Town planning semester lec


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Town planning semester lec

  1. 1. Urban Planning lecture #1 By Ar.Yasir Hussain E mail
  2. 2. Spatial and Local Theories of urban Development • Introduction Spatial is relating to space Urbanization is the movement of population from rural to urban areas. In 1950 only 30% of the world’s population was urbanized and 50% in 2009 lived in urban centers. The big question is how do towns come about to be? • Theories explaining the emergence of towns Central place theory Examples. Polders of the Netherlands, the Fens of East Anglia in the UK Developed by the German geographer Walter Christaller in 1933. It explains the reasons behind the distribution patterns, size, and number of cities and towns. Tested in Southern Germany and came to the conclusion that people gather together in cities to share goods and ideas.
  3. 3. Central place theory. Assumptions • humans will always purchase goods from the closest place • homogeneous, limitless surface evenly distributed population • all settlements are equidistant and exist in a triangular lattice pattern evenly distributed resources
  4. 4. Concentric Zone model Also known as The Burgess Model, The Bulls Eye Model Developed in the 1920s by the urban sociologist Ernest Burgess. The model portrays how cities social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings. The size of the rings may vary, but the order always remains the same. • Concentric Zone model • Concentric Zone model1. Central Business District (CBD) - This area of the city is a non-residential area and it’s where businesses are. This area s called downtown ,a lot of sky scrapers houses government institutions, businesses, stadiums, and restaurants2. Zone of Transition- the zone of transition contains industry and has poorer-quality housing available. Created by subdividing larger houses into apartments • Concentric Zone model3. Zone of the working class- This area contains modest older houses occupied by stable, working class families. A large percentage of the people in this area rent. • 4. Zone of better residence- This zone contains newer and more spacious houses. Mostly families in the middle-class live in this zone. • 5.Commuter’s Zone/Suburbs- This area is located beyond the build-up area of the city. Mostly upper class residents live in this area.....Desktop Models Burgess circle model.htm
  5. 5. Sector model. • Chicago and Newcastle upon Tyne/Newcastle Developed in 1939 by land economist Homer Hoyt. It is a model of the internal structure of cities. Social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges radiating out from the central business district (CBD) and centered on major transportation lines lowincome households to be near railroad lines, and commercial establishments to be along business thoroughfares
  6. 6. • Stresses the importance of transportation corridors. Sees growth of various urban activities as expanding along roads, rivers, or train routes. Modeling Cities: Hoyt • Sector model. Short comings Applies well to some towns only Low cost housing is near industry and transportation proving Hoyt’s model Theory based on 20th century and does not take into account cars which make commerce easier With cars, people can live anywhere and further from the city
  7. 7. • Multiple Nuclei method The Multiple Nuclei Model is an ecological model created by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman in the 1945City grows from several independent points rather than from one central business district. As these expand, they merge to form a single urban area. Ports, universities, airports and parks also act as nodes Based on the idea that people have greater movement due to increased car ownership. • Multiple nuclei model The model has four geographic principles– Certain activities require highly specialised facilities• Accessible transportation for a factory • Large areas of open land for a housing tract– Certain activities cluster because they profit from mutual association– Certain activities repel each other and will not be found in the same area– Certain activities could not make a profit if they paid the high rent of the most desirable locations • Stresses the importance of multiple nodes of activity, not a single CBD. Ports, airports, universities attract certain uses while repelling