Spina bifida


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Spina bifida

  1. 1. Jessica Estep<br />Lisa Burdue<br />CarlyAmatisto<br />Spina Bifida<br />
  2. 2. What is Spina Bifida<br />Myelodysplasia (spina bifida) is a birth defect in which the backbone and spinal canal do not close before birth.<br /> Myelomeningocele may affect as many as 1 out of every 800 infants.<br />
  3. 3. Types of Spina Bifida<br />Spina Bifida cases include :<br />Spina bifida occulta, a condition in which the bones of the spine do not close but the spinal cord and meninges remain in place and skin usually covers the defect<br />Meningoceles, a condition where the tissue covering the spinal cord sticks out of the spinal defect but the spinal cord remains in place.<br />
  4. 4. A Closer Look<br />Spina bifida refers to any birth defect involving incomplete closure of the spine.<br />Myelomeningocele is the most common type of spina bifida. <br />It is a neural tube defect in which the bones of the spine do not completely form, resulting in an incomplete spinal canal.<br />This causes the spinal cord and meninges (the tissues covering the spinal cord) to stick out of the child's back.<br />
  5. 5. Symptoms<br />A newborn may have a sac sticking out of the mid to lower back. The doctor cannot see through the sac when shining a light behind it. Symptoms include:<br />Loss of bladder or bowel control<br />Partial or complete lack of sensation<br />Partial or complete paralysis of the legs<br />Weakness of the hips, legs, or feet of a newborn<br />Other symptoms may include:<br />Abnormal feet or legs, such as clubfoot<br />Build up of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus)<br />Hair at the back part of the pelvis called the sacral area<br />Dimpling of the sacral area<br />Possible medications<br />
  6. 6. Explains Hydrocephalus<br />Dr. Puppet<br />
  7. 7. Hydrocephalus<br />“water on the brain”<br />80% - 90% of children with spina bifida will also develop hydrocephalus<br />
  8. 8. What is Hydrocephalus?<br />Excess cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain which causes the brain tissue to swell<br />As the brain swells it presses against the skull, and causes pressure on the brain tissue<br />If untreated, this can cause seizures, vomiting, irritability, sleepiness and brain damage<br />
  9. 9. Treatment<br />The goal of treatment is to reduce or prevent brain damage by improving the flow of CFS<br />A shunt system is placed in the brain in order to drain excess CFS<br />The shunt tubing travels to another part of the body, such as the abdomen, where the extra CSF can be absorbed<br />
  10. 10. And Now… I Shall Demonstrate<br />Any volunteers?<br />
  11. 11. Test & Diagnosis <br />Prenatal screening can help diagnose this condition. During the second trimester, pregnant women can have a blood test called the quadruple screen.<br />Most women carrying a baby with spina bifida will have higher-than-normal levels of a protein called maternal alpha fetoprotein (AFP).<br />
  12. 12. Prognosis<br />Myelomeningocele can usually be surgically corrected. With treatment, length of life is not severely affected. Neurological damage is often irreversible.<br />Many individuals with spina bifida primarily use a wheelchair. <br />Life long issues include:<br />more loss of function as well as orthopedic problems such as scoliosis<br />foot or ankle deformities<br />dislocated hips <br />joint tightness or contractures<br />Infections within the shunt system<br />
  13. 13. Prevention<br />Folic acid supplements may help reduce the risk of neural tube defects such as myelomeningocele. It is recommended that any woman considering becoming pregnant take 0.4 mg of folic acid a day. Pregnant women need 1 mg per day.<br />It is important to remember that folic acid deficiencies must be corrected before becoming pregnant as the defects develop very early.<br />Prospective mothers may be screened to determine the amount of folic acid in their blood.<br />
  14. 14. Complications<br />Difficult delivery with problems resulting from a traumatic birth, including cerebral palsy and decreased oxygen to the brain<br />Frequent urinary tract infections<br />Hydrocephalus<br />Loss of bowel or bladder control<br />Meningitis<br />Permanent weakness or paralysis of legs<br />
  15. 15. Treatment<br />Genetic counseling may be recommended. <br />Surgery to repair the defect is usually recommended at an early age. <br />Children who also have hydrocephalus may need a ventricular peritoneal shunt placed. This will help drain the extra fluid.<br />
  16. 16. Treatments Continued<br />Most children will require lifelong treatment for problems that result from damage to the spinal cord and spinal nerves. This includes:<br />Catheters<br />Braces<br />High fiber diet<br />Antibiotics may be used to treat or prevent infections such as meningitis or urinary tract infections.<br />
  17. 17. Implications for Recreation<br />Many individuals with Spina Bifida are allergic to latex. Be aware of…<br />Swimming caps<br />Balloons<br />Rubber balls<br />Food allergies: bananas, kiwis, avocados and chestnuts<br />
  18. 18. Recreation Ideas<br />Puppets<br />Adaptive bowling<br />Swimming<br />Canoeing<br />Horseback riding<br />Wheelchair basketball<br />
  19. 19. Support Groups<br />http://www.waisman.wisc.edu/~Rowley/sb-kids/index.html A resource for families and providers <br />Spina Bifida Association- Regional and National<br />http://spina-bifida-bibliography.blogspot.com <br />http://www.shrinershq.org/Hospitals/Main/: <br />Shriners Children Hospital <br />
  20. 20. References<br />https://health.google.com/health/ref/Myelomeningocele<br />http://www.medicinenet.com/spina_bifida_and_anencephaly/index.htm<br />http://www.waisman.wisc.edu/~Rowley/sb-kids/index.html<br />