Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission and Community Sustainability1909-2009<br />Timothy Collins<br />and Stephen R...
Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Purpose<br />“Not to help f...
Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />A Product of the Progressiv...
  ‘Golden Era’ of agriculture
  Part of the Conservation Movement
  Call for community action</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainabil...
 Liberty Hyde Bailey
 Gifford Pinchot
 Kenyon L. Butterfield</li></ul>Problem:<br />CLC was top down<br />instead of bottom up<br />
Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Farmers as community<br /><...
 Strengthen their local communities by working together</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br ...
  Suggested remedies took an institutional approach to communities</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Com...
Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Developm...
Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Developm...
Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Developm...
Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Developm...
 Production
 Marketing and other business interests
 Conservation
 Community life</li></ul> <br />
Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Developm...
 A community study
 A community program
 The work of each agency in carrying out the program
 Community meetings and conferences relative to the program and its progress
 The need of new association
 Bringing the community into touch with other communities and with county, state and national activities</li></ul> <br />
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Clc Cds 07 09

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Clc Cds 07 09

  1. 1. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission and Community Sustainability1909-2009<br />Timothy Collins<br />and Stephen R. Hicks<br />Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs<br />Western Illinois University<br />Macomb, IL 61455<br />t-collins@wiu.edu<br />Community Development Society<br />Memphis, TN, July 29, 2009<br />Western Illinois University is an Affirmative Action, Equal Opportunity institution.<br />
  2. 2. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Purpose<br />“Not to help farmers raise better crops, but to call his attention to the opportunities for better business and better living on the farm. If the country life is to become what it should be, and what I believe it ultimately will be—one of the most dignified, desirable, and sought-after ways of earning a living—the farmer must take advantage not only of the agricultural knowledge which is at his disposal, but of the methods which have raised and continue to raise the standards of living and of intelligence in other callings.”<br />The Report of the Country Life Commission, 1909, p. 4 <br />
  3. 3. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />A Product of the Progressive Era<br /><ul><li>Transition to urban, industrial nation
  4. 4. ‘Golden Era’ of agriculture
  5. 5. Part of the Conservation Movement
  6. 6. Call for community action</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />A few of the main actors<br /><ul><li> Theodore Roosevelt
  7. 7. Liberty Hyde Bailey
  8. 8. Gifford Pinchot
  9. 9. Kenyon L. Butterfield</li></ul>Problem:<br />CLC was top down<br />instead of bottom up<br />
  10. 10. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Farmers as community<br /><ul><li>Gain power by banding together to get their fair share of market value
  11. 11. Strengthen their local communities by working together</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Development<br /><ul><li> Used budding social science methods
  12. 12. Suggested remedies took an institutional approach to communities</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Development<br />Deep faith in the power of schools and churches to transform communities into places that were strong, not only in their own right, but as part of the broader national fabric<br />
  13. 13. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Development<br />“The organization of the local farming community is in some ways the biggest single development for the farmer in the New Day. It means the effort to persuade all the people and all the local associations and agencies of the community to pull together for the common good. By ‘community’ is meant that local area, not always clearly defined, which has or may have its own school and church and organizations, a region large enough to organize well and small enough so that everybody may become acquainted.”<br />Kenyon L. Butterfield, The Farmer and the New Day, 1919, p. 134<br />
  14. 14. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Development<br />A new social order must be evolved in the open country, and every farmer of the new time must lend a strong hand to produce it. We have been training our youth merely to be better farmers; this of course, is the first thing to do, but the man is only half trained when this is done. What to do with the school, the church, the rural organizations, the combinations of trade, the highways, the architecture, the library, the beauty of the landscape, the country store, the rousing of a fine community helpfulness to take the place of the old selfish individualism, and a hundred other activities, is enough to fire the imagination and strengthen the arm of any young man or woman.<br />Liberty Hyde Bailey, The Country Life Movement in the United States ,<br />1911, p. 56-57<br />
  15. 15. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Development<br />In general, the scope of the term “country life” … will be understood to include the life of the open country, the rural village and most country towns of 8,000 people or less, whose outlook is the sky and the soil rather than the brick walls and limited horizon of the city streets. <br />Walter G. Fiske, The Challenge of the Country, 1919, p. 3<br />
  16. 16. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Development<br />Butterfield’s Community Visioning Process <br />Set up an independent community council which represents the entire community and all its interests as a planning body to secure teamwork<br /><ul><li> Committees
  17. 17. Production
  18. 18. Marketing and other business interests
  19. 19. Conservation
  20. 20. Community life</li></ul> <br />
  21. 21. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Development<br />Butterfield’s Community Visioning Process <br /> <br /><ul><li>Activities
  22. 22. A community study
  23. 23. A community program
  24. 24. The work of each agency in carrying out the program
  25. 25. Community meetings and conferences relative to the program and its progress
  26. 26. The need of new association
  27. 27. Bringing the community into touch with other communities and with county, state and national activities</li></ul> <br />
  28. 28. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Development<br />Butterfield’s Community Visioning Process <br /> <br /><ul><li> Gain the facts before community makes plan using community study/community inventory.
  29. 29. What are the needs of the community?
  30. 30. What are the best things that exist in the community?
  31. 31. What are its resources, natural and human?
  32. 32. What are the possibilities of the community?
  33. 33. Might use farm bureau or agricultural college specialists to help.</li></ul> <br />
  34. 34. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Development<br />Butterfield’s Community Visioning Process <br /> <br /><ul><li>Develop a community policy
  35. 35. People of the community decide the policy direction they want to follow
  36. 36. Develop a community program
  37. 37. Consists of successive steps needed to make the policy work
  38. 38. Is designed to arouse community will
  39. 39. Hold regular community meetings
  40. 40. To discuss common needs and purposes
  41. 41. The meeting has a specific purpose</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Sustainability<br />Advanced the Conservation Movement after 1909<br /><ul><li> Wise use of natural resources – soil, forests and water
  42. 42. Improved farming practices
  43. 43. Rural health and sanitation </li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Sustainability<br />Built on Roosevelt’s other<br />conservation commissions<br /><ul><li>Public Lands
  44. 44. Inland Waterways
  45. 45. National Conservation Commission
  46. 46. Joint Conservation Congress
  47. 47. Conference of Governors
  48. 48. North American Conservation Conference</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Sustainability<br />Theodore Roosevelt<br />“There are no two public questions of more vital importance to the future of this country than the problem of Conservation and the problem of the betterment of country life. Moreover, these two problems are really interdependent; for neither of them can be successfully solved save on condition that there is at least a measureable success in the effort to solve the other.”<br />Theodore Roosevelt: Letters and Speeches -- Speech, 1910<br />
  49. 49. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Sustainability<br />Kenyon L. Butterfield<br />“The ideal is the most complete possible cooperation of all individuals and all groups in a small natural area, making their best efforts in the common task of securing the greatest possible improvement in all things that make for the common good.” <br />-- The Farmer and the New Day, 1919, p. 165<br />
  50. 50. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Roots of Community Sustainability<br />Theland ethicsimply enlarges the boundaries of thecommunityto include soils, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land.<br />Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac, 1968, 203-204 <br />
  51. 51. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />A few of the main actors<br />Theodore Roosevelt<br /><ul><li> Progressive Republican President, 1901-1909
  52. 52. ‘Trust Buster’
  53. 53. Ardent conservationist
  54. 54. Proponent of nationalism and communities</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />A few of the main actors<br />Gifford Pinchot<br /><ul><li> Educated in France: first professional forester in U.S.
  55. 55. Chief of USDA Division of Forestry
  56. 56. Set up state forests as Pennsylvania governor
  57. 57. Prolific speaker and author</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />A few of the main actors<br />Liberty Hyde Bailey <br /><ul><li> Dean, Cornell University College of Agriculture
  58. 58. Advocate for nature education in schools
  59. 59. Author, The Holy Earth in 1915
  60. 60. Prolific author</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />A few of the main actors<br />Kenyon L. Butterfield<br /><ul><li> Interested in the sociological problems of the farmer
  61. 61. President of the Massachusetts Agricultural College and Michigan State College of Agriculture and Applied Arts
  62. 62. Helped form the American Country Life Association</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />CLC’s Legacy<br /> CLC did not survive intact<br />But its political opponents failed to quash the movement<br />
  63. 63. Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />CLC’s Legacy<br /><ul><li> Poor rural conditions disturbed rural residents
  64. 64. Thousands became active participants in community-based activities to improve their own lives in their own ways
  65. 65. They faced tremendous pressures for change from an agrarian to an industrial society</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />CLC’s Legacy<br /><ul><li> American Country Life Association
  66. 66. American Farm Bureau Federation
  67. 67. Cooperative Extension
  68. 68. Academic disciplines such as ag econ and rural sociology flourished
  69. 69. Efforts to build sustainable rural communities</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission<br /> and Community Sustainability 1909-2009<br />Website<br />http://www.iira.org/clc/<br />

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