Goal 4 Political Parties


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Goal 4 Political Parties

  1. 1. Political Parties and Elections
  2. 2. One-Party System a.k.a. “no-party system” <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The winner always has a majority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one person runs for each position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China, Cuba, North Korea </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Two Party System <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main viewpoints are represented and one candidate usually receives a majority of votes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less popular viewpoints are not represented in elections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S., England, Canada </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Multi-Party System <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All viewpoints are represented in elections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No candidate receives a majority of the votes, only a plurality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France, Italy, Germany </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Political Spectrum Radical Liberal Moderate Conservative Reactionary
  6. 6. Political Spectrum LEFT CENTER RIGHT RADICAL Favors Extreme Change to create an altered or entirely new social system LIBERAL Believes that Govt. must take action to change economic, political, and ideological policies thought to be unfair MODERATE Holds beliefs that fall between liberal and conservative views, usually including some of both CONSERVATIVE Seeks to keep in place the economic political, and social structures of society REACTIONARY Favors extreme change to restore society to an earlier more conservative state
  7. 7. Plank V. Platform <ul><li>Plank : A candidate’s stand on one particular issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: approving of single-sex classrooms in schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platform : a candidate’s opinion on all of the issues put together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: All of the candidate’s planks put together make his/her platform </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Plurality <ul><li>When a Candidate wins the most votes </li></ul>Majority <ul><li>When a Candidate wins more than half the votes </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1854 by a group of Whigs, Free-Soldiers, and antislavery Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First presidential candidate: John C. Fremont </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second candidate: Abraham Lincoln </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became known as the Grand Old Party (GOP) in the 1870s </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Best gov’t is the least gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>less taxes </li></ul><ul><li>oppose deficits, balance budget </li></ul><ul><li>de-centralization </li></ul><ul><li>de-regulation (laissez-fair capitalism) </li></ul><ul><li>stress patriotism and strong defense </li></ul><ul><li>strong Congress </li></ul><ul><li>appeals to affluent and middle class </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Using the power of gov’t to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>a strong presidency </li></ul><ul><li>curb big business, help the underdog </li></ul><ul><li>not much objection to taxes or deficits </li></ul><ul><li>favors labor and working persons </li></ul><ul><li>minorities </li></ul><ul><li>supports gov’t action to foster employment </li></ul><ul><li>help those unable to help themselves </li></ul><ul><li>civil liberties </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Evolution of the Party System <ul><li>Hamilton and Jefferson, as heads of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist groups respectively, are often considered 'fathers' of the modern party system. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1800, this country had a party system with two major parties that has remained relatively stable ever since. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Democrat vs. Republican Typical Democrat’s Platform Typical Republican’s Platform Planks Prayer in School Against For* Affirmative Action For Against Abortion Pro-Choice Pro-Life Taxes Increase Decrease Government Spending Increase Decrease
  14. 14. Those not in favor of affirmative action <ul><ul><li>Affirmative action leads to reverse discrimination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action lowers standards of accountability needed to push students or employees to perform better. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students admitted on this basis are often ill-equipped to handle the schools to which they've been admitted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is condescending to minorities to say they need affirmative action to succeed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It demeans true minority achievement; i.e. success is labeled as result of affirmative action rather than hard work and ability. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. What is a political party? <ul><li>A political party is an association of voters with broad common interests who want to influence or control decision making in government by electing party’s candidates to public office. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Qualifications to vote <ul><li>Must be a US citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Must be 18 years old </li></ul><ul><li>If you have been convicted of a felony, your rights of citizenship must be restored. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be restored by completing probation or parole. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Straight Ticket vs. Split Ticket <ul><li>When you vote straight ticket you are voting for candidates of the same party for multiple positions. </li></ul><ul><li>When you vote split ticket you are voting for each candidate that you feel will do the best for the position and not just the political party. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Elections <ul><li>Primary Election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An election held before the general election to nominate candidates of a party for office </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A scheduled election where voters determine who will be the public officeholders </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. National Convention <ul><li>The purpose of a national convention is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To announce the party’s candidate and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unify the party before the general election </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Elections <ul><li>Presidential Election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An election to vote for the president of the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held every 4 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recall Election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An election held to remove an elected official from office </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Electoral College <ul><li>Electoral votes are determined by the total number of Senators and Representatives the state has in Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: North Carolina has 2 Senators and 13 Representatives. Therefore, it will have 15 electoral votes </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Discussion <ul><li>How might the electoral college increase voter apathy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apathy= not caring about something, doesn’t matter who wins, you do not care either way. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Patronage <ul><li>When a person in office appoints fellow party members to positions in the government </li></ul>
  24. 24. Special Interest Groups <ul><li>A special interest group (also called an advocacy group) is an organized group that attempts to encourage or prevent changes in public policy (laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NRA (National Rifle Association) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Political Action Committees <ul><li>A political action committee, or PAC, is a political committee organized for the purpose of raising and spending money to elect and defeat candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Funding <ul><li>Political Action Committees (PACs) are the largest source of campaign funding </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money donated to an INDIVIDUAL candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to $2,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft Money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money donated to the political PARTY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlimited </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Money Spent? <ul><li>Candidates spend most money on Television ads </li></ul>
  28. 29. What is the most effective ways to reach the most voters? <ul><li>Mass Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct Mail </li></ul>
  29. 30. What is the least effective way to reach potential voters <ul><li>Grassroots - political movements at the lowest level means that people from within a community are working together to bring about political change. </li></ul><ul><li>Canvassing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Door to door </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone calls </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Techniques used to persuade people in a certain direction
  31. 32. Bandwagon <ul><li>Making it sound like everyone supports the candidate, urges people to follow the crowd </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “Everyone is voting for him, why aren’t you?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “Polls show our candidate is pulling ahead, and we expect to win in a landslide.” </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Glittering Generalities <ul><li>Information that sounds good but is meaningless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: “I will be good for America because I will bring us peace and prosperity.” </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. “ Just Plain Folks” <ul><li>Making the candidate appeal to the common people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: T-shirt and jeans, sitting at the kitchen table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “My parents were ordinary, hardworking people, and they taught me those values.” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Name Calling <ul><li>Attacking another candidate or policy with a name or label </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: He voted NO on healthcare for children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: She is a dangerous extremist and terrorist </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Stacked Cards <ul><li>Only presenting one side of the issue and distorting the facts, making the candidate look good (or bad) no matter what the facts are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: She did these 10 great things for our country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: He has the best record for protecting the environment </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Endorsement <ul><li>Getting the support of someone important and famous, used to lure in more voters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Oprah Winfrey says she will vote for Barack Obama </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Symbols/ Transfer <ul><li>uses popular symbols (typically patriotic) to create a positive or negative association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Flag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red, White, and Blue </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Civic Responsibility vs. Civic Duty <ul><li>Civic Responsibility: something a good citizen should do (ex: Vote) </li></ul><ul><li>Civic Duty: something a citizen must do (ex: jury duty) </li></ul>
  39. 40. Marbury v. Madison <ul><li>Decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established the concept of Judicial Review : the Supreme court has the final authority to find acts of government unconstitutional </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. McCulloch v. Maryland <ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maryland tried to put a tax on a branch of the Bank of the US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A state cannot tax a federal institution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supremacy Clause (Article VI) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Plessey v. Ferguson <ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plessy (1/8 of African decent) sat in white only train car, would not move when asked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established the concept of “separate but equal” in public facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14th </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Brown v. Board <ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Brown wanted his daughter to attend the neighborhood school (she was black and the school was for whites) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools were desegregated. Separate is unequal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 </li></ul></ul>