Emerging technologies and Changing Teaching and Learning Practices


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Presented at the CHEC Digital University Symposium on the 30th of October 2013 at UWC.

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  • Johnson, L., Adams, S., and Cummins, M. (2012). Technology Outlook for Australian Tertiary Education 2012-2017: An NMC Horizon Report Regional Analysis. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.
  • Changing role of educators…
  • Horizon 2013 The workforce demands skills from college graduates that are more often acquired from informal learning experiences than in universities. Informal learning generally refers to any learning that takes place outside of a formal school setting, but a more practical definition may be learning that is self-directed and aligns with the student’s own personal learning goals. Employers have specific expectations for new hires, including communication and critical thinking skills — talents that are often acquired or enhanced through informal learning. Online or other modern environments are trying to leverage both formal and informal learning experiences by giving students traditional assignments, such as textbook readings and paper writing, in addition to allowing for more openended,unstructured
  • A group of eight differently placed HEIs in South Africa four in the Western Cape (Cape Peninsular University of Technology (CPUT), Stellenbosch University (SU), University of Cape Town (UCT) and the University of the Western Cape (UWC), Rhodes University, Fort Hare in Eastern Cape, Wits University and Pretoria University in GautengAn international NGO – the Open Courseware Consortium
  • The survey has involved designing and prototyping a scoping questionnaire prior to administering this to academics in all HEIs in South Africa to establish current practices regarding emergent technologies to enhance teaching and learning. The online questionnaire comprises of closed and open ended questions. The objective of the survey will be to establish the contexts and conditions that frame current practices of use of emerging technologies within South Africans HEIs.
  • Source: http://mediaexposure1.blogspot.com/2011_07_01_archive.html1.  Innovators- The adoption process begins with a tiny number ofvisionary, imaginative innovators2.   Early adopters: Once the benefits start to become apparent, earlyadopters leap in. They love getting an advantage over their peers and they have time and money to invest3.   Early majority: They are followers who are influenced by mainstream fashions and wary of fads. They are looking for simple, proven, better ways of doing what they already do. 4.   Late majority: They are conservative people who hate riskand are uncomfortable your new idea.5.   Laggards: They hold out to the bitter end. They arepeople who see a high risk in adopting a particular product orbehavior
  • Adaptive systems / Assisstive technologies (e.g. Screenreaders) Argumentation Visualisation (debategraph) Augmented Reality (AR) Bibliographic management (e.g. RefWorks, Zotero, Mendeley)5Blogging (e.g. Blogger, WordPress, Live journal)20Concept and Mindmapping (e.g. Bubbl.us, CMap, Freemind, Inspiration)3Context aware environments and devices (e.g. geotagging, data mashups) E-books2Electronic portfolios (e.g. Carbonmade, Exabis, Mahara)2Games and Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) Instant messaging (e.g. MSN, GoogleTalk, Mxit)7Internet phone (e.g. Skype)3Learning analytics Lecture capturing Microblogging (e.g. Twitter, Statusnet)7Modelling / Simulation tools7Multimedia production; Digital stories (e.g.Photostory, Windows MovieMaker)13Open Educational Resources repositories (e.g. MIT OpenCourseWare - free and open course materials via internet)6Podcasting / Vodcasting (e.g. Podcast Capture, Movie maker, Audacity)20Remote instrumentation (e.g. remote labs) Research databases (e.g. Ebscohost; Academic Premier)9Reusable learning objects RSS Feeds1Screencasting (e.g. Camtasia, Camstudio, Captivate, Wink)12Social bookmarking (e.g. Delicious)2Social media (e.g. Flickr, YouTube, Slideshare, Picasa, Vimeo)18Social networking (e.g. Facebook, MySpace)16Student/Personal response systems / Clickers (e.g. Turning Point)5Tablet computers6Virtual worlds / Immersive technologies (e.g. Second Life) Web-based documents (e.g. Google Docs, Google Forms)8Webconferencing (e.g. elluminate, MS Lync, dimdim, Adobe Connect)3Wikis (e.g. Wikis within an LMS; MediaWiki, Wikispaces, PBWiki)8LMS / CMS59   242
  • I suppose it typifies South Africa in many ways, that we’re a country within a country; that there’s this first world and third world mix that sort of keeps popping up in sometimes inconvenient settings like higher education (Lecturer, Fort Hare University).
  • Emerging and new are not necessarily synonomousWhile for example, Twitter may be an emerging technology, various practices on Twitter platform may already be establishedToday’s ET may become tomorrow’s fad – must remain sceptical about sudden transformation. ETs go through cycles of euphoria, adoption, use, maturity, impact, enthusiasm or even infatuation. Some will remain, others fade into backgroundCan’t yet fully understand the implications and what they offer teaching and learning, what they mean for educators and for institutions. It is not predictable we can’t determine in advance what will happen but only make sense of it after the event (Williams et al. 2011).Initial investigations often evangelical and describe superficial aspects of the technology without understanding the affordances of the technology and how these provide different ways to learn. Newer technologies can also be used in old traditional ways.Lack of research impedes disseminationAccording to Veletsianos (2010:17) emerging technologies are ‘tools, technologies, innovations, and advancements utlized in diverse educational settings to serve varied education-related purposes’. We are still learning and still learners with regard to the affordances of ETs. There is an absence of empirical work or practitioner knowledge base to explore enhancement of practice. Veletsianos (2010:17) personal technologies often sit uneasily with institutions; in some cases they are even banned within the university buildings and networks (Parry, 2005).
  • Despite efforts by higher education institutions (HEIs) to address the disjuncture between curriculum design and what is required of working professionals, students internationally and more particularly in South Africa still graduate unprepared to confront the realities of the twenty first century workplace (Herrington, Mantei, Herrington,Olney and Ferry, 2008; Lombardi, 2007). In part, this has been a reaction to the focus on disciplinary knowledge in higher education, which has tended to decontextualize knowledge, leaving graduates unready to apply this knowledge in different contexts when the need arises (Brown, Collins and Duguid, 1989; Herrington et al., 2010; Lave and and Wenger, 1991; Schön, 1983).
  • A citizen journalism project in Media Studies, in which students worked in collaboration with high school learners from disadvantaged communities, to collaboratively produce digital media videos on social issues using mobile phones. These were then published in a local newspaper and on YouTube. A five country consortium of academics who designed and implemented an online course on women's health and well-being, where students across five countries worked collaboratively across their respective contexts and produced a final research project using wikis. A project using digital storytelling in teacher education, in which final year students reflected on their journeys to becoming teachers. A course located in Biodiversity studies, in which students reflected through individual blogs, on adaptive management of their own fish, which they maintained in a tank. A Physiotherapy course, in which students were taught alternative ways of critical reasoning through actively engaging in dialogues in the classroom and publishing their critical reflections through various channels, such as wikis and google docs.
  • . citizen journalism was funded project with Grocott mail and use mobile phones to enrich content and to get ordinary people who would not normally contribute to the newspaper to contribute. Includes trg children to SMS news to the paper and a community radio station. The dept all involved and as i teach video i proposed using mobile phones to produce video and even though the audio is bad on mobile phones the students could collaborate with ordinary people to produce videos. Student 3rd yr journalism students, first time introduced to television. Project part of module on citzen journalism (more than one type of journalism - promote democracy and goes beyond own concerns, allows stories to be told from more than one view, stop gate keeping) Also theoretical module on citzen journalism and democracy very practical course- We worked with Up Start - so handed over from me to NGO to the teenagers - it was a process. We started by inviting groups from schools - 3 from school paired with 3 students - started by brainstorming about problems in schools. Student group was 24 so 48 people altogether. The brief to students was to identify problems that are public to help the authentic voice of the youth to emerge. Some raised ethical issues for example - gangsters hanging around school - talked about this and because the town is so small we were worried about victimisation so did not do this. so children themselves were a source of knowledge. also we had Upstart field worker who spoke about issues for youth and she was always available for the students as source.
  • Emerging technologies and Changing Teaching and Learning Practices

    1. 1. growing social media by MKHmarketing (CC) Emerging Technologies and Changing Teaching and Learning Practices Prof Viv Bozalek, UWC Daniela Gachago, CPUT
    2. 2. Structure of presentation • • • • Current context and challenges in HE The promise of Emerging Technologies NRF project on Emerging Technologies Practice examples using Emerging Technologies for teaching and learning practice • Lessons learnt…
    3. 3. Current context
    4. 4. Johnson & Adams (2011:3)
    5. 5. ‘schools, colleges and universities are attempting to teach knowledge and skills for jobs that no longer exist, and …teachers are not fully involved in educational innovation and curriculum development’. Open University Innovating Pedagogy (2012:7)
    6. 6. “Although lecturers and students are seemingly embracing emerging technologies enthusiastically, it is taking longer for institutions and policy makers to adopt and implement them. Institutions and policy makers are not yet fully engaging with these technologies to understand the usefulness of these technologies and therefore administrative policies may slow down or halt adoption.” COL 2008, 16
    7. 7. The promise of emerging technologies
    8. 8. Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., and Martín, S (2013). Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.
    9. 9. • table on top trends table on top trends
    10. 10. Although the use of emerging technologies is on the rise in Higher Education globally and locally, it is seldom used in a way that facilitates transformative teaching and learning. Ng’ambi, Bozalek & Gachago (in press) transformation by temari09 (CC)
    11. 11. Emerging pedagogies
    12. 12. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012 and 2013 report http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/innovating/
    13. 13. the innovations are not independent, but fit together into a new and disruptive form of education that transcends boundaries between formal and informal settings, institutional and selfdirected learning, and traditional education providers and commercial organisations Sharples et al (2012:6)
    14. 14. Emerging Technologies in South African Higher Education
    15. 15. ‘ICTs in South African HE’ NRF project
    16. 16. How could qualitative outcomes in education be realised by using emerging technologies to transform teaching and learning interactions and paradigms across higher education institutions in South Africa? moebius transformation by fdecomite (CC)
    17. 17. Phase 1 of Project - Survey In what ways are emerging technologies used in innovative pedagogical practices to transform teaching and learning across South African HEIs? August – Sept 2011 Phase 1: Survey
    18. 18. Research questions 1. What are the technologies academics are using? 2. How are SA lecturers using these technologies? 3. Is the use of these technologies transforming teaching and learning practices? 4. Are they leading to qualitative outcomes for students?
    19. 19. RLO Use of emerging technologies in SA (n=262, 22 institutions)
    20. 20. Most innovative T&L practice with technologies
    21. 21. So what is emerging in Paris may be some years off emerging in Parys… Parys by vls.wikipedia.org (CC)
    22. 22. Emerging Technologies ’tools, concepts, innovations, and advancements utilized in diverse educational settings to serve varied educationrelated purposes’ Veletsianos (2010:3) George Veletsianos definition of ET
    23. 23. Other: To improve learning 3% I experienced it as a student in my studies 4% I saw this at a I read about it in a conference paper 3% 3% Personal interest: I am passionate about technology 29% My students demanded this 5% My colleagues had positive results using this technology 8% My institution requires this of me 8% Incentive (funding, policy) 2% It is available at my institution 23% Institutional workshop / demonstration 10% Motivators for use
    24. 24. 0% Students attitudes & skills 22% Lecturers attitudes and skills 25% Institution 53% Challenges
    25. 25. “…positive impact… students like ducks to water….” “Feedback needs to be regular and fresh and in a style that the student appreciate. No slacking on posting after hours, no matter what’s happening in my personal or professional life. If students see your commitment to staying in touch, they will match that commitment – equal or better!”
    26. 26. Learners to be engaged in an inventive and realistic task that provides opportunities for complex collaborative activities shadow friends by familymwr (CC) Herrington et al. 2010 Authentic learning
    27. 27. by Arthur40A (CC)
    28. 28. • Shortlisted to 70 case studies that could potentially be classified as authentic learning • 21 interviews highest potential • Interviews along 9 elements, summary of data • Presented as case studies authentic learning by shareski (CC) Phase 2: Interviews
    29. 29. 1. Citizen journalism 2. Collaborative women’s health programme 3. Digital storytelling in education 4. Adaptive management of resources / Biodiversity 5. Critical thinking in Physiotherapy
    30. 30. ….a digital story, it’s synthesised. The paperDigital storytelling based portfolios were big files, but now they had to really synthesise all that information, categorise it, write a story about it in 300 to 500 words; so they had to really pull out the core learning
    31. 31. Blogging… We had a blog and people felt it was very informal, so they used SMS talk. And then we tried to translate SMS into another language using Google translator and I showed them it didn’t work. And then I said, but if you used English and you use a Google translator it might actually work and so what you’re doing is you’re increasing the understanding to a larger number of the population by using simple but structured English.
    32. 32. ….because the students find safety and security in the course reader and knowing in inverted commas that ‘these are all the answers’; if can just memorise all of these facts then I’m going to be okay. And what we are saying to them, now there’s no more facts, now what? Because when they graduate they’ve got no one to give them all the facts and we need to give them the skills now for them to be able to go out into the real world and say, oh, I don’t have this answer. Now what do I know? What do I need to find out? How will I find it out?
    33. 33. Emerging themes… • Context matters – sometimes an LMS is still emerging • Passionate educators / agency more transformative impact that institutional support • We are learning differently – focus on meaningful learning in authentic contexts • Power to the learners & community! • Connecting / Participating / Global citizenship
    34. 34. Emerging themes… social media holiday promotion by mkhmarketing (CC)
    35. 35. Cloud-based tools tools Generic become pedagogical tools when wrapped around pedagogy and learning strategies
    36. 36. Any questions? Thanks to the National Research Foundation and the UWC Teaching and Learning Research Fund for funding this project http://emergingicts.blogspot.com/
    37. 37. References Bozalek, V., Ng’ambi, D. and Gachago, D. (in press) Transforming teaching with emerging technologies: Implications for Higher Education Institutions, South African Journal of Higher Education. Henschke, J. A. (2010). Bringing Together Personal Learning, Higher Education Institutions Elements, and Global Support for a ReOrientation towards a Focus on Lifelong Learning and Education. In Wang, V., (Ed.), Encyclopedia for Using Technology in Adult and Career Education. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. June, 2010. Herrington, J., Reeves, T. and Oliver, R. (2010) A Guide to Authentic e-Learning. New York & London: Routledge. Johnson, L., Adams, S., and Cummins, M. (2012). Technology Outlook for Australian Tertiary Education 2012- 2017: An NMC Horizon Report Regional Analysis. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., and Ludgate, H. (2013). NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Higher Education Edition Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. http://www.nmc.org/publications/ 2013-horizonreporthigher-ed(Accessed 23 February 2013). Ng’ambi, D., Bozalek, V. & Gachago, D. (in press). Empowering educators to teach using emerging technologies in higher education – A case of facilitating a course across institutional boundaries. Paper to be presented at the 8 th International Conference on eLearning ICEL 2013. Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., Fitzgerald, E., Hirst, T., Mor, Y., Gaved, M., Whitelock, D. 2012. Innovating pedagogy 2012: Exploring new forms of teaching, learning and assessment, to guide educators and policy makers. Open University Innovation Report 1. Milton Keynes:The Open University. Available at http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/innovating/ Veletsianos, G. 2010. A Definition of Emerging Technologies for Education. . In G. Veletsianos (ed.) Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. Theory and Practice. Edmonton: AU Press, pp1-22 Vygotsky, L. 1978. Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.