Translation
Translation <ul><li>decoding info. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the interactions of mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes and several transc...
<ul><li>mRNA leaves the Nucleus and Looks for a Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>After the code is transcribed the m-RNA is furt...
Translation <ul><li>The RNA Code is Translated into Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome finds start codon (AUG), then decod...
<ul><li>mRNA carries the genes. </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence of mRNA strand is complementary to that of DNA.   </li></ul...
Translation... <ul><li>Anticodon is complementary to the codons on mRNA held by H+ bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Peptidyl trans...
<ul><li>ribosomes move along the mRNA molecule and &quot;read&quot; its sequence 3 nucleotides at a time (codon) from the ...
Polysomes.. <ul><li>Several ribosomes can attach to an mRNA strand simultaneously, forming  polysomes . </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
Summary   Ribosome decodes the m-RNA and makes the correct protein.   m-RNA Ribosomes Peptidyl transferase enzyme  Transfe...
Protein structure <ul><li>20 a2 serve as subunits </li></ul><ul><li>Each amino acid has a carboxyl group, amino group, and...
structure <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure </...
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Translation

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Translation

  1. 1. Translation
  2. 2. Translation <ul><li>decoding info. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the interactions of mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes and several transciption factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Some ribosomes attached to membranes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), others not attached (free ribosomes) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>mRNA leaves the Nucleus and Looks for a Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>After the code is transcribed the m-RNA is further processed: special head and tail regions are added and some parts are spliced out </li></ul><ul><li>RNA leaves the nucleus and carries the code into the cytoplasm, then attaches to a ribosome </li></ul>
  4. 4. Translation <ul><li>The RNA Code is Translated into Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome finds start codon (AUG), then decodes the message, 3 bases at a time </li></ul><ul><li>When the ribosome reaches the stop codon the protein is released and the decoding can start over to make another protein </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>mRNA carries the genes. </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence of mRNA strand is complementary to that of DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves the nuc – cyto to encounter ribosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Triplet codon specifies a certain protein in the sequence of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Dictates the production of proteins by ribosomes . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Translation... <ul><li>Anticodon is complementary to the codons on mRNA held by H+ bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Peptidyl transferase catalyses the formation of peptide bond between 2 amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the amino acids have joined, tRNA molecules are released </li></ul><ul><li>Base pairing between the codons of mRNA and the anticodons on tRNA mol ensures that the transcribed info is translated into the correct sequence of amino acid. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>ribosomes move along the mRNA molecule and &quot;read&quot; its sequence 3 nucleotides at a time (codon) from the 5' end to the 3' end. </li></ul><ul><li>Each amino acid is specified by the mRNA's codon, and then pairs with a sequence of three complementary nucleotides carried by a particular tRNA (anticodon). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Polysomes.. <ul><li>Several ribosomes can attach to an mRNA strand simultaneously, forming polysomes . </li></ul><ul><li>This speeds up the generation of large number of polypeptides. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Summary   Ribosome decodes the m-RNA and makes the correct protein.   m-RNA Ribosomes Peptidyl transferase enzyme Transfer RNAs   In the cytoplasm, on the ribosomes   Translation   Gene is activated. A copy of the code is made from RNA (m-RNA) m-RNA leaves the nucleus, goes to cytoplasm.   DNA gene RNA polymerase   In the nucleus   Transcription   Notes   Major Components   Where   Process
  10. 11. Protein structure <ul><li>20 a2 serve as subunits </li></ul><ul><li>Each amino acid has a carboxyl group, amino group, and a radical group R </li></ul><ul><li>All bound covalently to a central C. </li></ul><ul><li>R group gives each a2 its chemical identity. </li></ul><ul><li>R = CH3 (alanine), CHCH3CH3 = Valine </li></ul><ul><li>4 main classes = polar (hydrophilic), non polar (hydrophobic), -ve, +ve charged. </li></ul>
  11. 12. structure <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure </li></ul><ul><li>H+ bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Disulphide bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Beta pleated sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobicc interactions </li></ul>

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