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Historical development of social work in U.S.A. (Dr. R.K. Bharti)

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Historical development of social work in U.S.A. (Dr. R.K. Bharti)

  1. 1. Submitted To:- Dr. R.K. Bharti (Associate Professor) Submitted By:- Rajkumar M.S.W 1st Semester Roll No:- 26
  2. 2. Definition of social work  “Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledge , social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing.”
  3. 3. History of social work in United States of America  From the beginning of the seventeenth century the colonist from England and other countries brought with them the customs, traditions, laws and institutions from the mother country.  The traditional resources of the mother country such as church, charities, hospitals, and alms houses did not exist in the settlements.  According to the Elizabethan Poor Law, it is the responsibility of the local church to take care of the destitute. Every town made provisions to the maintenance of the poor by supplying food, clothing, firewood and house hold essentials to persons with legal settlements.
  4. 4. History of social work in the USA divided  The Colonial Period (1620-1776)  The civil war and Industrial Revolutions (1776-1860)  The Industrialization -The human side (1860-1900)  Social work, seeking professional characteristics (1900- 1930)  Highly professionalized discipline(1930-onwards)
  5. 5. Alms-House The introduction of alms-house care did not improve the conditions of the poor. In alms-houses, old ,sick, tramps, vagabonds, blind, deaf-mutes, cripples, idiots and insane, orphans, foundlings, unmarried mothers with their children, prostitutes, and criminals were all put in these houses− often without separation of the sexes or age-groups.
  6. 6. Poor Relief  Private Charity Societies took initiatives to start orphanages and asylums, because they objected to the placement of children and helpless invalid and old people in mixed alms houses where they are forced to live with people with other deviant behaviours. Private relief societies were often affiliated with churches, fraternal orders or national benevolent associations, and they became the leading progressive element in American Social Welfare during the 19th century.  The states themselves assumed responsibility for certain classes of the poor such as the insane, feeble-minded and convicted offenders for whom there were no adequate facilities.  Some local public relief authorities, under the influence of state boards of charity, began to question the old concepts of poor relief….” (Friedlander, Introduction to Social Welfare, 1950.
  7. 7. Private Charities  After the reform in the poor relief act, private charities took the lead role in addressing the issues of the disadvantaged. However the activities of these private or religious agencies were often limited to aid for special local groups.  In 1817 a constructive remedy for people in economic need was set up, the New York Society for the Prevention of Pauperism, aiming to scientifically understand the causes of poverty and to develop a model for rehabilitation instead of mere palliative of financial issues.  The society assigned volunteers called ‘visitors of the indigent’ as its agents. It established an employment bureau, a savings bank and encouraged the foundation of Mutual Aid-Mutual Life insurance groups to protect their members against economic hazards.  Church and Charitable Organizations Association for improving the condition of the Poor was started in 1843 in New York. The Association assigned ‘friendly visitors’ in every sub district of the city in order to determine the need and the individual measures necessary in each individual case.
  8. 8. Charity Organization Societies(COS) Societies (COS) to understand and take care of family problems. The charity organization societies started in Boston and Philadelphia in 1878 operated on the Following principles :- i. Detailed investigation on applications for charity. ii. A central system of registration to avoid duplication. iii. Co-operation between various relief agencies. iv. Extensive use of voluntary friendly visitors.
  9. 9. Settlement House Movement The development of modern industry brought masses of workers and their families into the city. They lived in overcrowded quarters without comfort or space for their children, while relatives and friends were left in native rural villages and towns where they had come from. Large number of the immigrants coming as immigrants to the USA lived in overcrowded flats and unsanitary conditions. There was not much mutual understanding among the different racial and religious backgrounds, and they spoke different languages. In 1887 Neighbourhood Guild of New York City was founded based on the idea of Toynbee Hall in England. Soon Hull-House in Chicago, founded by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr in 1889, became popular.
  10. 10. Hull House Model  They met the needs of the neighbourhood through various programs: day nursery and kindergarten, discussion and study groups, School of music, dramatics, and arts, classes in rhythm and dancing, and workshops for children and adults. Later the Hull-house organized playgrounds and summer camps for children. School reforms activities which grew from the experiences of Hull-House (Friedlander, Introduction to Social Welfare, 1950, p. 112).  Residents of settlement houses became the champions of Social reforms and they became the pioneers of social Action Many active workers and volunteers of the Charity Organization Societies felt the need for a deeper understanding of the behaviour of individuals and of social and economic problems. This led to the organization of the first Social Work courses in New York in 1898.
  11. 11. Child Welfare Movement The rapid growth of manufacturing industries aggravated the pathetic condition of children, so Children Aid Society (1853) and Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (1857) were started in New York City. This led to the formation of Child Welfare Movement. The aim of the agencies was to rescue children from inadequate homes and from the streets.
  12. 12. Development of Professional Social Work Education in the USA The employment of paid staff and their training by Charity Organization Societies (COS) facilitated a shift from the unorganized charity and social service to the beginning of an organized and systematic social work. The first such training centre organized by New York Charity Organization Society (NYCOS) in 1898 is currently known as the Columbia University. Hospital based training and social work services were also initiated around the same time at Boston Hospital. The First World War increased the casualties among the poor, consequently various wartime charity programmes were initiated and Welfare Acts were passed.
  13. 13. Emergence of Social Work Education In 1998 the NASW declared it the 100th anniversary of the Social Work profession. Social Work education evolving in the United States and Europe was an indigenous response to the conditions of livelihood and the rapid development in the nineteenth century. Social Work was introduced by the Americans and the Europeans to other countries in Asia and Africa as experts to address the problem of “underdevelopment”. The introduction and reintroduction of modern Social Work in the countries of former Soviet Union and Eastern bloc, including Russia, the nations of Eastern Europe, China, and Vietnam under the foreign influence (M.Healy, International Social Work, 2001).
  14. 14. Important Years and Events  In 1928 the first International Conference of Social Work was held from July 8th to 13th in Paris, and it drew 2,481 delegates from 42 countries (Organisation of the International Conference of Social Work, First Conference July 8-13, 1928).one section of the conference was devoted to Social Work education. The world meeting in Social Work and Social welfare became regular after the first conference.  The 1928 conference was also the birth place of three major organizations, International Associations of Schools of Social Work (IASSW), International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW), and the International Council for Social Welfare (ICSW).
  15. 15. Important Ones in The History of Social Work & Social Welfare  1536 The first draft of the English Poor Laws is published. It subsequently became the model for dealing with poverty, illness, and unemployment in England and later in America through the 19th century.  1841 Dorothea Dix begins her campaign for adequate services to the mentally ill after viewing horrible conditions in a hospital for the mentally ill in Cambridge, Massachusetts.  1865 The Civil War ends, and the Freedmen’s Bureau, a government agency created to help former slaves in the South migrate to the North to leave the oppression of anti- Black sentiment and discrimination in the South, is initiated.
  16. 16.  1877 American Charity Organization is organized in Buffalo, New York, as one of the first attempts to help people with severe social problems in an organized and logical way.  1889 Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr’s much-admired Hull House in Chicago is established. Settlements focused on the causes of poverty and expanding jobs for the poor. They also “conducted research, helped develop the juvenile court system, created widow’s pension programs, promoted legislation prohibiting child labor, and introduced public health reforms and the concept of social insurance.” Unions begin to grow in America representing the rights of workers for fair wages and better working conditions.  1898 Columbia University becomes the first school of social work in the country.
  17. 17.  1912 More than 400 guilds and settlement houses exist serving the poor and helping millions of new immigrants settle successfully in America. Fires in sweatshops in New York create a strong demand for safe working conditions, and unions begin to flourish.  1914-1918 During World War I social work is first used to help people with combat fatigue (PTSD) and war injuries.  1917 Mary Richmond writes one of the defining books of social work, Social Diagnosis, in which she lays the foundation for social work as a profession with a mission and a theoretical belief system.  1920 The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is formed, the Child Welfare League of America is formed, women exercise the right to vote, and an early form of the Council on Social Work Education is formed, calling itself the Association of Training Schools of Professional Social Work. The stock market begins to rise, and speculation leads to conditions that cause the Great Depression.
  18. 18.  1929 Over speculation and manipulation of the stock market throw the country into the Great Depression, which lasts almost to the start of World War II in 1941. Millions are unemployed, and many businesses fail. The Dust Bowl, covering the Midwest, adds to problems, and many people leave failing farms.  1933 The New Deal, a liberal set of social welfare programs, is begun by newly elected president FDR and his liberal cabinet including social worker Frances Perkins, who became secretary of labor.  1933 A series of social programs help provide employment for unemployed men and women and begin the notion of the safety net, including the Social Security Act, which allows older adults to receive a pension after the age of 65.  1941–1945 America’s involvement in World War II requires the use of social workers to help soldiers and their families cope with war injuries and medical problems. There is full use of social workers in the Veterans Administration, an organization begun with only a few social workers in 1926.
  19. 19.  1952 The Council on Social Work Education is formed and begins its work to create high standards among existing and new schools of social work.  1954 The Supreme Court rules on Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, which begins the end of segregation in public schools.  1955–1956 Montgomery bus boycott leads to the end of Jim Crow laws that discriminated against African Americans.  1956 The National Association of Social Workers is formed, the profession’s primary organization, with a mission to help and to create a better society and world.  1964 Civil Rights Act is passed; Title II and Title VII forbid racial discrimination in “public accommodations” and race and sex discrimination in employment. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission provides oversight and coordination of all federal regulation practices and policies affecting equal employment opportunity.
  20. 20.  1965 The War on Poverty in which President Johnson pledges to overcome poverty helps to pass the Voting Rights Act, which makes discrimination in voting a federal crime; passes affirmative action, which helps discriminated-against groups gain entry into schools, employment, housing, and other areas of American life in which discrimination is common; passes the Older Americans Act, which provides needed services to older adults; and creates the Administration for Children and Families to focus on the needs of children and to bolster the strength of families.  1966 The National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded.  1972 The break-in at Watergate occurs, and the turmoil in the presidency forces Nixon out of office.  1975–1992 During this generally conservative time social welfare programs are cut back, and a conservative agenda moves the country away from concerns about civil rights and poverty. There is a significant rise in juvenile crime from 1982 to 1993, and this is a period in social work where concerns are raised that social work is irrelevant and even unloved because we have moved away from social action and social change and become too comfortable with small system change rather than large changes in the society.
  21. 21.  1992– 2000 Bill Clinton is elected president but, after an attempt to change our health care system, gives up and generally uses a conservative approach to social welfare programs; he limits public assistance to 2 years, encourages retraining, and is thought to have “out Republican” the Republicans.  1999 NASW adopts the current Code of Ethics.  2000 The election of George W. Bush begins a period of downgrading the social welfare net, a decrease in health care coverage, and a war in Iraq with thousands of deaths and injuries. Social work helps with care of men and their families.  2005 A series of natural disasters tests the country’s ability to cope with crisis and finds us badly unprepared. Decades of making poverty invisible show us that it is still pervasive as thousands of residents of New Orleans await help as a horrified nation watches after dikes break, leaving the city under water.  2008 With the election of President Barack Obama progressive social welfare policies return.  2010 The Health Care Reform Bill is historically passed.
  22. 22. Thank You

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