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Leroy abrams 2017


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Slides from talk featuring Leroy Abrams, important California botanist. Part of the 'Out of the Wilds and into your Garden' series.

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Leroy abrams 2017

  1. 1. © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2017 (our 13th year)
  2. 2. © Project SOUND Leroy Abrams and his Los Angeles flora: unique L.A. County plants for the small garden C.M. Vadheim, K. Dawdy (and T. Drake) CSUDH (emeritus), CSUDH & City of Torrance Madrona Marsh Preserve December 2 & 7, 2017
  3. 3. 2017 Season – Small is Beautiful: Native Habitats in Smaller Gardens © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Last month we turned again to the backyard © Project SOUND ? Semi-formal beds  Better fit for space  Adds symmetry  Contemporary feel  Consistent with Mediterranean theme butterflies/pollinators
  5. 5. This month we’ll meet Leroy Abrams and complete the garden with some plants special to him © Project SOUND
  6. 6. LeRoy Abrams (1874-1956)  Born on October 1, 1874 in Sheffield, Iowa, United States.  Small farming community  Became a town in 1874  Son of James DeWitt and Almina Barbara (Shoudy) Abrams  James Dewitt Abrams (1835- 1920)  Civil War veteran  Buried in Inglewood Park Cemetery © Project SOUND ecosystem/
  7. 7. Like many other important California plantspersons, Leroy Abrams moved to California at an impressionable age  Not much known about his childhood  Supposedly lived in San Diego Co.  Where ever the family lived:  It was relatively easy to ‘get out in nature’  Early botanists were out collecting and documenting the flora: 1880’s and 1890’s were busy period  The flora of lowland California was rapidly disappearing © Project SOUND Heyday/ indians-versus-homesteaders-1880s-san-diego-county/
  8. 8. Important CA plantspersons we have ‘met’ © Project SOUND Kate Sessions (1857-1940) Blanche Trask (1865-1916) Lester Rountree (1879 -1979) Theodore Payne (1872-1963) Alice Eastwood (1859-1951) Leroy Abrams (1874-1956)
  9. 9. USC student for one year: 1895-96  USC est. 1880  ~ 500 students in 1895  There was already a Medical School & school newspaper  School of Law opened © Project SOUND ng_LA_Page_1.html
  10. 10. © Project SOUND LeRoy Abrams took an early interest in collecting butterflies and plants in Los Angeles and southern California.
  11. 11. Transferred to Stanford University in 1896  Stanford U – est. 1891  1896-1899: Bachelor of Arts, Botany, 1899  1900-1904: A.M. (Master’s degree, Botany), 1904. © Project SOUND
  12. 12. The late 19th Century: interesting time in botany  Development of better equipment & techniques – more detailed studies of plant anatomy and physiology (more lab based)  Studies in developmental botany  Increased exploration & collecting worldwide demonstrated plant diversity  Charles Darwin and the theory of evolution  Interest in the environmental factors that shaped plant adaptations & form – the beginnings of plant ecology © Project SOUND The life sciences were becoming more ‘scientific’ and professionalized 457/?lp=true
  13. 13. Plants were considered the perfect organisms to study the basic processes of life… © Project SOUND
  14. 14. …and we’re returning to that point of view in 2017 © Project SOUND Herbarium specimens have much to still teach us about evolution, ecology and climate change. Plant chemicals & materials are revolutionizing materials science and chemistry.
  15. 15. © Project SOUND The great centers of botanic learning were still in Europe – particularly England and Germany…
  16. 16. …although American institutions were beginning to catch up © Project SOUND Gray herbarium, Harvard
  17. 17. 1880-1920: Rebellion of Western botanists  Dependence riled some active collectors – why should Easterners get all the credit?  Some of the better Western taxonomists didn’t believe that the Easterner’s understood Western plants  Some felt that seeing plants in the field was key to their taxonomy  Some (not the Stanford faculty) also disagreed with the evolutionary outlook of the Easterners © Project SOUND 1896 was an interesting time to be a student of botany
  18. 18. In 1896 the Stanford botany department had three faculty  Douglas Houghton Campbell, trained in the “new botany,” studied spore reproducing plants (fungi, mosses, ferns and algae);  William Russel Dudley, who wanted to further the classical systematic studies of the largely undescribed California flora;  George James Peirce, who was the plant physiologist (again, “new botany”).  The department was divided in two separate divisions: general, under Campbell, and systematic and ecological, under Dudley. For a short while there were even two departments. © Project SOUND Douglas Houghton Campbell (1859-1953)
  19. 19. William Russel Dudley – 1849-1911  University-trained classical taxonomist: earned his bachelor's (1874) and master's (1876) degrees in botany at Cornell University;  Paid his way through university by milking the university cows  After graduation he pursued botanical study in Strassburg and Berlin.  Taught at Cornell and Indiana University before joining Stanford faculty in 1892. © Project SOUND The genus Dudleya was named in his honor
  20. 20. William Russel Dudley – 1849-1911  Interest in taxonomy, evolution and geographic ranges of plants  His research & publications changed when he came to Stanford: focused on California flora (the woody trees and particularly the evergreens became his specialty)  At Stanford, Dudley worked to collect the diverse, unique and still relatively undocumented flora of California  He was also a conservationist: instrumental in the establishment of the Big Basin Redwoods State Park. © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Stanford’s Dudley Herbarium  Begun 1891 - Douglas H. Campbell  Greatly expanded by William Russell Dudley  His collections, including those brought from Cornell  Collections of students, including Leroy Abrams, whom he mentored  A set of duplicates acquired from the herbarium of William Harvey (focusing on Australia, the Cape region of South Africa, and cultivated material from European botanical gardens dating to 1758) © Project SOUND
  22. 22. The Dudley Herbarium, Stanford  Staff included some of the greats of CA botany: Dr. LeRoy Abrams, Ms. Roxana S. Ferris, Dr. Ira L. Wiggins, and Dr. John Hunter Thomas.  1976 – long-term loan of 850,000- specimen Dudley Herbarium to CA Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Like Alice Eastwood, Dudley collected  Every weekend and all the spring and summer breaks he spent botanizing; weekends were usually devoted to the local Santa Cruz Mountains, springs to southern California, and summers to the Sierra Nevada.  He roamed the hills with pack and saddlehorses, occasionally horse and wagon. When possible, he made use of the Stanford connection with the railways. © Project SOUND Dudley’s students joined him in his collecting forays. Many – including Leroy Abrams – were strongly influenced by these experiences.
  24. 24. As Leroy Abram’s graduate mentor, Dudley steered Abrams to study the flora of S. California  Abrams already knew the area and had botanized there.  There were still many areas that had not been thoroughly studied  Development of a flora of the Los Angeles region would be a real addition to the botany of California (and to the Stanford [Dudley] herbarium)  Abrams devoted 5 years to the project (1899-1904) © Project SOUND
  25. 25. And that wasn’t all Abrams was doing from 1899-1904  Acting professor botany, University of Idaho, 1899-1900.  Assistant in botany, Stanford, 1900-1902  Instructor in botany, Stanford, 1902-1904. © Project SOUND The life of a grad student wasn’t easy (then or now)
  26. 26. What is a ‘Flora’ (‘Floral Survey)?  A treatise or list of [all] of the plants in a defined geographic area, habitat or geologic period.  May include plants collected by the author, as well as those previously collected by others  To be useful, the flora:  Should be published (and therefore accessible)  Organized in a systematic way  Requires good knowledge of the plants and lots of painstaking work © Project SOUND
  27. 27.  “He crisscrossed southern California on mule or burro, in a wagon, or on foot, from Santa Barbara to Yuma, from Needles to San Diego, the Salton Sea to the mountain tops of San Gorgonio, San Antonio, San Jacinto and Pinos, collecting sets of ten to earn money.” © Project SOUND THE FASCINATING HISTORY OF THE EARLY BOTANICAL EXPLORATION AND INVESTIGATIONS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA – Mildred Mathias
  28. 28. © Project SOUND Mt. Lowe Railway - 1893 Access to San Gabriels began in the 1890’s
  29. 29. © Project SOUND Mrs. A. B. Herr at summit 1890 california/?lp=true Hiking up Mt. Lowe in 1902
  30. 30. © Project SOUND Hunting party on Mt. Baldy (San Antonio Peak) - 1890 pg Pomona College student camping trip, Mt. Baldy, 1903
  31. 31. Not all the places he collected were remote © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Where did Leroy Abrams collect? © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Public transportation was well-developed by the early 1900’s © Project SOUND 06_map_of_the_city_s_streetcar_system.html Port_of_Los_Angeles,_ca.1900_(CHS-842).jpg
  34. 34. © Project SOUND electric/?lp=true The Pacific Electric Red Car Lines – early 1900’s Red cars at Redondo Beach id=563
  35. 35. © Project SOUND Abrams published lists of new species before his thesis was completed
  36. 36. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY, I by Le Roy Abrams, Stanford University Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin Volume 1, Number 7, Pages 87-89. 1902 1. Pinus murrayana [= Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana]. San Antonio Mountain. 2. Sitanion rigidum [= Elymus elymoides]. Summit of Mt. San Antonio. 3. Bromus carinatus californicus [= Bromus carinatus carinatus]. Fruitland, along irr. ditches. 4. Lepturus cylindricus [= Hainardia cylindrica ]. Mesmer. 5. Melica imperfecta minor [= Melica imperfecta]. Canyon near Chatsworth Park. 6. Phalaris lemmoni. Inglewood. 7. Agropyron parishii laeve [ = Elymus trachycaulus ssp. subsecundus ]. Ballona Creek, near Mesmer. 8. Alopecurus geniculatus. Not typical 9. Quercus lobata. There are some excellent trees of this species at Chatsworth Park. 10. Quercus wislizeni. 11. Castanopsis sempervirens [Chrysolepis sempervirens] San Antonio & San Gorgonio., > 8000 ft. 12. Eschscholtzia californica. Sierra Madre; Chatsworth Park. - Perennial. 13. Eschscholtzia peninsularis [Eschscholzia californica] . The common species. - Annual. 14. Eschscholtzia hypecoides. Saddle Peak. 15. Lepidium lasiocarpum. Sand Dunes, Ballona Harbor. Related to L. oxycarpum T. and G. © Project SOUND
  37. 37. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY, I 16. Arabis virginica [= Planodes virginicum] . Inglewood. 17. Heuchera elegans [= Heuchera caespitosa] Wilson's Peak; Mt. Lowe. 18. Heuchera rubescens. Mt. San Antonio . 19. Ribes cereum. Mt. San Antonio; Mt. Pinos. 20. Ribes malvaceum var. viridifolium Abrams. San Gabriel Mts. above 3000 ft.; Santa Monica Mts. 21. Horkelia platycalyx. Indian Hill, Claremont. 22. Horkelia sericea [= Horkelia cuneata var. sericea]. Ballona Harbor, edges of sand dunes. 23. Cercocarpus ledifolius. Mt. San Antonio, 9000 ft. alt. 24. Lupinus gracilis [= Lupinus perennis subsp. gracilis]. San Fernando Mountain. 25. Astragalus parishii [= Astragalus douglasii var. parishii]. Chatsworth Park. © Project SOUND
  38. 38. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY, II By LeRoy Abrams, Stanford University Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin (1903) Volume 2, Number 1, Pages 157-158 1. Rumex pulcher. Inglewood about the station. [not native] 2. Malva pusilla. Ballona creek near Mesmer. [non-native Cheeseweed] 3. Chimaphila menziesii. Summit of Mt. Wilson under pines. 4. Cuscuta salina. Ballona Marshes growing on various marsh plants. 5. Allocarya trachycarpa [= Plagiobothrys trachycarpus]. In moist ground near Inglewood. 6. Cryptantha barbigera. Santa Monica Mts. on the north slope near Cahuenga Pass. 7. Cryptantha flaccida. Chatsworth Park on grassy hillsides. 8. Cryptantha leiocarpa. Sand dunes along the seashore between Redondo and Port Ballona. 9. Quercus muriculata. [?] Mt. Wilson ranging from 3500 ft. to the summit. 10. Eremocarya lepida. [Cryptantha micrantha var. lepida] Summit of Mt. Wilson. © Project SOUND
  39. 39. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY, II 11. Amsinckia lycopsoides. This plant is not infrequent along the coast usually along the sand dunes. 12. Amsinckia intermedia. The common species around Los Angeles.... 13. Linanthus ciliatus [= Leptosiphon ciliatus]. Summit of Mt. Wilson. 14. Nicotiana clevelandii. Frequent on the sand dunes between Port Ballona and Redondo. 15. Orthocarpus densiflorus [= Castilleja densiflora ssp. densiflora]. Collected near Los Angeles by Louis Greata in April, 1899. 16. Plantago bigelovii [= Plantago elongata]. In moist ground near Inglewood. 17. Grindelia camporum. Wiseburn. 18. Blepharipappus elegans [= Layia elegans ? = Layia platyglossa]. Tijunga. © Project SOUND
  40. 40. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY, II 19. Baeria hispidus [? = Lasthenia californica]. Arroyo Seco and La Canada. 20. Baeria chrysostoma [= Lasthenia californica ssp. californica]. Port Ballona and n. slope of the Santa Monica Mts. 21. Baeria mutica [? = Lasthenia californica]. Edges of sand dunes near Port Ballona. 22. Ambylopappus pusillus. On cliffs overhanging the sea, Port L.A.; between Port Ballona & Redondo. 23. Ptiloria pleurocarpa [= Stephanomeria virgata ssp. pleurocarpa]. Common about Pomona. © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity  Published 1904; Stanford U. Press  Leroy Abrams was 30 years old © Project SOUND
  42. 42. FLORA OF LOS ANGELES AND VICINITY - 1904 (First Edition) ; 1911 (Second Edition) ; 1917 (Third Edition)  1904 PREFACE  ‘As a student of the flora of southern California, the author has long felt the need of some one book containing descriptions of those plants known to occur in our region. While it is essential that one doing critical work should laboriously search through scattered literature, the average student, and especialy the novice, will find such a course impossible. In an endeavor to supply this need, the author has written this book. Not that he feels that the flora is so well known that such a work will prove adequate for years to come, but rather to bring together what knowledge now exists concerning the systematic side of our most interesting plant life. That many mistakes must unavoidably occur, and that many plants are yet to be added, is clearly apprehended. ‘ © Project SOUND
  43. 43.  ‘The exact area included in this volume is the coast slope of Los Angeles and Orange Counties. This territory comprises a large portion of the great southern California valley, as well as the following mountain ranges, in each of which we name the culminating point: Sierra Santa Monica (Castro Peak 3946 ft.), Sierra San Fernando (San Fernando Peak 3793 ft.), Sierra San Gabriel (Mt. Gleason 6493 ft., San Gabriel Peak 6172 ft., Mt. San Antonio 10800 ft.), Sierra Santa Ana (Santiago Peak 5675 ft.).  Not a few of the more conspicuous and common plants of southern California not known to occur within our boundaries are included, however, so that the student will find that a great majority of the plants to be met with on the coast slope of Point Conception are described.’ © Project SOUND FLORA OF LOS ANGELES AND VICINITY
  44. 44.  ‘In the preparation of the text the author has made frequent use of published descriptions, especially original ones, only such changes being made as seemed necessary either on account of uniformity or to bring out unobserved characters.’ © Project SOUND Flora Of Los Angeles And Vicinity
  45. 45. Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity  ‘Published lists of our local flora have also been constantly consulted, but it is only justice to the author to say that he has personally collected nearly all the plants included in this work and has added many species not heretofore reported from our region.  Duplicates of these specimens, as well as many others from southern California, are to be found in the Leland Stanford Jr. University Herbarium.’ © Project SOUND 9727537_web.jpg Cryptantha abramsii
  46. 46.  ‘The author wishes to express his thanks to the following persons for assistance in various ways: Mr. S. B. Parish, Dr. A. Davidson, and Dr. H. E. Hasse for valuable notes; Miss Alice Eastwood for the privilege of examining the material in the California Academy of Sciences Herbarium; Dr. N. L. Britton, Dr. B. L. Robinson, Dr. E. L. Greene, Dr. P. A. Rydberg and Dr. J. K. Small for notes on doubtful forms; finally to Prof. William R. Dudley, who has not only given many critical notes and valuable suggestions which have aided greatly toward the completion of the work, but has also shown many personal favors which have rendered the task a pleasant one to the author.’ © Project SOUND FLORA OF LOS ANGELES AND VICINITY
  47. 47. Why are Abrams early works so important to S. California restorationists?  They covered some ecologic regions of interest to us: ones that had not previously been well-studied  Ballona  The coast from Playa del Rey to Redondo Beach  San Pedro/PV  The Centinella Valley & Westwood  The L.A. River and its tributaries  The San Gabriels  They added to our knowledge of the plant species of S. California © Project SOUND ank_of_Los_Angeles_River,_north_side_of_Griffith_Park,_ca.1900_(CHS-2008).jpg
  48. 48. Why are Abrams early works important for S. California gardeners?  They included both the showy and the pedestrian: grasses, smaller herbs, ‘weeds’  They help choose plants that are adapted to our local conditions  They are important for choosing plants that give us a sense of place – a link to the past biodiversity © Project SOUND Cryptantha abramsii I. M. Johnston USA: California San Pedro Hills, near Malaga Cove L. Abrams 3139 1903-3-14
  49. 49. Unfortunately, many of the plants discovered or included by Abrams are not available to the home gardener © Project SOUND
  50. 50. But a number of common ones are  Bromus carinatus Hooker & Arnott USA: California Inglewood L. Abrams 2485 1902-5-31  Calochortus catalinae S. Watson USA: California San Pedro hills L. Abrams 3143 1903-3-14  Distichlis spicata stricta (Torrey) Thorne USA: California Los Angeles County, Playa del Rey L. Abrams 2499 1902-6-9  Elymus triticoides Buckley USA: California Ballona creek, near Mesmer L. Abrams 2522 1902-6-12  Isomeris arborea Nuttall ex Torrey & A. Gray USA: California Playa del Rey L. Abrams 2509 1902-6-10  Keckiella cordifolia (Bentham) Straw USA: California Sepulveda canyon. Santa Monica mountains L. Abrams 2545 1902-6-15  Opuntia littoralis (Engelmann) Cockerell USA: California Playa del Rey L. Abrams 2515 1902-6-9 © Project SOUND
  51. 51. More garden plants collected by Abrams  Poa secunda J. Presl USA: California near Inglewood L. Abrams 3105 1903-3-8  Ceanothus spinosus Nuttall USA: California Santa Monica Mts. L. Abrams 1252 1901-4-3  Galium angustifolium Nuttall ex A. Gray USA: California Summit of Mt. Wilson L. Abrams 2603 1902-6-30  Salix laevigata Bebb USA: California Los Angeles river, near Rivera L. Abrams 3253 1903-4-14  Sambucus nigra cerulea (Rafinesque) Bolli USA: California Sepulveda canyon, Santa Monica mountains L. Abrams 2538 1902-6-15  Symphoricarpos mollis Nuttall ex Torrey & A. Gray USA: California Sepulveda canyon, Santa Monica mountains L. Abrams 2552 1902-6-15 © Project SOUND
  52. 52. © Project SOUND Dunn’s Lobelia – Lobelia dunnii var. serrata © 1999 John Game
  53. 53. © Project SOUND Dunn’s Lobelia – Lobelia dunnii var. serrata  CA endemic; also in N. Baja  Found in Coastal and Transverse ranges; locally grow in Santa Monica and San Gabriel Mountains  Moist canyons, mossy seeps, cliffs and rocky stream banks below 4500 ft, coastal sage scrub, chaparral  Described by Leroy Abrams, 1900, San Gabriel River Canyon, San Gabriel Mountains ©1999 John Game
  54. 54. © Project SOUND Characteristics of Dunn’s (Blue) Lobelia  Size:  to 1 ft tall  2+ ft wide; spreading  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Winter dormant; usually dies back entirely, and emerging leaves look very different from mature ones  Stems semi-woody; reclining  Foliage:  Light green  Small leaves; narrow, lance-like with slightly serrated edges
  55. 55. © Project SOUND Flowers are fantastic  Blooms: summer; usually July-Aug. in S. Bay; may last into Sept.  Flowers:  Lobelia-shaped  Bright blue to lavender-blue  1 inch size  On upright spike; open sequentially  Long-blooming – at least 1 month with some water  Seeds: many little seeds; self-sows if happy  Vegetative reproduction: can be divided; will increase in size each year
  56. 56. © Project SOUND Dunn’s Lobelia  In the butterfly garden – nectar irresistible for many butterflies  Nice for bog garden, pond edge, seep garden - even in shallow water. Lovely with Juncus, Mimulus, Goldenrods  Late season color for hanging baskets, patio pots, window boxes, planters  Shady-moist ground cover; fine textured Lobelia)?srchcr=sc5708f235eb80f ceae/lobelia/lobelia-dunnii/
  57. 57. © Project SOUND Dunn’s lobelia would be happy here
  58. 58. Possibly in our mixture of perennials © Project SOUND
  59. 59. © Project SOUND * Tufted alumroot – Heuchera caespitosa
  60. 60. * Tufted alumroot – Heuchera caespitosa © Project SOUND  Western Transverse Ranges in Kern, San Bernardino, Tulare, and Ventura counties, and in the Outer South Coast Ranges, southern Sierra Nevada foothills, and southern Sierra Nevada  Rocky areas, 4500'-8000', San Gabriel Mts  Red Fir Forest, Yellow Pine Forest Leroy Abrams discovered this Heuchera in the San Gabriel Mtns. He named it Heuchera elegans; it’s still sometimes known by this name
  61. 61. © Project SOUND Tufted alumroot: a smaller, mountain form  Size:  < 1 ft tall  < 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Low-growing evergreen perennial; diminutive  Extends via rhizomes; mat- forming with age  Foliage:  Medium to darker green  Leaves rounded, geranium-like  Shorter petioles  Roots: not too deep; doesn’t need much soil The mountain native tend to be very cold-resistant. But many of them still do well in our lowland gardens
  62. 62. © Project SOUND Plant of rocky slopes  Soils:  Texture: well-drained, rocky best  pH: any local  Light: part-shade to shady in western L.A. county.  Water:  Winter: needs plenty  Summer: twice a month to regular  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; fertilize container plants ½ strength, once a year in spring.  Other:  Inorganic mulch  Prune off dead leaves, stems  Watch for mealy bugs, mildew  Plant on berm for better drainage
  63. 63. © Project SOUND Small, Tufted alumroot  Lovely choice for containers  Tuck into crevices between rocks, in dry-stone walls  Shady groundcover on slopes  Rock gardens
  64. 64. Heuchera caespitosa ‘Bella Blanca’  2-4 in. high; 4-8 in. wide  bright green leaves spreading to form a very dense mat.  6-10 inch stems display snow white flowers in late spring.  Long blooming season with additional moisture.  Compact growth and small size encourage use in container and rock gardens.  Selected and introduced by Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden © Project SOUND AKA Heuchera elegans ‘Bella Blanca’
  65. 65. © Project SOUND *San Gabriel alumroot – Heuchera abramsii ©2005 Charles E. Jones
  66. 66. © Project SOUND *San Gabriel alum root – Heuchera abramsii Ryan Folk (2011-2015) Ryan Folk (2011-2015)  San Gabriel Mountains (San Antonio Peak area)  Grows among the rocks and crevices high in the coniferous forests, at 9,000 - 11,000m above sea level  Good cold tolerance – true alpine species
  67. 67. © Project SOUND Heuchera abramsii: a tiny alpine species  Size:  6 inches tall  to 1 ft wide (spreading)  Growth form:  Mat-like herbaceous perennial – spreads via rhizomes  Foliage all very low; winter deciduous  Foliage:  Leaves rounded, deeply- lobed  Geranium-like; few hairs  Roots: relatively shallow, DispPl?NAMENUM=48599#images hera_abramsii_1_3_crop_70.jpg
  68. 68. © Project SOUND Flowers among the prettiest in CA Heucheras  Blooms: summer in its native habitat; usually spring (May- June) at lower elevations  Flowers:  Dense floqwers on upright flower stalks (typical of genus)  Hypantheum tubular/urn- shaped and very bright pink.  Petals white/pale pink  Very showy in bloom – amazing!  Attracts hummingbirds  Seeds: many small, dark brown seeds in dry capsule.
  69. 69. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: excellent drainage  pH: any local  Light:  Shade to part-sun  Water:  Winter: plenty of water  Summer: don’t over-water; let dry out between waterings (Water Zone 2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; ½ strength fertilizer once a year in containers.  Other: gravel mulch; don’t water in hot, moist conditions.
  70. 70. Perfect plant for rock & crevice gardens  As a unique specimen plant in containers  In a rock garden  Tucked into crevices in a crevice garden or dry-stone wall
  71. 71. Heuchera x abramsii ‘Canyon Duet’ (PP13,280)  Dara Emery hybrid between ‘Canyon Delight’ and H. abramsii  Released in 2001 as part of the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Heuchera Quartet Series.  Mat-like evergreen perennial 5 inches tall by 1 foot or more wide with small, 1 ¼-inch wide leaves.  Bi-colored flowers of dark pink and white rise above the foliage on 12- 18 inch tall stems in mid spring.  Shade to part-sun/regular summer water  Tolerant of a wide variety of soil types. Hardy to around 10° F. © Project SOUND series-pp13280-images-large-134192/
  72. 72. © Project SOUND  1st edition – 1904  A "Supplemental Edition" was issued in 1911 and reprinted in 1917.  Long out of print – but can see it on-line: https://www.biodiversitylibra mode/1up Abrams continued to update the flora
  73. 73. From Lorquinia (published by Lorquin Natural History Club) – July, 1917  ‘The new addition of the Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity, by Prof. L. R. Abrams, is a handy, pocket-size volume of 432 pages. The keys to both genera and species make it much more convenient in use than the old edition, and the book will fill a place that has been vacant for some time.’  ‘At the meeting of the Botanical section of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, June 28th, Prof. L. R. Abrams gave a very interesting talk on The Possibilities and Opportunities for Botanical Study in Southern California.’ © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Columbia University years  Fellow Columbia University, 1904-1905.  Assistant curator of plants, National Museum, 1905-1906.  Also associated with the New York Botanic Garden (NYBG)  Mentored by another famous botanist, Nathanial Lord Britton at Columbia © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Nathanial Lord Britton (1859-1934)  Joined the Torrey Botanical Club in 1877 (age 19) and immediately began publishing papers on plants.  Bachelor’s degree Columbia College’s School of Mines, 1879. Asst. geologist for the Geological Survey of New Jersey.  1881, Ph.D. (botany) Columbia College  Edited the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club from 1888 to 1898.  Launched the New York Botanic Garden in 1891. Director from 1891-1929 © Project SOUND By 1896, he resigned his Columbia professorship, becoming a professor emeritus at the age of 37, and became director-in-chief of the Garden. He was a prime mover in framing the Brittonian Codes that resulted in schism in nomenclature that lasted almost 25 years until 1930 when his basic ideas (like the type method) prevailed.
  76. 76. Britton’s best known works  Britton & Addison Brown’s three volume Illustrated Flora of the Northern States and Canada (1896-98) - massive, 3-volume set  Britton & Joseph Nelson Rose The Cactaceae. Published in multiple volumes between 1919 and 1923. It was landmark study that extensively reorganized cactus taxonomy and is still considered a cornerstone of the field.  These inclusive floras set the standard for Abram’s own Flora of the Pacific States © Project SOUND illustrated-flora-of-the-northern-united-states-and-canada
  77. 77. Ph.D. from Columbia University  Married Letitia Patterson, 1909  Doctorate thesis, submitted in 1910: A Phytogeographic and Taxonomic Study of the Southern California Trees and Shrubs.  Doctor of Philosophy, Botany, from Columbia, 1910. © Project SOUND
  78. 78. © Project SOUND You can read this work on-line: m/47130#page/4/mode/2up A Phytogeographic and Taxonomic Study of the Southern California Trees and Shrubs
  79. 79. © Project SOUND The original plans for Stanford botany hall on central quad
  80. 80. But in 1910, all was not well for botany back at Stanford  Systematic botany occupied the attic of the furthest shop building, with herbarium, laboratory, office, and student work space all set up under three huge, lengthwise-running beams that had to be ducked under.  For ten years Dudley conducted his classes under such handicaps, often supplying the laboratory from his own salary.  Shortly after the 1906 earthquake Dudley contracted tuberculosis. His prize student, LeRoy Abrams, returned to Stanford at Dudley’s request to help with teaching. © Project SOUND activities-and-new-plantings-on-the-stanford- university-campus/ drawings/catalog/br381kj4872
  81. 81. William Russel Dudley – 1849-1911  By 1910, knowing he wouldn’t recover, he retired, giving his personal herbarium to the Stanford collection.  The entire collection, numbering some 120,000 sheets, was named in his honor and LeRoy Abrams became curator.  It was The Dudley Herbarium collection that would eventually enable Abrams to publish the four-volume Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States  Dudley died early the following summer. © Project SOUND
  82. 82. ‘Abrams was a very modest, retiring and unusually kindly man who seems to have been strongly influenced by and to have in a degree deliberately molded himself after his former teacher and colleague Professor W.R. Dudley, the first Professor of Botany at Stanford, for whom the Dudley Herbarium, of which Abrams was later curator, was named.’ © Project SOUND MEMORIAL RESOLUTION LEROY ABRAMS (1874-1956)
  83. 83. Leroy Abrams spent the remainder of his academic life at Stanford  Assistant professor botany, Stanford, 1906-1912  Associate professor, Stanford, 1912-1920  Acting associate professor botany, University of California, 1915  Professor Stanford University, 1920-1940  Director of Stanford Natural History Museum (1934–1940).  Emeritus professor, 1940-56. © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Leroy Abrams: well-respected botanist  President, California Botanical Society - 1950-1951  Editor, Madroño (one of 6-12) – 1935 (vol. 3) to 1952 (vol. 11)  Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science  Honorary Fellow, California Academy Science  Fellow, American Academy Arts and Science  Member American Botanical Society, California Botanical Society, Sigma Xi, S. California Academy of Science. © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Abrams continued to teach and collect plants throughout California  1916 – Abrams gift to Dudley Herbarium, Stanford U. = ‘635 specimens of CA plants’  Like his mentors, Abrams took students out into the field  Student Roxana Stinchfield Ferris became a colleague and important botanist in her own right:  The trees and shrubs of western Oregon  llustrated Flora of the Pacific States (as co-editor)  Death Valley Wildflowers  Flowers of Point Reyes National Seashore © Project SOUND Professor Abrams was affectionately known as ‘Father Abrams’ to his students
  86. 86. Articles & books written by Leroy Abrams  Additions to the Flora of Los Angeles County I. 1902.  Additions to the Flora of Los Angeles County II. 1903.  Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity. 1904.  Phytogeography of Trees and Shrubs of Southern California. 1908.  The Gymnosperms Growing On the Grounds of Leland Stanford Jr. University (PDF). 1913.  Cypress Trees in Southern California. 1914.  The Floral Features of California. 1915.  Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. 1. Stanford University Press. 1923.  Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. 2. 1944.  Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. 3. 1951.  Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. 4. 1960. © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Best known for his Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States  Over a period of more than 40 years, wrote and illustrated a four-volume Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States, the final volume of which was published posthumously.  This was a huge undertaking involving:  Review of herbarium specimens and previous scientific descriptions and field notes  Revising the descriptions  Making careful drawings of plants, including microscopic details, seeds, etc. © Project SOUND An Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1923–1960, 4 vols.).
  88. 88. An Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States © Project SOUND  Similar to Britton & Brown’s flora – but for the Pacific states  Still the definitive work on the subject (even though much taxonomy has changed)  Can still find it for sale – not cheap Can read all 4 volumes on-line: bibliography/4657#/summary
  89. 89. An Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States © Project SOUND  Well-known for its clear, detailed illustrations; still used today  ‘Still this work is a vast and useful resource, an essential tool for the professional field botanist.’ – Amazon review
  90. 90. But let’s return to our habitat garden and tuck in a few more of ‘Father Abrams’ plants © Project SOUND ? Semi-formal beds  Better fit for space  Adds symmetry  Contemporary feel  Consistent with Mediterranean theme butterflies/pollinators
  91. 91. What did you decide about the Ragweed? © Project SOUND Leroy Abrams collected it near Ballona, 1902
  92. 92. © Project SOUND Butterweed – Senecio flaccidus var. douglasii © 2003 BonTerra Consulting
  93. 93. © Project SOUND Butterweed – Senecio flaccidus var. douglasii,1784,1801,1802  Calif. Floristic Province except N. Coast  Locally: Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns. & foothills, coastal plain (El Segundo, Redondo)  Collected in the San Gabriel & San Bernardino foothills by Leroy Abrams (1902); first collected in S. CA in 1860 (Brewer)
  94. 94. © Project SOUND Characteristics of Shrubby butterweed  Size:  1-3 ft tall  2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Part-woody sub-shrub  Slender, wand-like branches  Becomes mounded when mature  Plant relatively short-lived (to 10 years) but reseeds well.  Foliage:  Medium- to gray green  Leaves needle-like  Foliage toxic when eaten
  95. 95. © Project SOUND Pretty golden sunflowers  Blooms: spring through fall; blooms off- and-on during warm weather if given occasional water  Flowers:  Flower heads look like golden Margarites  Ray flowers few; both ray and disc flowers bright yellow  Very showy bloomer in dry season  Excellent habitat for pollinators  Seeds: easy to grow
  96. 96. © Project SOUND Likes a bit of shade  Soils:  Texture: any – likes sandy/rocky  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun with some irrigation & right along coast  Afternoon shade better in most gardens  Water:  Winter: needs adequate  Summer: occasional to very occasional (once or twice a month best – Water Zone 1-2 to 2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: thin organic mulch or none; cut back old stems in winter
  97. 97. © Project SOUND Garden uses for Shrubby Butterweed  One of our better summer-fall pollinator plants. Attracts many insects. Good dye plant.  Local-themed gardens  Wonderful teamed with buckwheats J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences
  98. 98. What would Leroy Abrams advise for the larger bed?  Larger bed:  Take full sun – even hot at times  Can’t be too large – 5 ft x 5 ft maximum; many should be smaller  Attractive:  Flowers  Foliage color  Aroma/scent  Good habitat for birds  Provide cover for ground-dwellers  Attract lots of insects © Project SOUND
  99. 99. Suitable mixture of herp-friendly shrubs & sub-shrubs for sunny spot  CA sagebrush (Artemisia californica)  Native buckwheats (Eriogonum spp.)  Native sages (Salvia spp.) © Project SOUND With other perennials to add interest, color, habitat and a sense of place
  100. 100. © Project SOUND Common Sandaster - Corethrogyne filaginifolia vars. californica and filaginifolia
  101. 101. Lots of attention  Species first collected in L.A. Co. in 1880  Collected by all the major CA botanists: Katherine Brandegee, Alice Eastwood, John Thomas Howell, Beatrice Howett, W.L. Jepson, Philip Munz, the Parishes, etc., etc.  Collected by Leroy Abrams:  Monterey Co. (many), San Benito Co., Santa Clara Co  Los Angeles Co.  Ballona Harbor – 1901  Playa del Rey - 1902  Elysian Park - 1904  Cahuenga Pass – 1916 © Project SOUND
  102. 102. Corethrogyne filaginifolia var. bernardina  Corethrogyne filaginifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt. var. bernardina (Abrams) H.M. Hall  Now Corethrogyne filaginifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt. var. filaginifolia  Greene had 4 varieties & 5 separate species that are now included in Corethrogyne filaginifolia var. filaginifolia © Project SOUND a_var_filaginifolia_1.jpg
  103. 103. © Project SOUND  common and widespread plant in coastal sage scrub, southern oak woodlands and grasslands, and on dry, brushy chaparral slopes  Taxonomy is confusing:  Many still use the old name for the species: Lessingia filaginifolia  Highly variable species; now lumped them all together under variant filaginifolia - variants need further research  var. californica – adapted to slightly wetter, ocean-influenced habitats  var. filaginifolia – adapted to slightly drier habitats Common Sandaster - Corethrogyne filaginifolia vars. californica and filaginifolia var. filaginifolia var. californica
  104. 104. © Project SOUND Our local varietie(s)  Grow in drier parts of mountain ranges (including the Sierras), hills  Often wet in winter  Quite dry in summer  Tend to be taller, leggier (2- 3 ft)  Tend to be drought deciduous after flowering  Tend to look a little less “manicured” than the N. CA coastal variety Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  105. 105. © Project SOUND Common Sandaster is typical of plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae)  Compound floral heads  Ray flowers (outer)  Brightly colored (usually yellow (bee pollinated) or blue-purple  Serve to direct the pollinator to the nectar  Disk flowers (central)  Small; often yellow or dark- colored  Make nectar to attract pollinators  Form the seeds
  106. 106. © Project SOUND Growing native perennial sunflowers is usually easy  Choose a sunny location: most need full or near-full sun  Plant seed in place in fall  Prepare soil; lightly rake seed in  use fresh, locally-collected seed if possible  Insure adequate winter/spring rain  Withhold water after flowering to promote seed production  Many will self-seed; or collect and store the seed in a cool dry place
  107. 107. © Project SOUND Many Sunflower species are “two-in-one plants  Sand Asters are good nectar producers:  Good food plant for native bees and other pollinators  Provide nectar for many butterflies from Skippers to Swallowtails  They are also good butterfly/ moth larval plants  Gabb’s Checkerspot – endangered  Moths
  108. 108. © Project SOUND Don’t like this look? Then how about this?
  109. 109. © Project SOUND ‘Silver Carpet’ Sandaster (var. californica)  A Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Introduction  From coastal bluffs exposed to ocean spray in Monterey County  Attractive foliage  Silver-white; looks nice all year long  blends well with other plants  Pretty flowers – late summer  summer blossoms provide welcome cool color in a season when warmer-toned natives prevail.
  110. 110. © Project SOUND ‘Silver Carpet’ Sandaster  Low-growing – makes a nice low groundcover  spilling down a slope or over a low wall.  Even in native grasses  Fast-growing (3-5 ft/yr) but not invasive  More tolerant of average garden watering regimens  Hardy  Readily available Nectar plant only – but a good one!
  111. 111. © Project SOUND *Bigelow’s sneezeweed – Helenium bigelovii © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College
  112. 112.  N. CA Ranges, Sierras  In S. Ca: Tehachapi Mtns, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges (San Gabriel, San Bernardino & San Jacinto Mtns), Peninsular Ranges  Leroy Abrams collected in San Bernardino Mtns, Yosemite © Project SOUND *Bigelow’s sneezeweed – Helenium bigelovii © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  113. 113. © Project SOUND Bigelow’s sneezeweed: wetland perennial  Size:  1-3 ft tall  2-3ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Dies back in dry fall weather  One to many stout branches  Fast growing  All parts of plant toxic if eaten  Foliage:  Long, narrow leaves – mostly at the base ©1995 Gary A. Monroe
  114. 114. © Project SOUND Flowers are fantastic  Blooms: usually late spring (May- Jul) in western LA Co.; may bloom again in fall with some water  Flowers:  Very showy bloomer  Typical sunflower-type heads  Ray flowers golden yellow; larger than in many sneezeweeds  Disc flowers dark red-brown  Excellent pollinator plant, esp. for the native bees, skippers  Seeds: small sunflower seeds with short bristles ©2008 Neal Kramer ©2008 Steve Matson
  115. 115. © Project SOUND Wetland species  Soils:  Texture: most any  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: needs moist soil; don’t let soils dry out until fall  Fertilizer: not really needed except for pot-grown  Other:  Will reseed on moist, bare ground  Cut back old stems in winter ©2016 John Doyen
  116. 116. © Project SOUND Summer Gold  Moist spots in garden: rain garden, irrigated swale  In moist meadow planting with native grasses, annuals  In regularly watered flower beds  Nice plant for early summer container color ©2008 Chris Winchell ©2008 Ron Wolf ©2016 Julie Kierstead Nelson Good pollinator plant
  117. 117. If you want to grow in a container, consider the cultivars  Often shorter, more lush foliage  Hybrids have excellent colors but are still great pollinator plants  Easy to grow from seed  Garden-proven  Order early – they go quickly © Project SOUND
  118. 118. Helenium bigelovii 'Tip Top'  Bred from a plant from California  Bright yellow colored flowers; earlier flowering - May-June to early autumn  Shorter and more compact habit  ‘Trouble-free color in your border over a long period.’  Easy from seed  ‘There'll be plenty to cut to put in a vase and you'll find the bees taking an interest too.’ © Project SOUND tip-top-helenium-bigelovii-perennial-seeds#.WNp1imcU-Uk bigelovii/270361774.html
  119. 119. Helenium bigelovii 'The Bishop'  Large golden yellow flowers and dark centers.  Blooms earlier than other varieties from June to August.  More compact, dense foliage © Project SOUND bishop.html#.WNp3UWcU-Uk
  120. 120. © Project SOUND *Sicklepod (Elegant) rockcress – Boechera sparsiflora ©2000 Gary A. Monroe
  121. 121.  West Coast from CA to British Columbia, ID; South Coast, San Gabriel Mountains, Peninsular Ranges  Rocky canyons and slopes, gravelly outwash, sandy soils in Sagebrush Scrub, Yellow Pine & Mixed Evergreen Forest, Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub  AKA: Arabis sparsiflora Nutt. var. sparsiflora © Project SOUND *Sicklepod rockcress – Boechera sparsiflora
  122. 122. Leroy Abrams collected in San Diego Co. 1903 © Project SOUND
  123. 123. © Project SOUND An elegant perennial  Size:  1-3 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Short-lived perennial or biennial  Tall, stout upright stems  Summer-dormant  Foliage:  Medium to blue-green  Leaves mostly lance-shaped; larger in basal rosette  Larval food source for the Orangetip butterfly http://www.natureathan arsiflora.htm
  124. 124. © Project SOUND Lovely and unusual flowers: a pretty mustard!  Blooms: in spring - usually Apr- May or June in western LA County  Flowers:  Open sequentially up the stem  Pink, magenta or medium purple color – very pretty accent  Attract a range of pollinators, including butterflies  Seeds: many small seeds; will reseed on bare ground  Vegetative reproduction: can be divided in spring; also easy-to-root stem cuttings ©2000 Gary A. Monroe
  125. 125. Interesting seed pods  Birds love the seeds; let the plants go to seed for them and for the attractive appearance of the pods. © Project SOUND © 2013, Ron Bockelman
  126. 126. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade; probably best with some afternoon shade  Water:  Winter: needs adequate moisture; supplement if needed  Summer: taper off water in spring  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: gravel mulch or none; plants do well when grown in cracks between rocks ©2000 Gary A. Monroe
  127. 127. © Project SOUND Garden uses Elegant rockcress  In a rock garden; good butterfly habitat plant  In an herb or medicinal garden; infusion of leaves used as eyewash for sore eyes  As an attractive pot plant ©2011 Jean Pawek
  128. 128. © Project SOUND Cliff Aster – Malacothrix saxatilis
  129. 129. © Project SOUND Cliff Aster – Malacothrix saxatilis var. tenuifolia var. tenuifolia  Local distribution: common  Transverse Ranges (Santa Monica, San Gabriel, and San Bernardino mountains)  Coastal areas - Los Angeles to San Diego Co.  On Santa Catalina Island  Leroy Abrams collected in Santa Barbara  Coastal strand/coastal shrub; canyons, coastal-sage scrub; chaparral
  130. 130. © Project SOUND Cliff Asters are versatile locals  Herbaceous perennial  Size: 3-5 ft tall & wide  Open growth habit; sort of ‘unfurls’ as it blooms  Lacy leaves – mostly basal  Summer dormant with no water  Long bloom period:  Mar-Dec. in good years  Often many blooms; quite showy
  131. 131. © Project SOUND Wonderful with its natural partners  Welcome spot of white against darker foliage in a mixed bed  On slopes, cliffs, hillsides  Natural partners (mostly Zone 1/2):  Salvia mellifera & leucophylla  Diplacus aurantiacus  Quercus agrifolia  Native clovers  Many spring-blooming annual wildflowers  Charming plant – should be used more in local gardens
  132. 132. © Project SOUND Wand wreathplant – Stephanomeria virgata
  133. 133.  Much of CA Floristic Province & into Baja CA  Leroy Abrams collected from Inglewood, Cahuenga Pass, the San Gabriel foothills [1902] & other places in N. CA © Project SOUND Wand wreathplant – Stephanomeria virgata ssp. pleurocarpa ssp. virgata
  134. 134. Three similar species in western S. California © Project SOUND Stephanomeria diegensis Stephanomeria exigua Stephanomeria virgata Possible hybrid of the other 2
  135. 135. © Project SOUND Wand wreathplant: annual wildflower  Size:  1-3 ft tall  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Many-branched; cylindrical, wand-like branches  Very open appearance  Foliage:  Larger leaves in basal rosette  Medium green; many leaves wither by flowering season  Roots: taproot
  136. 136. © Project SOUND Delicate flower heads  Blooms: in the dry season; usually July-Sept. in S. Bay  Flowers:  Sunflower type heads; scattered along branches  Ray flowers few; white with some pink-purple  Disc flowers are somewhat unique: floral tube with nectar at bottom  Attract native bees  Seeds: wind distributed; have fluffy ‘tails’
  137. 137. © Project SOUND Requirements: typical for local annuals  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs adequate soil moisture through spring;  Summer: taper off water with flowering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: best to let plants re-seed (or collect and save the seeds)
  138. 138. © Project SOUND Gardening with Wreathplants  Dry season plant similar to Cliff aster (spring bloomer) ; white accent flowers  Fall habitat plant (nectar); use with native grasses, annuals  As an attractive pot plant
  139. 139. We’ve come a long way in our quest for habitat  We’ve learned that local native plants provide some of the best all-round habitat  We’ve provided food, shelter, places to reproduce for:  Insects, including pollinators, dragonflies and butterflies  Birds that eat many types of foods  Herps  And yes, humans  We’ve designed a garden that is both Water-wise and Life- friendly © Project SOUND
  140. 140. The history of CA native plants is filled with colorful and interesting characters  Leroy Abrams is a little different from some we’ve met:  He was a university-educated botanist – even had a Ph.D.  Spent his entire professional life in academia  He wrote multi-volume floras  His early work focused on parts of S. CA important to us in L.A. County  On the other hand:  He came to CA at an impressionable age  Loved to ramble the open areas from childhood on  Understood the importance of documenting species that were rapidly disappearing © Project SOUND
  141. 141. His Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity provides information that is still timely  ‘This classic book, together with Abrams' early writings in scientific journals, are valuable and useful for genuine ecological restoration of genuine native flora in southern California. For example, several endangered, rare, sensitive, and common native plants can be genuinely recovered and restored due to Abrams' writings, which include unpublished field notes. Abrams' writings will be particularly useful in Los Angeles for knowing what kinds of flowers and trees are genuine for planting at the Los Angeles River, Ballona Valley, and Baldwin Hills. Abrams' writings will also guide us for genuine recovery of coastal wetlands, prairie meadows, vernal pools, river forests, and elfin forests throughout Los Angeles County and southern California.’ © Project SOUND Robert (Roy) Van De Hoek
  142. 142. Upcoming Workshops © Project SOUND Potpourri making – 12/17/2017 1:00 p.m. - Mother Nature’s Backyard
  143. 143. 2018 Season – Gardens that sooth © Project SOUND Gardens that heal
  144. 144. Get out and enjoy ‘Father Abrams’ legacy © Project SOUND