The Indian FMCG sector, with a market size of US$ 25 billion (2007–08 retail
sales), constitutes 2.15 per cent of India’s GDP.
The industry is poised to grow between 10 to 12 per cent annually.
A well-established distribution network spread across six million retail outlets
(including two million in 5,160 towns and four million in 627,000 villages) low
penetration levels, low operating costs and intense competition between the
organized and unorganized segments are key characteristics of this sector.
Organized retail —changing industry dynamics
The Indian retail market size is estimated at US$ 350.2 billion and is projected
to grow at 13 per cent per annum to reach US$ 590 billion by 2011–12.
The current share of organized retail is estimated to be 4 to 5 per cent and is
expected to increase by 14 to18 per cent by 2015.
Organized retail has created new channels for FMCG players through diverse
retail formats such as departmental stores, hypermarkets, supermarkets and
With organized retailing emerging in a major way across the country, the
revenues of FMCG companies are expected to surge.
Rural market —the new growth frontier
Rural India accounts for close to one-third of the total consumption pie.
Robust consumption in the rural economy is one of the key drivers of India’s
FMCG companies are devising exclusive rural marketing strategies to tap the
rural consumer base.
A large number of FMCG companies derive a significant proportion of their
overall sales from outside the top few 100 towns/cities, which reflects the
growing economic importance of India's rural consumer base.
FMCG Vs INDUSTRIAL MARKETING
MAXIMIZE VALUE OF TRANSACTION
MAXIMIZE VALUE OF RELATION
LARGE TARGET MARKET
SMALL FOCUSED MARKET
SINGLE STEP BUYING PROCESS
SHORTER SALES CYCLE
MULTIPLE BUYING PROCESS LARGER
EMOTIONAL BUYING DECISION BASED
ON STATUS, DESIRE OR PRICE
RATIONAL BUYING DECISION BASED ON
Food products is the largest consumption category in India, accounting for
nearly 21 per cent of the country’s GDP.
Some of the leading players in this segment include Britannia Industries Ltd,
Dabur India Ltd, GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare India Ltd and Gujarat
Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF).
India is recognized a cost-effective quality manufacturing base in the world
As Indian companies are going global, they are focussing more on overseas
markets such as the US, the UK, the UAE, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand,
Afghanistan, South Africa and Mauritius either through exports or the
establishment of their own foreign subsidiaries.
MNCs in India have also started supporting their global supply chain
requirements by serving as cost-effective sourcing bases.
Direct on-screen marketing (e.g harpic)
Power brand strategy (e.g lifebuoy soap)
Power brand extension (e.g lifebuoy talcum powder)
Exit from non power brand
Using INDIA as a brand
Small size packet strategy
Small value, size increase
Small value, size decrease
Latest scenario in FMCG market
Increasing per year with the growth rate of 9%.
Price of raw material is decreasing
Cost of machinery required for consumer goods are less than durable goods.
• Direct employment is estimated at approximately 6% of turnover, i.e. US$ 1.5
billion4 (Rs. 7,000 crores)
• approximately 12-13 million retail stores in India, out of which 9 million are FMCG
kirana stores. Thus the sector is responsible for the livelihood of almost 13 million
• Cascading Multiple Taxes by the FMCG sector(Import duty, service tax, CST, income
tax). 30% revenue of the sector goes into both direct and indirect taxes. estimated
size of $25 billion (Rs. 120,000 crores), that would constitute a contribution to the
exchequer of approximately US$ 6.5 billion (Rs. 31,000 crores).
• create employment for people with lower educational qualifications. FMCG firms
have also undertaken some specific projects to integrate with upcountry and rural
areas for both inputs and for distribution as well as to fulfil CSR.
• ITC echoupal and Choupal Sagar:- sells both agricultural inputs and daily needs
products. . ITC’s rural e-network enables farmer connectivity and provides an easy
way for farmers to get better profitability and control through access to timely
• HUL’s Shakti Amma network:- HUL pioneered a rural entrepreneurship model
amongst women who became HUL distributors.
• Dabur India regularly conducts rural and adult education programs and provides
training in rural areas to facilitate employability.
Contribution to Other Sectors
1.Agriculture - Its intake of agricultural output as raw material is estimated to
constitute roughly 9% of total turnover for the sector. That would put its total
value to agriculture at US$ 2.2 billion7 (Rs. 10,500crores).
2. Third Party Logistics - The third-party logistics market for the FMCG sector in India
has been growing at a CAGR of 12% since 2002, and is estimated to be worth US$
63 million8 (Rs. 300 crores). It is anticipated to double by 2011, and be worth over
US$ 146 million (Rs. 700 crores) by 2012, a growth of 211% from 2002.
3. Ancillary Industries:a. Manufacturing – Almost 9-10% of total sector’s production is outsourced to
contract manufacturing units taking the total size to $ 1.7 – 2 billion (Rs. 8,000 –
Rs. 9,500 crores), approximately.
b. Distribution –
i. ITC services 1.1 million outlets at an average frequency of three days down to
villages with population of 2,000, and has 1,000 wholesale dealers.
ii. Marico reaches 1.6 mln outlets, through almost 900 direct distributors, 100+ super
distributors, catering to almost 2,500 small stockists and 4,600 van markets.
4. Packaging Industry - The packaging industry for the FMCG sector alone is worth
US$ 2.9 billion10 (Rs. 14,000 crores), and is expected to grow faster due to the
growth of private label FMCG products.
5. Media Industry - The media industry has a lot to gain from the FMCG sector.
Around 40% of media industry earnings from advertising (US$ 5 billion) are
estimated to come from the FMCG sector, a contribution of US$ 2 billion (Rs.
6. Tourism Industry - Penetration of familiar brands across the length and breadth
of the country provides comfort and reassurance of quality to both Domestic
and International tourists.
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF FMCG INDUSTRY
The products often cater to 3 very distinct aspects - necessity, comfort & luxury.
They meet the demands of the entire cross section of population. Price and
income elasticity of demand varies across products and consumers.
Individual items are of small value (small SKU's) although all FMCG products put
together account for a significant part of the consumer's budget.
The consumer spends little time on the purchase decision. He seldom ever looks
at the technical specifications. Brand loyalties or recommendations of reliable
retailer/ dealer drive purchase decisions.
Limited inventory of these products (many of which are perishable) are kept by
consumer and prefers to purchase them frequently, as and when required.
Brand switching is often induced by heavy advertisement ,recommendation of the
retailer or word of mouth.
• Political stability.
• Tax exemption in sales and excise duty for small scale industries.
• Transportation and infrastructure development in rural areas helps in
• Restrictions in import policies.
• Help for agricultural sector
• The GDP rate of Indian economy is increasing every year. It is expected in future it
would be more better in comparison with other countries.
• Inflation rate is increasing across the world and India is also no exception. The
government and Reserve Bank of India both are trying to control the inflation rate
with the help of different measures.
• Increase in disposable income has taken place due to higher GDP rate. The per
capital income is increasing so the customers are having more income to spent for
• Indian FMCG sector recorded 16% sales growth in last fiscal year and it is expected
it would further improve in the forthcoming years.
• The FMCG sector is a 4th largest sector of Indian economy with market size of more
than 60,000 crore. The Indian Territory is very large and number of customers is
also very high.
The Indian culture, social & life styles are changing drastically.
The total population is nearly 115 crores and population includes rich, poor,
middle class, male, female, located in rural, urban and sub urban areas.
Increase level of education etc.
Increase awareness among rural market .
• Technology has been simplified and available in the industry. Where
technology is not available then it is brought from foreign countries to meet
FMCG sector requirements.
• Foreign players help in high technological development. With research and
development facilities the new technologies are developed alone or with the
help of foreign players.
Strengths• Low operational costs.
• Presence of established distribution networks in both urban and rural areas.
• Presence of well-known brands in FMCG sector.
• Favourable governmental Policy:
Indian Government has passed the policies aimed at attaining international
competitiveness through lifting of the quantitative restrictions, reducing excise
duties, 100 per cent export oriented units can be set up by government approval
and use of foreign brand names etc.
• Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):
Automatic investment approval up to 100 per cent foreign equity or 100 per cent
for NRI and Overseas Corporate Bodies investment is allowed for most of the food
processing sector except malted food, alcoholic beverages and those reserved for
small scale industries (SSI).
Opportunities• Untapped rural market, changing life style.
• Rising income levels, i.e. increase in purchasing power of consumers.
• Large domestic market with more population of median age 25.
• High consumer goods spending.
• India is the largest milk producer in the world, yet only around 15 per cent of the
milk is processed. The organized liquid milk business is in its infancy and also has
large long-term growth potential. Even investment opportunities exist in valueadded products like desserts, puddings etc.
• Only about 10-12 per cent of output is processed and consumed in packaged form,
thus highlighting the huge potential.
• India is under penetrated in many FMCG categories as shown in below diagram.
With rise in per capita incomes and awareness, the growth potential is huge.
• Lower price and smaller packs are also likely to drive potential up trading for major
Weakness• Lower scope of investing in technology and achieving economies of scale,
especially in small sectors
• Low exports levels
• "Me-tooʺproducts, which illegally mimic the labels of the established brands.
These products narrow the scope of FMCG products in rural and semi-urban
Threats• Removal of import restrictions resulting in replacing of domestic brands
• Tax and regulatory structure
• Rural demand is cyclical in nature and also depends upon monsoon.
PROBLEM OF COUNTERFEITING AND PIRACY IN INDIA
• According to a study conducted by a leading research agency AC Nielson, FMCG
industry which ends up loses approximately 15% of its revenue around Rs 2,500
crore and Rs 900 crore for the government annually due to counterfeits and passoff products. The fake products are affecting the sales of leading brands by almost
20-30 per cent.
• study also suggest 10 per cent reduction in the piracy rate has the potential to
create 50,000 additional jobs in India, According to FICCI, there are several laws in
India to deal with the issue but the problem arises when these laws are not
• India continues to remain on the priority watch list of the US Trade
Representative, meaning that India is perceived as not providing adequate
intellectual property rights protection or enforcement of laws protecting IPR.
• The FICCI has recently taken up a joint publicity campaign with the Ministry of
Consumer Affairs under the ‘Jago Grahak Jago’ and ‘Bhagidari’ with the Delhi Govt.
• To popularise the issue among the students – 5th Hum Kishore Festival with the
theme “Fight Smuggling and Counterfeiting” was organised in more than 100
schools of Delhi and the National Capital Region.
• FICCI CASCADE is also organising an Industry-Government seminar on June 8,
which is being observed as the ‘Anti-Counterfeiting Day’.
• The FICCI-National Initiative Against Piracy and Counterfeiting (FICCI-NIAPC) was
setup in the year 2003 to create awareness about piracy and counterfeiting and to
take initiatives to fight with them.
• They also try to enforcement system in association with professional bodies, training
institutions and concerned departments of the Government.
• Advocacy Functions
The National Initiative has four specific advocacy functions :
Policy and legislative issues, Judicial issues, Enforcement issues, Awareness Campaign.
• FICCI–NIAPC has done mass awareness campaigns against Piracy and Counterfeiting
by showing Anti Piracy Films Converted in Celluloid Format, in Multiplexes Involve the
Judiciary in a participative fashion and make them aware of the seriousness of the
issue. FICCI-NIAPC has organized .
• FICCI in its drive against Piracy and Counterfeiting celebrated Intellectual Property
Week starting April 20, 2007 culminating into the World IP day on April 26, 2007. A
National Seminar-“Combating Counterfeiting and Piracy” April 26, 2007 at New Delhi
was organized to mark the day. FICCI- NIAPC will soon be organising capacity building
programmes for the Police in partnership with the USPTO.
consumer markets in India
Cell 2, Emerging
Cell 1, Urban and
Cell 3, Bottom of the
Cell 4, Oasis market
Carrying and forwarding
agents in a certain state
channel of FMCG
Semi urban retailer
Urban / semiurban
Traditionally sales Promotions have been used by marketer to increase sales in
the short term.
OBJECTIVES OF SALES PROMOTION
Major Mergers and Acquisitions
Vijay Mallya's United Breweries Group (through Group entities Mc Dowell &
Co,Phipson Distillery, United Spirits and United Breweries Holdings) acquired a
controlling stake in the Jumbo Group's Shaw Wallace & Company for a total
deal value of Rs 16.2 billion ($371.6 million).
The P&G-Gillette merger - With the acquisition of Gillette's operations, P&G
becomes the second largest consumer goods company in the world.
Rin & Surf excel bar- HUL made a unique marketing step in 2006. Rin Supreme
became Surf Excel Bar. This was done to counter the launch of Tide Bar. Rin
Supreme’s USP was whiteness platform and Surf Excel’s USP was stain removal.
The merger took advantage of both.
mergers and acquisitions
Acquirer name (segment)
CC Health Care Products
Pvt Ltd (Cosmetics and
Colgate-Palmolive India Ltd (
Cosmetics and toiletries)
Vietnam Spice Unit (Food
Bafna Enterprises (Food and
(personal care products)
DaburIndia (Personal care)
Argencos, Argentina (Hair
Godrej Consumer Product Ltd
(Home and personal care)
Tura, Nigeria (Soap and
cleaning products )
GCPL (Home and personal
Tern Distilleries Pvt Ltd
United Spirits Ltd(beverages)
Vale Do Ivai SA Acucar E
Alcool(sugar and ethanol)
Shree Renuka Sugars Ltd (food) Acquisition
Asian Tea & Exports Ltd
Garden Namkeens Pvt
Cavinkare Pvt Ltd(food)
Godrej Hygiene Care
PvtLtd (home care)
Products Ltd(home care)
Britannia New Zealand
Foods PvtLtd (joint
venture partner Fonterra
Britannia Industries Ltd
Lotte India Corp
Lotte Confectionery Co
Ltd, South Korea (food)
Impact of Modern Retail on FMCG Sector
Modern retail can have many benefits for different product categories
• Including greater penetration
• wider product range
• the ability to display the range
• Direct interaction with the consumer and with the product
Investments in Modern Retail
Investment plans of Top 10 leading players.
US$ 30 billion (Rs 144,000 crores) from 2008 – 2013.
their combined turnover should top US$ 100 billion (Rs. 480,000 crores) by 201314.
current players involve a large play within FMCG items, as these are critical items
for any household
FDI in retail: Impact on Indian FMCG players
Advantage Global FMCG majors.
FMCG sector to witness a lot of M&A Activity.
Regional players to tweak biz model turn suppliers.
General trade here to stay.
Power to shift from manufacturer to retailer.
It is India's largest consumer goods company based in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
It is owned by the British-Dutch company Unilever which controls 52% majority
stake in HUL.
HUL was formed in 1933.
Its products include foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care
Revenue22,116 crore (US$4.03 billion)(2011-2012)
Net income2,691 crore (US$489.76 million)(2011-2012)
Hindustan Unilever's distribution covers over 2 million retail outlets across India
directly and its products are available in over 6.4 million outlets in the country.
As per Nielsen market research data, two out of three Indians use HUL
In 2012, HUL was recognised as one of the world's most innovative companies
by Forbes. With a ranking of number 6, it was the highest ranked FMCG
It was formed in 1970 by Henry Overton Wills and Yogesh Chander Deveshwar,
Headquarters in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
In FMCG, ITC has a strong presence in :
Cigarettes: W.D. & H.O. Wills, Gold Flake Kings, Gold Flake Premium, Navy
Cut, Insignia, India Kings, Classic (Verve, Menthol, Menthol Rush, Regular,Citric
Cut, Scissors, Capstan, Berkeley, Bristol, Lucky Strike, Players and Flake.
Foods: (Kitchens of India; Aashirvaad, Minto, Sunfeast, Candyman, Bingo,
Yippee, Sunfeast Pasta brands in Ready to Eat, Staples, Biscuits, Confectionery,
Noodles and Snack Foods).
Apparel: (Wills Lifestyle and John Players brands)
Personal care: (Fiama di Wills; Vivel; Essenza di Wills; Superia; Vivel di
Wills brands of products in perfumes, haircare and skincare)
Stationery: (Classmate and PaperKraft brands)
Safety Matches and Agarbattis: [Ship ; Mangaldeep; Aim brands]
It is a multinational nutritional and health-related consumer goods company
headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the
world measured by revenues.
Nestlé was listed No. 1 in the Fortune Global 500 as the world's most
Nestlé's products include baby food, bottled water, breakfast cereals, coffee,
confectionery, dairy products, ice cream, pet foods and snacks.
Nestlé's india’s first production facility was set up in 1961 at moga (punjab)
The Nestlé india head office is located at Gurgaon along with other branch
offices in Delhi,Mumbai,Chennai and kolkata.
It has 2,50,000 employees,500 factories and 8000 range of products across the
Amul is an Indian dairy cooperative, based at Anand in the state of Gujarat,
Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd Formed in 1946,
It has also ventured into markets overseas.
Amul's product range includes milk powders, milk, butter, ghee, cheese, Masti
Dahi, Yoghurt, Buttermilk, chocolate, ice cream and others.
Revenue US$2.15 billion (2010–11
GCMMF (AMUL) has the largest distribution network for any FMCG company.
It has nearly 50 sales offices spread all over the country, more than 5 000
wholesale dealers and more than 700 000 retailers.
It has Largest milk handling capacity in Asia.
Dabur India Limited is the fourth largest FMCG Company in India with
interests in Health Care, Personal Care and Food Products.
It is public company listed in NSC and BSC.
it has 17 ultra-modern manufacturing units spread around the globe and its
products marketed in over 60 countries.
Products-Dabur Amla, Dabur Chyawanprash, Vatika, Hajmola & Real.
It is most famous for Dabur Chyawanprash and Hajmola.
Founded in 1884 and the Founder is Dr. S K Burman,in kolkata (west bangal)
and The company headquarters are in Ghaziabad,Uttar Pradesh, India.
Net income(INR) 1475 Crore (2008-09).Total assets(INR) 1559 crore (200809).Employees3000 (Approx.)
It is an Indian chemicals company headquartered in Mumbai, India.
Asian Paints is India's largest paint company and Asia's third largest paint
company, with a turnover of Rs 96.32 billion.
It is one of the largest paint companies in the world and operates in 17
It is Founded in 1942.
Today Asian Paints becomes the 10th largest decorative paint company in the
1967 Asian Paints emerges as India's leading paint company ahead of any
Headquarters Mumbai, India.
Revenue7,964 crore (US$1.45 billion)(2012)
Profit 958.39 crore (US$174.43 million)(2012)
Cadbury India began its operations in India in 1948 by importing chocolates.
Its Headquarters in Mumbai, India.
It now has manufacturing facilities in Thane, Induri (Pune) and Malanpur
(Gwalior), Bangalore and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) and sales offices in Ne
Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.
Products Cadbury Dairy Milk, 5-star, Perk, Gems, Eclairs, Oreo and
It is the market leader in the chocolate confectionery business with a
market share of over 70%.
The Brand Trust Report, India Study, 2011 published by Trust Research
Advisory ranked Cadbury in the top 100 most trusted brands list.
Cadbury has worked with the Kerala Agricultural University to undertake
Current employees are 2000.
It is an Indian food-products corporation based in Kolkata,India
It is famous for its Britannia and Tiger brands of biscuit, which are popular
Britannia has an estimated 38% market share in biscuit segment.
Products -Bakery products, including biscuits, bread, cakes and rusk, and dairy
products, including milk, butter, cheese, ghee and dahi.
The company was established in 1892, with an investment of Rs. 295.
The brand names of biscuits include VitaMarieGold, Tiger, Nutrichoice
Junior,Good day, 50 50, Treat, Pure Magic, Milk Bikis, Good
Morning, Bourbon, Thin Arrowroot, Nice, Little Hearts and many more.
Revenue 4,670 crore (US$849.94 million)(2011) .Profit 134 crore (US$24.39
P&G is one of the largest and amongst the fastest growing consumer goods
companies in India. Established in 1964,
P&G India now serves over 650 million consumers across India.
Its presence pans across the Beauty & Grooming segment, the Household Care
segment as well as the Health & Well Being segment,
These include Vicks, Ariel, Tide, Olay, Gillette, Ambipur, Pampers, Pantene, OralB, Head & Shoulders, Wella and Duracell.
P&G operates under three entities in India - two listed entities “Procter &
Gamble Hygiene and Health Care Limited” and ‘Gillette India Limited’, as well as
one 100% subsidiary of the parent company in the U.S. called ‘Procter &
Gamble Home Products’.
Marico is a Indian consumer goods company providing consumer products and
services in the areas of Health and Beauty based in Mumbai.
Founded in 1987 and Headquarters is at Bandra, Mumbai, India.
The organisation holds a number of brands including Parachute, Saffola,
Hair&Care, Nihar, Mediker, Revive, Manjal, Kaya Skin Clinic, Aromatic,
Fiancee, HairCode, Eclipse, Xmen, Hercules, Caivil, Code 78 and Black Chic.
Revenue 4,008.3 crore(2012)
Parachute is the flagship brand of Marico which consists of edible grade coconut
Project Shakti by HUL
• The company generates around half its business from
India’s towns and cities and half from rural areas, where
its products are sold in some 100,000 villages with
populations of 2,000 or more.
• To gain more share in rural market HUL starts a
ambitious project named as Project Shakti .
• in which company starts direct-to-consumer sales
distributors through women’s self-help groups that had
been springing up around the country. These groups,
about one million of which now exist across India.
• The company provides training in selling, commercial
knowledge and bookkeeping, teaching them to become
• Shakti women entrepreneurs covering 50,000 villages in
12 states, selling to 70 million consumers. This
represents a 30% increase in rural population reached
e-Choupal is an initiative of ITC Limited
• ITC established a service which link directly rural
farmers to manufacture via the Internet.
• e-Choupal was conceived to tackle the challenges posed
by the unique features of Indian agriculture, characterized
by fragmented farms, weak infrastructure and the
involvement of numerous intermediaries.
• Traditionally, commodities were sell through mandis.
where the middleman used to make most of the profit.
• These middlemen used to unfair means to judge the
quality of the product to set the price. farmers didn't get
the right value for their product.
• So ITC has empowered the lives of people living in 10
states where 40000 villages have 6500 e choupals and
around 4 million farmers have been empowered.
• E-choupal also provides products of ITC at cheaper rate
. It benefited both parties.
Swasthya Chetna Abhiyan by dabur
• The company has initiated 'Swasthya Chetna
Abhiyan‘, A activity that will cover 540 villages and
reach almost 20 lakh people in Uttar Pradesh and
• Dabur recently signed actor Ravi Kishan as its
brand ambassador for below-the-line promotions in
Uttar Pradesh and Bihar -- has launched a consumer
engagement programme with him.
•The activity has five elements: free health checkup, engagement activities, movie screenings, spot
sales and a meet and greet opportunity with brand
ambassador, Ravi Kishan.
Van Campaign by Marico
• Create awareness for Parachute Coconut Oil Pouch
in towns with less than 20000 population in Tamil
• This campaign Convert loose oil buyers into
Parachute pouch customers, by highlighting the
advantages of the Parachute brand Convince them to
pay a small premium for the brand.
• The Van Campaign aimed exclusively for women and
for the first time conducted by women in male
• according to Marico, substantial increase in sales
reported from the campaign areas A study by Marico
showed a 25% conversion from loose coconut oil
usage to Parachute Pouch Pack, Post Van Campaign
The success of the campaign motivated Marico to
repeat the campaign the following year even in towns
with 1 lakh + population, with excellent results
consumerComplete‘ in India by HARPIC
'5x markets Campaign
India's no. 1 toilet cleaning brand from Reckitt Benckiser
has launched the all new Harpic plus and starts door to
door promotion, Used Hussain Kuwajerwala asHigh
Cell 1, Urban and
Cell 2, Emerging
Brooke Bond Lipton campaign
Brooke Bond Lipton India Ltd (BBLIL) Brooke Bond
Cell (BBLIL) markets its
Lipton India Ltd 3, Bottom of the rural Cell 4, Oasis market
pyramid (BOP) market
through magic shows and skits.