Shaping Phenomena

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Why it is important that people talk about what you make and how you can trigger these conversations.

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Shaping Phenomena

  1. 1. SHAPING  PHENOMENA   How  to  maximize  internaliza=on  &  externaliza=on   April  1,  2011  
  2. 2. A  phenomenon  is  any  observable  occurrence  (from  Greek:  phainómenon  “that  which  appears”).   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   2  /  58  
  3. 3. General  mo=ve   In  our  age  of  informa=on,  rhetoric  has  become  redundant  and  can  even  get  downright  offensive.   We  need  to  move  from  messaging  to  meaning.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   3  /  58  
  4. 4. We  are  not  passive  receivers  of  an  independent  reality.   To  be  able  to  make  sense  of  a  complex  world,  we  form  mental  construc=ons  as  representa=ons  of  reality.   Individually  and  in  groups…   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   4  /  58  
  5. 5. PHENOMENAL  REALITY     Social     Percep2on   construc2on   Internaliza2on  SOCIAL  REALITY   INDIVIDUAL  REALITY   Externaliza2on   -­‐  Ref:  Giep  Franzen  &  Marieke  van  den  Berg  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   5  /  58  
  6. 6. PHENOMENAL  REALITY     Social     Percep2on   construc2on   Internaliza*on  SOCIAL  REALITY   INDIVIDUAL  REALITY   Externaliza2on   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   6  /  58  
  7. 7. Our  view  of  the  world  is  a  social  construc=on.  We  adopt  customs  and  beliefs  from  our  social  environment.   Through  internaliza=on  this  becomes  an  individual  reality.   Internaliza=on  is  the  process  of  acceptance  of  a  set  of  norms     established  by  people  or  groups  influen=al  to  the  individual.     SHAPING  PHENOMENA   7  /  58  
  8. 8. PHENOMENAL  REALITY     Social     Percep2on   construc2on   Internaliza2on  SOCIAL  REALITY   INDIVIDUAL  REALITY   Externaliza*on   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   8  /  58  
  9. 9. The  processes  of  percep=on  rou=nely  alter  what  we  see.       We  constantly  expose  our  individual  reality.  Through  externaliza=on  we  match  it  with  our  social  environment.   Externaliza=on  is  an  unconscious  defense  mechanism   where  an  individual  projects  his  own  internal  characteris=cs     onto  the  outside  world,  par=cularly  onto  other  people.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   9  /  58  
  10. 10. Why  are  these  processes  so  important?     SHAPING  PHENOMENA   10  /  58  
  11. 11. Internaliza=on  creates  trust   Degree  of  trust  in  different  forms  of  adver=sing   -­‐  The  Nielsen  Company  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   11  /  58  
  12. 12. Externaliza=on  creates  reach   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   12  /  58  
  13. 13. How  to  maximize  internaliza=on  &  externaliza=on?     SHAPING  PHENOMENA   13  /  58  
  14. 14. PHENOMENAL  REALITY     Social     Percep2on   construc2on   Internaliza*on  SOCIAL  REALITY   INDIVIDUAL  REALITY   Externaliza2on   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   14  /  58  
  15. 15. i1.  CREATION   The  act  of  making,  inven=ng  or  producing.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   15  /  58  
  16. 16. Create  something  never  seen  before.   Embrace  new  technologies.  Create  newness  by  mashing  up  culture.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   16  /  58  
  17. 17. A  culture  of  mul=tasking,  on-­‐the-­‐go  consump=on                   and  24/7  connec=vity,  requires  designs  for       con=nuous  development  and  change.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   17  /  58  
  18. 18. Don’t  talk  about  it,  do  it  Help  customers       Stop  selling  your   Fund  sustainability  ideas  drive  efficiently     product  for  a  day   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   18  /  58  
  19. 19. Stop  communica=ng  products,  start  making  communica=on  products.   -­‐  Gareth  Kay  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   19  /  58  
  20. 20. Conclusion  Maximize  internaliza=on  by  crea=ng                                new  tangible  projects  and  products.     SHAPING  PHENOMENA   20  /  58  
  21. 21. i2.  SIGNIFICATION   The  act  or  process  of  giving  meaning  by  using  signs.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   21  /  58  
  22. 22. A  sign  is  an  observable  unit  of  meaning  that   refers  to  an  absent  object.     SHAPING  PHENOMENA   22  /  58  
  23. 23. Rela%on  between  sign  &  absent  object  Iconic   Rela=on  based  on  resemblance   Photos,  typography,                                                 pictograms  Indexical   Rela=on  based  on  experience   Indica=ons,  names,   symptoms  Symbolic   Rela=on  based  on  agreement   Words,  badges,  logos   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   23  /  58  
  24. 24. A  sign  acquires  meaning  in  3  stages:   Firstness  is  how  the  image  itself  is  perceived  (affec=on).     Meaning  can  s=ll  develop  in  any  direc=on.    Secondness  is  no  longer  about  affec=on,  but  understanding  of   the  context  of  the  image.  Meanings  are  not  yet  fixed.     In  Thirdness  the  meanings  of  signs  are  no  longer  emerging.         -­‐  Charles  Sanders  Peirce  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   24  /  58  
  25. 25. Firstness   Secondness  Thirdness   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   25  /  58  
  26. 26. Conclusion   Maximize  internaliza=on  by  using  signs,                      but  allow  people  to  assign  their  own  meaning.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   26  /  58  
  27. 27. i3.  NARRATION   The  telling  of  a  story  or  of  happenings.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   27  /  58  
  28. 28. Narra=ve  organizes  not  just  memory,                                but  the  whole  of  human  experience.                                           Narra=ve  is  an  instrument  of  mind                                      that  constructs  our  no=on  of  reality.     -­‐  Jerome  Bruner  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   28  /  58  
  29. 29. Narra%ve  structures  Linear   Story  wrioen  in  the  same  =me  order  as  it   took  place.  Mul%-­‐narra%ve   Two  or  more  stories  run  alongside  each  other;   either  mul=ple  people  telling  the  same  story   or  mul=ple  different  stories  that  alternate.  Reversed   Story  moves  back  in  =me  or  heavily  consists   of  ambiguous  flashbacks  and/or  flash   forwards.  Fragmented   Story  is  all  over  the  place  and  the  audience   has  to  figure  out  what  happened  and  in  what   order.  Metafic%on   Story  within  a  story;  a  type  of  fic=on  that  self-­‐ consciously  addresses  the  devices  of  fic=on,   exposing  the  fic=onal  illusion.  Rhizome   Same  story  told  mul=ple  =mes  with  different   twists  and  endings.  Game   Audience  is  part  of  the  story  and  has  direct   influence  on  it;  the  story  unfolds  as  they  go   along.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   29  /  58  
  30. 30. Marke=ng  typically  follows  the  Hollywood  structure,     aiming  at  comprehension.   While  it  should  adopt  other  structures  to  become     more  interes=ng.   Nobody  comes  out  of  a  movie,  saying     “That  was  a  really  good  movie.  I  really  enjoyed  it.     It  was  really  clear”.   -­‐  Russell  Davies  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   30  /  58  
  31. 31. Conclusion  Maximize  internaliza=on  by  adop=ng                           non-­‐linear  narra=ve  structures.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   31  /  58  
  32. 32. i4.  DIFFERENTIATION   The  act  of  dis=nguishing  by  giving  specific  difference.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   32  /  58  
  33. 33. Different  aspects  or  quan==es  of  knowledge,  possessions  or  culture  can  define  our  status  and   rela=ve  grouping.     -­‐  Jean  Baudrillard  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   33  /  58  
  34. 34. Two  Step  Flow  model   -­‐  Katz  &  Lazarsfeld,  1955  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   34  /  58  
  35. 35. People  tend  to  have  different  roles  within  different                                 social  environments.    In  a  media-­‐fragmented  world  influencer  roles  become   increasingly  important.     Meanwhile  it  takes  more  effort  to  reach  them.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   35  /  58  
  36. 36. Conclusion   Maximize  internaliza=on  by  dis=nguishing  between  and  adap=ng  to  different  social  roles.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   36  /  58  
  37. 37. PHENOMENAL  REALITY     Social     Percep2on   construc2on   CREATION   SIGNIFICATION   NARRATION   DIFFERENTIATION   Internaliza2on  SOCIAL  REALITY   INDIVIDUAL  REALITY   Externaliza*on   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   37  /  58  
  38. 38. e5.  SENSATION  A  percep=on  associated  with  s=mula=on  of  a  sense  organ.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   38  /  58  
  39. 39. Through  the  senses  we  experience    reality  and  create  memories.   -­‐  Kevin  Roberts  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   39  /  58  
  40. 40. SHAPING  PHENOMENA   40  /  58  
  41. 41. The  screen  has  replaced  the  scene.  The  virtual  can  be  seen  as  a  new  dimension  of   hyperreality;  a  perfect  copy  of  reality.     -­‐  Jean  Baudrillard  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   41  /  58  
  42. 42. Mobility   Richness  Max.  1”   Max.  15”   Max.  5”   Max.  120”   Max.  5”   Evenings   Weekdays   Evenings  All  day   Business  hours   weekends   9  to  5   weekends  On-­‐the-­‐go   On  the  couch   In  the  office   On  the  couch   In  store  Interac=ve   Interac=ve   Interac=ve   Linear   Interac=ve  Touch   Touch   Keyboard   Remote  control   Touch  Call,  SMS,     Apps,  sites,   Websites,   Shows,  series,  Apps,  LBS,   magazines,     documents,   Shopping  info   movies  NFC,  music     video,  books   video,  music   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   42  /  58  
  43. 43. Conclusion  Maximize  externaliza=on  by  designing  for   op=mal  sensory  s=mula=on.     SHAPING  PHENOMENA   43  /  58  
  44. 44. e6.  PARTICIPATION   The  act  of  sharing  in  the  ac=vi=es  of  a  group.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   44  /  58  
  45. 45. Tell  me,  and  I  forget  it,   Show  me,  and  I  remember,  Let  me  do  it,  and  I  understand.   -­‐  Confucius  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   45  /  58  
  46. 46. People  need  mo=va=on  to  get  involved.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   46  /  58  
  47. 47. Mo=va=on   Emo%onal   Altruism   Spectrum   Experience   Entertainment   Assembly   Self-­‐expression   Connec=on   Me   We   Informa=on   Compe==on   Convenience   Reference   Economic  value   Collabora=on   Ra%onal  Note:  Model  developed  by  David  Feenstra,  2010   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   47  /  58  
  48. 48. Conclusion  Maximize  externaliza=on  by  triggering  emo=onal  and/or  ra=onal  mo=va=ons.     SHAPING  PHENOMENA   48  /  58  
  49. 49. e7.  INTERPRETATION   A  personal  mental  representa=on  of  the  meaning  of  an  observa=on.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   49  /  58  
  50. 50. Ambiguity  allows  for  mul=ple  interpreta=ons.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   50  /  58  
  51. 51. SHAPING  PHENOMENA   51  /  58  
  52. 52. Aesthe=c  judgment  is  realized  through  spontaneous  synchroniza=on           of  imagina=on  and  mental  capacity.   When  there’s  harmony  we  judge  the  phenomenon  as  being  beau=ful.  When  there’s  disharmony  we  judge  the  phenomenon  as  being  sublime.   -­‐  Immanuel  Kant  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   52  /  58  
  53. 53. -­‐  Self-­‐portrait  by  Rembrandt  van  Rijn  -­‐   -­‐  Self-­‐portrait  by  Francis  Bacon  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   53  /  58  
  54. 54. Eide=c  features  are  the  features  that  cannot  be  changed  without   affec=ng  the  true  essence  of  a  phenomenon.  Eide=c  reduc=on  is  a  form  of  imagina=ve  varia=on  in  which  features  such  as  form,  size  and  characteris=cs  are  changed  in  the  imagina=on         to  find  the  eide=c  features  of  a  phenomenon.   -­‐  Edmund  Husserl  -­‐   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   54  /  58  
  55. 55.  Eide=c  features  of  the  Common  brand  are:   a  product/service  with  a  sustainable  nature,    a  concept  selected  by  the  Common  community,     and  the  brand  name.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   55  /  58  
  56. 56. Conclusion  Maximize  externaliza=on  by  nurturing  different  individual  interpreta=ons,  while  staying  true  to   the  essence  of  the  phenomenon.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   56  /  58  
  57. 57. PHENOMENAL  REALITY     Social     Percep2on   construc2on   CREATION   SIGNIFICATION   NARRATION   DIFFERENTIATION   Internaliza2on  SOCIAL  REALITY   INDIVIDUAL  REALITY   Externaliza2on   SENSATION   PARTICIPATION   INTERPRETATION   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   57  /  58  
  58. 58. How  to  maximize  internaliza=on  &  externaliza=on  1.  CREATION  –    Create  new  tangible  projects  and  products.  2.  SIGNIFICATION  –  Use  signs,  but  let  people  assign  their  own  meaning.  3.  NARRATION  –  Adopt  non-­‐linear  narra=ve  structures.  4.  DIFFERENTIATION  –  Dis=nguish  between  different  social  roles.  5.  SENSATION  –  Design  for  op=mal  sensory  s=mula=on.  6.  PARTICIPATION  –  Trigger  emo=onal  and/or  ra=onal  mo=va=ons.  7.  INTERPRETATION  –  Encourage  different  individual  interpreta=ons.   SHAPING  PHENOMENA   58  /  58  
  59. 59. CASES  
  60. 60. DAVID  LYNCH  1.  CREATION  –  original  outstanding  crea=ve  expressions    2.  SIGNIFICATION  –  use  of  ambiguous  signs  throughout  the  story  3.  NARRATION  –  narra=ve  con=nuously  shirs  in  meaning    4.  DIFFERENTIATION  –  not  relevant  5.  SENSATION  –  disturbing  visuals  and  sounds  with  enormous  impact      6.  PARTICIPATION  –  not  possible  7.  INTERPRETATION  –  designed  to  constantly  throw  the  viewer  off  
  61. 61. BANKSY  1.  CREATION  –  signature  street  art  full  of  mischief  and  mystery  2.  SIGNIFICATION  –  representa=ons  of  popular  culture  3.  NARRATION  –  ever-­‐changing  narra=ves  to  trigger  specula=on    4.  DIFFERENTIATION  –  not  relevant  5.  SENSATION  –  object  and  context  designed  to  create  shock  effect  6.  PARTICIPATION  –  not  possible  7.  INTERPRETATION  –  no  consensus  on  iden=ty,  mo=ve  &  meaning    
  62. 62. MANIFESTO  OBEY  Giant  is  an  experiment  in  phenomenology.  Phenomenology  aoempts  to  enable  people  to  see  clearly  something  that  is  right  before  their  eyes  but  obscured;  things  that  are  so  taken  for  granted  that  they  are  muted  by  abstract  observa=on.  The  first  aim  is  to  reawaken  a  sense  of  wonder  about  one’s  environment.    
  63. 63. SHEPARD  FAIREY  1.  CREATION  –  image  stays  the  same,  context  is  ever-­‐changing  2.  SIGNIFICATION  –  sign  &  context  re-­‐awaken  a  sense  of  wonder  3.  NARRATION  –  narra=ve  emerges  throughout  the  experiment  4.  DIFFERENTIATION  –  project  ini=ally  aimed  at  influencers  5.  SENSATION  –  discomfor=ng  visual  expression      6.  PARTICIPATION  –  community  is  encouraged  &  enabled  to  join  7.  INTERPRETATION  –  open  experiment  without  fixed  meaning    
  64. 64. Arer  turning  the  design  of  the  boole  into  a  popular  icon,       Absolut  transported  this  concept  to  the  virtual  world…  
  65. 65. …and  quickly  realized  it  would  not  be  sufficient.   Absolut  needed  to  adapt  to  a  changing  world.  So  they  decided  to  design  ever-­‐changing  narra=ves     under  the  eide=c  theme  In  An  Absolut  World.   2  expressions…  
  66. 66. ABSOLUT  1.  CREATION  –  installa=ons,  projects,  products  and  pieces  of  art  2.  SIGNIFICATION  –  the  Absolut  boole  turned  into  an  icon  3.  NARRATION  –  the  brand  as  a  crossroads  of  different  narra=ves  4.  DIFFERENTIATION  –  collabora=ons  with  high  profile  influencers    5.  SENSATION  –  s=mula=on  of  sound,  sight  and  taste        6.  PARTICIPATION  –  In  An  Absolut  World  consumers  are  co-­‐creators  7.  INTERPRETATION  –  no  fixed  meaning  (in  some  cases)    
  67. 67. THANKS!   David  Feenstra   Strategic  Planner  hop://denieuwejuniorstrateeg.web-­‐log.nl  

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