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Gymno vs angio


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Gymno vs angio

  1. 1. Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms
  2. 2. Angiosperms <ul><li>Flowering plants </li></ul><ul><li>Have a vascular (conducting) system to transport dissolved nutrients and minerals---- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is that system? Name parts </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Bryophytes <ul><li>Nonvascular plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack a vascular (conducting) system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on DIFFUSION and OSMOSIS to obtain needed materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Diffusion: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Osmosis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this, they are small— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi---Mosses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bryophytes <ul><li>Broken down into three groups (phyla): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum: Bryophyta (mosses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum Hepatiocophyta (liverworts-leafy moss) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any of numerous small, green, nonvascular plants of the division Marchantiophyta, growing in moist environments and consisting of either a leafy mosslike structure or a flat thallus that is often lobed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum Anthrocerotophyta (hornworts--aquatic) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Lichens <ul><li>“ Prime” example of a symbiotic relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate relationship between a fungus and an algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungus (incapable of making food for themselves): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protects alga from harmful light, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces substance that speeds up photosynthesis in algae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs and keeps waters and minerals for both organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae within fungus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesizes providing food for both organisms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Mr. Fungus is ready to greet our friend the alga The Fungus Meets an Alga Friend alga cell is prepared to greet Mr. Fungus. The Lichen is created between the fungus and the alga.
  7. 7. Lichens <ul><li>Lichen &quot;provides&quot; alga w/water and minerals that the fungus absorbs from whatever the lichen is growing on, its substrate. </li></ul><ul><li>The alga, uses minerals and water to make food for the fungus and itself. </li></ul><ul><li>In the natural environment, neither can grow and reproduce without a symbiotic partner. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Said that lichens grow in “leftover” spots in the environment—those that are to harsh or limiting for other organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bare rock, desert sand, cleared soil, dead wood, animal bones, rusty metal, bare bark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are able to shut down metabolically during periods of unfavorable conditions, and can survive in extreme heat, cold and drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given appropriate amounts of light, moisture, clean air and freedom from competition, can colonize about anywhere </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Come in many styles and designs </li></ul><ul><li>Some hard to see others large </li></ul><ul><li>The surface they grow on is called the substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Many species of lichens form a long pendent body or thallus </li></ul><ul><li>Many do best when growing among mosses or on rotting wood or forest soils and are attached with small growths called rhizines. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fungi <ul><li>Living body is a mycelium made out of a web of tiny filaments called hyphae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyphae (hí - fee) plural: the threads that form the body of a fungus (mycelium) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most fungi build their cell walls out of chitin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is same material as hard outer shells of insects and other arthropods. (Vascular plants do not make chitin. ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feed by absorbing nutrients from organic material in which they live </li></ul>
  11. 11. Usnea australis , fruticose form, growing on tree branch Crustose lichens on limestone in S. Italy Physcia millegrana -a foliose lichen, with an unlichenized polypore fungus (bottom right), on a fallen log.
  12. 12. &quot;Witch's hair&quot; (Alectoria sarmentosa) This lichen valued as fiber in traditional cultures in the Northwest. Used as bandages, baby diapers, feminine hygiene supplies, and even as raw material for ponchos and footwear. It made good artificial hair for decorating dance masks.
  13. 13. Lichen Reproduction <ul><li>Some reproduce be making an entire non-sexual reproductive packages called soredia or isidia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are tiny projections from surface of lichen that break off and can easily grow into new lichen—blown or washed away by wind or water or on other animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others make spores (small reproductive body capable of growing into a new organism) that need to capture photosynthetic partners </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Lichens are sensitive to pollution in the air and can tell us if the air is clear and clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug companies make antibiotics from lichen substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Some lichens make nitrogen in the air usable to plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Lichens are homes for spiders, mites, lice and other insects. </li></ul><ul><li>Lichens can be used as a natural dye to color wool. </li></ul><ul><li>People eat lichens (careful - a few are poisonous). </li></ul>
  15. 16. Identifying Lichens <ul><li>Several features are used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface texture </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Lobules </li></ul><ul><li>Lobules are small outgrowths, usually from the edge or margin of the lichen. They are important for reproduction. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Lichen Surface <ul><li>Lichens have many different textures on their upper and lower surfaces. Surfaces vary from: </li></ul><ul><li>- granular surface </li></ul><ul><li>- white, frost-like surface (called 'pruinose') </li></ul><ul><li>- ridged surface </li></ul><ul><li>- rough surface (called 'scabard') </li></ul><ul><li>- smooth surface </li></ul><ul><li>- veined surface </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of texture does our lichen's surface have? </li></ul>
  18. 19. Lobaria oregana Soredia: Lobules: yes Isidia: yes Podetia: no Reproductive Body: apothecium rust Body Type: foliose Unstratified: no Life Form: Hollow lobes: no Central cord: no Lobe shape: rounded Rhizines: Cilia margin: no Surface texture: veined-bottom Wrinkles: Cephalodia: yes internal pockets Papillae: no Fibrilles on Branches: no Spore type: septate Spore size (um): Lobe Width: more than 10 mm
  19. 20. Lichens and the Environment <ul><li>Are like sponges—they soak up everything—including air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Most are very vulnerable to air quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When they disappear—they give early warning of harmful air quality conditions </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. A red alder tree downwind of a smoke plume from the Sitka Pulp Mill (which has since been closed) in Sitka, Alaska. Bark of red alder trees is usually covered by a mosaic of white lichens, leaving very little brown bark showing.
  21. 22. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>