HIERARCHY OF SPACE ROADING HIERARCHY OPEN SPACE HIERARCHY
ROADING HIERARCHYSTRUCTURE:Good roading structure foran urban area is based onan interconnected series ofhierarchies.1. High Streets : the original radial routes into a city, linking subcentres and main shoppingstreets within each centre.It is usually a focal point forshops and retailers in citycentres, and is most oftenused in reference to retailing.
ROADING HIERARCHY2. Secondary Streets :provide the maincirculation routes withincommunities, rather thanbetween them. Theygenerally include a mixof uses, including localshopping and business,with the balance beingresidential.
ROADING HIERARCHY3. Residential (Tertiary) Streets :carry only a small amountof traffic and cater for fewpeople other than thosewho live or work there.These streets serve as afocus for local communities.They also need toaccommodate parked carsand community activity(such as children playing).These streets account for the majority of streets inan urban area.
ROADING HIERARCHY4. Lanes :these are roadways thatservice a group of houseswithin a block. Wherepossible these should havethe same qualities as anordinary street. Theyshould be overlooked, fronted onto andconnected at both ends.
PUBLIC OPEN SPACEPublic open spaceneeds to be accessibleto as much of the publicas possible. The size andscale will be relative toits location in the roadinghierarchy - major parksneed to be beside majorstreets, and residentialscale parks need to bebeside residentialstreets.
districts neighborhood These three are the fundamental organizing elements of new urbanism.corridors
NEIGHBORHOODSAre urbanized areas with a balanced mix of human activity.Generally defined spatially as a specific geographic area andfunctionally as a set of social networks.
DISTRICTSNEIGHBORHOODS Districts are areas dominated by a single activity.
CORRIDORS DISTRICTS Corridors are connectors and separators of neighborhoods and districts.
BLOCKSSTREETS The form of new urbanism is realized by the deliberate assembly of streets, blocks and buildings. BUILDINGS
STREETS DISTRICTS Streets are not the dividing lines within the city, but are to be communal rooms and passages.
BLOCKS Blocks are the fields on which unfolds both the building fabric and the plastic realm of the city.
BUILDINGS Buildings are the smallest increment, their proper configuration and placement relative to each other determines the character of each settlement.
Urban models • Concentratic Zone Theory • Sector Model • Multiple Nuclei Model • Urban RealmsTo describe the land use patterns in the traditional North American city.
Concentratic Zone Theory • Attributedto the research of E.W.Burgess • Derived frm a Central Business District at the Center, around which all other uses formed • Includes transition zone • Simplicity has stood test of time
Sector Model • Economist Homer Hoyt in 1939 • Uses grow with the CBD in specific directions • Most cities grow in the direction of the higher income
Multiple Nuclei Model • Geographers Chauncy Harris and Edward Pulliman • Alternative conceptualization of urban form • Recognizes that different activities have varying accessibility requirements.
Urban Realms • Sociologist James Vance • Under the observation of the three previous conceptualizations, rather than one exclusively • Emergence of large self- sufficient suburban sectors • Culmination of the impact of the automobile on the urban form • Best application was the Metropolitan Los Angeles, U.S.A