a complete meaning, because we don't know what the boy was.<br />So in order for that sentence to make sense if the verb was meant as incomplete, we have to add an additional word. That word can be many things, a noun, a verb, a prepositional phrase, etc.<br />Example:<br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />كَاْنَ الْوَلَدُ سَعِيْدًا<br />kaan(a) ('a)l-walad(u) sa"eeda(n)<br />= was/existed the boy happily<br />Translation: the boy was happy<br />The rule in Arabic is that if we add a noun to complete the meaning of an incomplete verb, that noun must be in the accusative case ('an-nasb). In other words, that noun will be an adverb. <br />Therefore, the verb kaan(a) can be either a complete or an incomplete verb depending on whether an adverb is added to the sentence or not.<br />Other things than nouns can be added and they will also serve as adverbs for an incomplete verb. <br />Examples:<br />Verb - Subject - Prepositional Phrase<br />كَاْنَ الْوَلَدُ فِيْ الْحَدِيْقَةِ<br />kaan(a) ('a)l-walad(u) fee ('a)l-hadeeqa(ti)<br />= was the boy in the park/yard<br />Translation: the boy was in the park<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />سَتَكُوْنُ الْسَّمَاْءُ صَاْفِيَةً<br />sa-takoon(u) ('a)s-samaa'(u) saafiya(tan)<br />= will be/exist the sky clearly<br />Translation: the sky will be clear<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Prepositional Phrase<br />ظَلَّ الْوَلَدُ فِيْ الْحَدِيْقَةِ<br />zall(a) ('a)l-walad(u) fee ('a)l-hadeeqa(ti)<br />= stayed the boy in the park/yard<br />Translation: the boy stayed in the park<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />يَظَلُّ الطِّفْلُ حَزِيْنًا عِنْدَمَاْ تَغِيْبُ أُمُّهُ<br />yazall(u) ('a)t-tifl(u) hazeena(n) "inda-maa tareeb(u) 'ummu-h(u)<br />= stays the child unhappily when is absent (the) mother (of) him<br />Translation: the child stays unhappy when his mother is not there<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Verb<br />بَقِيَ الْوَلَدُ يَلْعَبُ<br />baqiy(a) ('a)l-walad(u) yal"ab(u)<br />= kept the boy playing<br />Translation: the boy kept playing<br /> <br /> <br />There are several verbs in Arabic that can be both complete and incomplete verbs. There are also others that can only be incomplete but not complete.<br />An example of a verb that can be only an incomplete verb:<br />( maa zaal(a) مَاْ زَاْلَ = not left = be still / remain ) this verb is only used negated.<br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />مَاْ زَاْلَ الْوَلَدُ سَعِيْدًا<br />maa zaal(a) ('a)l-walad(u) sa"eeda(n)<br />= remain the boy happily<br />Translation: the boy is still happy<br />The verb zaal(a) (imperfective: yazaal(u) يَزَاْلُ ) is never used except combined with a negative particle; usually it is maa so it will become maa zaal(a). This verb means "be still" or "remain". It is an incomplete verb that is never used without a complementary adverb. <br />Example:<br />Verb - Subject<br />مَاْ زَاْلَ الْوَلَدُ <br />maa zaal(a) ('a)l-walad(u)<br />= remain the boy ...<br />Translation: the boy is still ... (incomplete sentence)<br />Although this sentence has both a subject and a verb, it is not a full sentence and it lacks meaning.<br />There are two verbs in Arabic that are strictly incomplete (they always need an adverb):<br />Incomplete Verbs الأَفْعَاْلُ النَّاْقِصَةُMeaningManageabilityVerb & Literal Sense(He) is stillPartially manageablemaa zaal(a)مَاْ زَاْلَnot (he) left(He) is notFrozenlays(a)لَيْسَ(he) was not<br />Manageability التَّصَرُّفُ refers to whether the verb has imperfective and imperative structures (see Frozen Verbs).<br /> <br />Arabic verbs that can be both incomplete & complete are many.<br /> <br />I. Fully Manageable Verbs<br /> <br />Incomplete / complete Verbs الأَفْعَاْلُ النَّاْقِصَةُ / التَّاْمَةُ(Fully Manageable Verbs) MeaningVerb & Literal Sense(He) was / existedkaan(a)كَاْنَ(he) was(He) became / was in the morning'asbah(a)أَصْبَحَ(he) was in the morning(He) became / was in the evening'amsaaأَمْسَىْ(he) was in the evening(He) became / was in the forenoon'adhaaأَضْحَىْ(he) was in the forenoon(He) became / was in the early morningradaaغَدَاْ(he) was in the early morning(He) became / spent the nightbaat(a)بَاْتَ(he) spent the night(He) kept (doing) / stayedzall(a)ظَلَّ(he) was in daytime(He) kept (doing) / stayedbaqiy(a)بَقِيَ(he) stayed(He) became / was transferred saar(a)صَاْرَ(he) was transferred(He) became / returnedIf negated, the meaning will become: (He) is no longer"aad(a)عَاْدَ(he) returned(He) became / returned"aad(a)رَجَعَ(he) returned(He) was / camejaa'(a)جَاْءَ(he) came(He) became / was transformed"aad(a)آضَ(he) was transformed(He) became / was transformed"aad(a)اِنْقَلَبَ(he) was transformed(He) became / was transformed"aad(a)اِسْتَحَاْلَ(he) was transformed(He) became / was transformed"aad(a)تَحَوَّلَ(he) was transformed(He) became / was transformed"aad(a)تَبَدَّلَ(he) was changed<br /> <br />II. Partially Manageable Verbs<br /> <br />Incomplete / complete Verbs الأَفْعَاْلُ النَّاْقِصَةُ / التَّاْمَةُ(Partially Manageable Verbs) MeaningVerb & Literal Sense(He) is still / not (he) leftmaa barih(a)مَاْ بَرِحَnot (he) left(He) is still / is always / not let gomaa fati'(a)مَاْ فَتِئَnot (he) broke(He) is still / was not releasedmaa ('i)nfakk(a)مَاْ انْفَكَّ(he) was not released<br /> <br /> <br />III. Frozen Verbs<br /> <br />Incomplete / complete Verbs الأَفْعَاْلُ النَّاْقِصَةُ / التَّاْمَةُ(Frozen Verbs) MeaningVerb & Literal SenseAs long as / since thatAs long as bemaa daam(a)مَاْ دَاْمَever lasted<br /> <br /> <br />Examples:<br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />أَصْبَحَ الثَّلْجُ مَاْءً<br />'asbah(a) ('a)th-thalj(u) maa'a(n)<br />= became the ice water<br />Translation: the ice became water<br />or: the ice has become water<br />*If someone is wondering how the word "water" can be an adverb, the literal meaning of the sentence will make it clear, "the ice entered the morning time as water."<br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />سَيُصْبِحُ الثَّلْجُ مَاْءً<br />sa-yusbih(u) ('a)th-thalj(u) maa'a(n)<br />= will became the ice water<br />Translation: the ice will become water<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br /> أَمْسَىْ الْوَضْعُ خَطِيْرًا<br />'amsaa ('a)l-wad"(u) khateera(n)<br />= became the situation dangerously<br />Translation: the situation became dangerous<br />or: the situation has become dangerous<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Hiding Subject - Preposition<br />لَنْ أَذْهَبَ مَاْ دَاْمَ هُنَاْكَ<br />lan 'athhab(a) maa daam(a) hunaak(a)<br />= (I) will not go since that/as long as (he) (is) there<br />Translation: I will not go since that he is there<br />or: I will not go as long as he is there<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Attached Subject - Prepositional Phrase<br />سَأُسَاْعُدُكَ مَاْ دُمْتَ بِحَاْجَتِيْ<br />sa-'usaa"idu-k(a) maa dumt(a) bi-haajati-y<br />= (I) will help you since that/as long as (you) (are) in (the) need (of) me <br />Translation: I will help you since that you need me<br />or: I will help you as long as you need me<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />The meanings of incomplete verbs that are used in negative forms will not necessarily change with change from the perfective to the imperfective, except with the particle lan- which is used solely for negation of future events.<br /> <br />Incomplete Verbsلَنْ يَزَاْلَلا يَزَاْلُمَاْ يَزَاْلُلَمْ يَزَلْمَاْ زَاْلَlan yazaal(a)laa yazaal(u)maa yazaal(u)lam yazalmaa zaal(a)(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always was(He) is still(He) always wasلَنْ يَبْرَحَلا يَبْرَحُمَاْ يَبْرَحُلَمْ يَبْرَحْمَاْ بَرِحَlan yabrah(a)laa yabrah(u)maa yabrah(u)lam yabrahmaa barih(a)(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always was(He) is still(He) always wasلَنْ يَفْتَئَلا يَفْتَئُمَاْ يَفْتَئُلَمْ يَفْتَئْمَاْ فَتِئَlan yafta'(a)laa yafta'(u)maa yafta'(u)lam yafta'<maa fati'(a)(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always was(He) is still(He) always wasلَنْ يَنْفَكَّلا يَنْفَكُّمَاْ يَنْفَكُّلَمْ يَنْفَكَّمَاْ انْفَكَّlan yanfakk(a)laa yanfakk(u)maa yanfakk(u)lam yanfakk(a)maa ('i)nfakk(a)(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always will be(He) is still(He) always was(He) is still(He) always was<br /> <br />Examples:<br />Verb - Subject - Verb<br />مَاْ فَتِئَ سَعِيْدٌ يُحَاْوِلُ النَّجَاْحَ<br />maa fati'(a) sa"eed(un) yuhaawil(u) ('a)n-najaah(a)<br />= (he) is always Sa'id trying to succeed<br />Translation: Sa'id is always trying to succeed<br />* النَّجَاْحَ is a verbal noun or an infinitive.<br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Verb<br />مَاْ يَفْتَئُ سَعِيْدٌ يُحَاْوِلُ النَّجَاْحَ<br />maa yafta'(u) sa"eed(un) yuhaawil(u) ('a)n-najaah(a)<br />= (he) is always Sa'id trying to succeed<br />Translation: Sa'id is always trying to succeed<br /> <br />Other incomplete verbs such as عَاْدَ can have variant meanings depending on whether they are negative or not.<br /> <br />لَنْ يَعُوْدَلا يَعُوْدُمَاْ يَعُوْدُلَمْ يَعُدْمَاْ عَاْدَlan ya"ood(a)laa ya"ood(u)maa ya"ood(u)lam ya"udmaa "aad(a)(He) will no longer be(He) will not be again(He) is/was no longer(He) was not again<br /> <br />Examples:<br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />مَاْ عَاْدَتِ الْحَيَاْةُ صَعْبَةً<br />maa "aadat(i) ('a)l-hayaat(u) sa"bata(n)<br />= no longer is the life (fem.) hardly<br />Translation: life is no longer hard<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />لَمْ تَعُدِ الْحَيَاْةُ صَعْبَةً<br />lam ta"ud(i) ('a)l-hayaat(u) sa"bata(n)<br />= no longer is the life (fem.) hardly<br />Translation: life is no longer hard<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />لَنْ تَعُوْدَ الْحَيَاْةُ سَهْلَةً<br />lan ta"ood(a) ('a)l-hayaat(u) sahlata(n)<br />= no longer will be the life (fem.) easily<br />Translation: life will no longer be easy<br /> <br /> <br />The subject of an incomplete verb is called in Arabic: "the noun of the incomplete verb" اِسْمُ الْفِعْلِ النَّاْقِصِ .<br />The adverb of an incomplete verb is called in Arabic: "the predicate of the incomplete verb" خَبَرُ الْفِعْلِ النَّاْقِصِ . This predicate can be a noun, a verb, a prepositional phrase, etc.<br />Incomplete verbs can be often called "kaan(a) and her sisters" كَاْنَ وَأَخَوَاْتُهَاْ .<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Imperfective Verb Be<br /> <br />We mentioned before that the verb "to be" in Arabic does not show up in sentences in the present tense. However, we will still see an imperfective structure of this verb showing up in many sentences in Arabic (yakoon(u)). How is that possible?<br />The answer is that, as we mentioned before in the verb section, the imperfective structure can mean both the present and the future tenses. So the structure yakoon(u) does not actually mean "is," rather it means "will be."<br />Nonetheless, this does not mean that the sentence would necessarily be a future tense sentence, even if the verb "be" itself were a future verb. Think of the following sentence: <br />The wetter the road conditions, the harder it will be for a vehicle to stop.<br />This sentence contains a verb "be" in the future tense, however, it is not really talking about any future events. This sentence is only stating a general fact of life.<br />The same it is for Arabic sentences; had we had a simple indicative sentence, we would use the verb "be" in the present tense (i.e. not use it at all). On the other hand, if we had a sentence that is stating a general fact or describing some kind of customary behavior, we would use the verb "be" in the future tense (the imperfective, yakoon(u)). However, it should be noted that the future particles sa- and sawfa cannot be used in this case, because those are only used for actual future events. <br />In summary, the verb "be" does not exist in the present tense. The imperfective structure would be describing a future action if it were preceded by a future particle ( sa- or sawfa). If it were not preceded by a future particle, it would often confer a "declarative" tone on the sentence, as in stating a general fact or describing a customary behavior.<br />Example:<br />الجَّوُّ مُشْمِسٌ فِيْ الصَّيْفِ   <br />('a)l-jaww(u) mushmisu(n) fee ('a)s-sayf(i)<br />= the weather (is) sunny in the summer<br />Translation: the weather is sunny in summer<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Adverb<br />يَكُوْنُ الجَّوُّ مُشْمِسًا فِيْ الصَّيْفِ   <br />yakoon(u) ('a)l-jaww(u) mushmisa(n) fee ('a)s-sayf(i)<br />= will be the weather sunny in the summer<br />Translation: ≈ the weather is usually sunny in summer<br /> <br />Incomplete Verbs (continued)<br />Verbs of Approach, Hope, and Proceeding<br /> <br />Those are three classes of incomplete verbs. There is only one difference between these incomplete verbs and the verbs that were mentioned before, which is that these ones must have either a verb or an infinitival phrase to complete their meanings but not anything else.<br />Another name for these verbs is "kaad(a) and her sisters" كَاْدَ وَأَخَوَاْتُهَاْ . All of these verbs can be both complete and incomplete verbs. The complete senses are not included in our discussion here.<br /> <br />Verbs of Approach<br /> <br /> Verbs of approach أَفْعَاْلُ الْمُقَاْرَبَةِ are verbs that denote the proximity of the predicate. They mean something like "about to" or "almost." <br />The verb in black is obsolete.<br />Verbs of Approach أَفْعَاْلُ الْمُقَاْرَبَةِManageability VerbPartially manageablekaad(a)كَاْدَPartially manageable'awshak(a)أَوْشَكَFrozenkarab(a)كَرَبَ<br />*Note that the manageability here concerns only the incomplete senses of these verbs.<br /> <br />Examples:<br />Verb - Subject - Verb<br />كَاْدَ الْوَقْتُ يَنْقَضِيْ<br />kaad(a) ('a)l-waqt(u) yanqadee<br />= approached the time be concluded<br />Translation: the time is almost up<br />or: the time was almost up<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Verb<br />يَكَاْدُ الْوَقْتُ يَنْقَضِيْ<br />yakaad(u) ('a)l-waqt(u) yanqadee<br />= approaches the time be concluded<br />Translation: the time is almost up<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Infinitival Phrase<br />أَوْشَكَ الْمَطَرُ أَنْ يَهْطِلَ<br />'awshak(a) ('a)l-matar(u) 'an yahtil(a)<br />= approached the rain that (he) fall<br />Translation: the rain is about to fall<br />An infinitival phrase is a verb preceded by the infinitival particle 'an. A verb after this particle will be always in the subjunctive mood ('an-nasb).<br /> <br />Verb - Subject - Infinitival Phrase<br />يُوْشِكُ الْمَطَرُ أَنْ يَهْطِلَ<br />yooshik(u) ('a)l-matar(u) 'an yahtil(a)<br />= approaches the rain that (he) fall<br />Translation: the rain is about to fall<br /> <br />An example on 'awshak(a) in the complete sense:<br /> <br />Verb - Subject<br />أَوْشَكَ أَنْ نَصِلَ<br />'awshak(a) 'an nasil(a)<br />= approached that (we) arrive<br />Translation: we are about to arrive<br /> <br />Example with a hiding subject:<br /> <br />Verb - Hiding Subject - Verb<br />كَاْدَ يَنْجَحُ<br />kaad(a) yanjah(u)<br />= approached (he) succeed<br />Translation: he almost succeeded<br />or: he is about to succeed<br /> <br /> <br />Verb - Hiding Subject - Verb<br />يَكَاْدُ يَنْجَحُ<br />kaad(a) yanjah(u)<br />= approaches (he) succeed<br />Translation: he almost succeeded<br />or: he is about to succeed<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Verbs of Hope<br /> <br />Verbs of approach أَفْعَاْلُ الَّرَجَاْءِ are verbs that denote the hope for the predicate to happen. They mean something like "it is hoped that" or "hopefully."<br />The verbs in black are obsolete.<br />Verbs of Hope أَفْعَاْلُ الرَّجَاْءِManageability VerbFrozen"asaaعَسَىْFrozenharaaحَرَىْFrozen'ikhlawlaq(a)اِخْلَوْلَقَ<br />*Note that the manageability here concerns only the incomplete senses of these verbs.<br /> <br />Examples:<br />Verb - Subject - Infinitival Phrase<br />عَسَىْ رَبُّكُمْ أَنْ يَرْحَمَكُمْ<br />"asaa rabbu-kum 'an yarhama-kum<br />= it is hoped (the) lord (of) you that (he) will have mercy on you<br />= it is hoped that (the) Lord (of) you will have mercy on you<br />Translation: may your Lord (God) pardon you<br /> <br />Example on "asaa in the complete sense:<br /> <br />Verb - Subject - adverb<br />عَسَىْ أَنْ تَنْجَحَ هَذِهِ الْمَرَّةَ<br />"asaa 'an tanjah(a) haathih(i) ('a)l-marra(ta)<br />= it is hoped that (you) succeed this time<br />Translation: I hope that you succeed this time<br />Remember that an incomplete "asaa will be completed only with a verb or an infinitival phrase other than the subject (the subject here: 'an tanjah(a)).<br />Example on "asaa attached to a subject pronoun:<br /> <br />Verb - Attached Subject - Infinitival Phrase<br />هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِنْ نَاْدَيْتُكُمْ أَنْ تُجِيْبُوْنِيْ ؟<br />hal "asaytum 'in naadaytu-kum 'an tujeeboo-nee<br />= is it that it is hoped, you, if (I) called you, that (you) will answer me<br />= if (I) called you, is it that it is hoped that you will answer me<br />Translation: if I called upon you, will you, hopefully, answer me?<br />This is a rather classical kind of sentence.<br /> <br />A special phenomenon of the verb "asaa is that it can be combined to attached object pronouns in a manner resembling to that of the verb-like particles. In fact, in this particular case the verb "asaa will become a verb-like particle and will not follow the rules of the verbs of hope any more.<br />The Verb عَسَىْ as a Verb-Like Particle It is hoped for me"asaa-y(a)عَسَاْيَ It is hoped for you (masc. sing.)"asaa-k(a)عَسَاْكَ It is hoped for you (fem. sing.)"asaa-kiعَسَاْكِ It is hoped for him"asaa-h(u)عَسَاْهُ It is hoped for her"asaa-haaعَسَاْهَاْ It is hoped for you (dual)"asaa-kumaaعَسَاْكُمَاْ It is hoped for them (dual)"asaa-humaaعَسَاْهُمَاْ It is hoped for us"asaa-naaعَسَاْنَاْ It is hoped for you (masc. plu.)"asaa-kumعَسَاْكُمْ It is hoped for you (fem. plu.)"asaa-kunn(a)عَسَاْكُنَّ It is hoped for them (masc. plu.)"asaa-humعَسَاْهُمْ It is hoped for them (fem. plu.)"asaa-hunn(a)عَسَاْهُنَّ<br /> <br />Examples:<br />V.L.Particle - Object - Predicate<br />عَسَاْهُ يَفُوْزُ<br />"asaa-h(u) yafooz(u)<br />= it is hoped for him (he) will win<br />Translation: I hope he wins<br /> <br /> <br />V.L.Particle - Object - Predicate<br />عَسَاْهُمْ هُنَاْكَ<br />"asaa-hum hunaak(a)<br />= it is hoped for them (be) there<br />Translation: I hope they are there<br /> <br /> <br />V.L.Particle - Object - Predicate<br />مَاْ عَسَاْنَاْ نَفْعَلُ ؟<br />maa "asaa-naa naf"al(u)<br />= what it is hoped for us (we) do<br />Translation: what could we do?<br />This is a familiar usage of the word.<br />Incomplete Verbs (continued)<br />Verbs of Approach, Hope, and Proceeding<br />  <br />Verbs of Proceeding<br /> <br />Verbs of proceeding أَفْعَاْلُ الشُّرُوْعِ are verbs that denote the proceeding to an action (the predicate). They mean something like "proceed to" or "begin to."<br />The incomplete senses of these verbs differ from those of approach and hope verbs in that they will be completed only with verbs but not with infinitival phrases.<br />The verbs in black are obsolete.<br />Verbs of Proceeding أَفْعَاْلُ الشُّرُوْعِManageability VerbFrozenja"al(a)جَعَلَFrozen'akhath(a)أَخَذَFrozen'ansha'(a)أَنْشَأَFrozenshara"(a)شَرَعَFrozentafiq(a)طَفِقَFrozenraah(a)رَاْحَFrozen'inbaraaاِنْبَرَىْFrozenbada'(a)بَدَأَFrozen'ibtada'(a)اِبْتَدَأَFrozenqaam(a)قَاْمَFrozen"aliq(a)عَلِقَFrozenhabb(a)هَبَّ<br />*Note that the manageability here concerns only the incomplete senses of these verbs.<br /> <br />Example:<br />Verb - Subject - Verb<br />بَدَأَ الْوَقْتُ يَنْفَدُ<br />bada'(a) ('a)l-waqt(u) yanfad(u)<br />= began to the time run out<br />= the time began to run out<br />Translation: the time is beginning to run out<br />or: the time was beginning to run out<br /> <br />A long example:<br />شَرَعَ الأَوْلادُ يُنَظِّفُوْنَ الْمَنْزِلَ ، فَأَخَذَ أَنَسٌ يَجْمَعُ النِّفَاْيَاْتِ ، وَجَعَلَ حُسَاْمٌ يُرَتِّبُ الأَسِرَّةَ ، وانْبَرَتْ رِيْمَاْ تَغْسِلُ الصُّحُوْنَ ، وَقَاْمَ هَاْنِيْ يَمْسَحُ الْغُبَاْرَ<br />shara"(a) ('a)l-'awlaad(u) yunazzifoon(a)  ('a)l-manzil(a), fa-'akhath(a) 'anas(un) yajma"(u)  ('a)n-nifaayaat(i), wa-ja"al(a) husaam(un) yurattib(u) ('a)l-'asirra(ta), wa-nbarat reema tarsil(u) ('a)s-suhoon(a), wa-qaam(a) haanee yamsah(u) ('a)l-rubaar(a)<br />= start to the kids clean the house. So start to Anas collect the trash, and start to Hussam tidy the beds, and start to Rima wash the dishes, and start to Hani wipe the dust<br />Translation: the kids started cleaning the house. Anas started collecting trash, Hussam started making the beds, Rima started doing the dishes, and Hani started cleaning dust<br /> <br />