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Bibliometrics jul 2014

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Introduction to bibliometrics

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Bibliometrics jul 2014

  1. 1. Bibliometrics – a brief introduction Anne Costigan Library LSS
  2. 2. Measuring impact through publications • Uses citations – Article is given as reference by another author – ‘cited’ – Web of Knowledge – Google Scholar – Scopus – Journal websites
  3. 3. Citations to an article • Combined to produce metrics for – Journal – Author – Research group – Institution – Country
  4. 4. Why should I be interested in bibliometrics? • Journal level – suggest journals in which to publish • Article/author level – measure your own progress • Research group/institutional – where should I apply for a job?
  5. 5. Others use bibliometrics too… • Journals – Librarians looking at subscriptions • Article/author – managers and recruiters • Research group/institution – managers and research funders
  6. 6. Impact Factors – an introduction • The most widely-used Impact Factors available only from Journal Citation Reports, part of Web of Science • Only a journal has an Impact Factor, not an author or an article • A measure of the frequency with which an average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year
  7. 7. Impact Factors – a definition • Impact Factor of a journal for 2012 – Number of citations in 2012 to articles published in previous two years • Divided by – Total number of articles published in previous two years • Impact Factor for IEEE Spectrum – Number of citations in 2012 to articles published in 2010 and 2011 = 152 – Total number of articles published in 2010 and 2011 = 115 – Impact Factor = 152/115 = 1.322
  8. 8. IEEE Spectrum rank and trend
  9. 9. What is a ‘good’ Impact Factor in science? • Highest Impact Factor for 2012 is 153.459 (CA – A Cancer Journal for Clinicians) • Median Impact Factor for 2012 is 1.352 (International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids) • Lowest Impact Factor for 2012 is 0 (9 journals tied) • Can vary quite considerably
  10. 10. What is a ‘good’ Impact Factor in social science? • Highest Impact Factor for 2012 is 18.571 (Behavioral and Brain Sciences) • Median Impact Factor for 2012 is 0.845 (Journal of Contemporary Asia) • Lowest Impact Factor in 2012 is 0 (Shared by 12 journals)
  11. 11. Elsevier and Scopus • Scopus – Elsevier’s journal article search engine – Includes citation counts for individual items • SCImago JR – http://www.scimagojr.com/index.php – Use Scopus data to calculate ‘impact data’ for journals
  12. 12. Google Scholar journal rankings • http://scholar.google.co.uk/citations? view_op=top_venues • Google Scholar citations occasionally unreliable!
  13. 13. Are there any other types of journal metrics? • Ranking systems – Management – widely used • http://www.lib.uwo.ca/business/Rank.html • http://www.harzing.com/resources.htm – European Reference Index for the Humanities – NOT widely used • http://www.esf.org/index.php?id=4813
  14. 14. New developments in bibliometrics • Citations at level of: – Author – Article – Research group – Institution • http://www.leidenranking.com/ranking • InCites (for purchase) • SciVal (for purchase)
  15. 15. Other citation systems • Scopus – not held by the Library – But can get citations anyway! • Citations in Google Scholar • Citations in and between e-journal services
  16. 16. Citations in Google Scholar • Interesting but not always reliable! • Publish or Perish – Generates citation figures from GS at author or journal level – Free download from • http://www.harzing.com/pop.htm
  17. 17. Profiles in Google Scholar
  18. 18. H-index (Hirsch index) • Originally author-based: – An author has index h if h of their papers has been cited at least h times – Eg if you have published 20 papers which have been cited 20 times your h-index is 20 – Authors who don’t do well in the h-index: • Those who write large numbers of low-citation papers • Those who have only one highly-cited paper • Younger authors
  19. 19. How do I find an author’s H-index? • Web of Knowledge – Web of Science only – Create Citation Report • Also available via Scopus (automatic) and Google Scholar (your own calculations) • NB All the databases are different so different H-indexes will be calculated
  20. 20. Other measures • H-index expanded – Can cover • groups of authors (eg a university department) • groups of documents (eg a journal) – SCImago provides H-Indices for journals – Scopus can also provide them! • G-index and others
  21. 21. Why do bibliometrics vary by discipline? • In subject areas with low numbers of citations, citations are missed – Smaller number of journals indexed – Many papers published in non-journal sources – Just not as many publications out there! • In sciences – Largely journal-based literature – Well covered by ISI
  22. 22. What’s in Web of Science? • Journals – Mostly peer-reviewed (not all) • Life Sciences bias in Science JCR – 50% • US bias • English language bias
  23. 23. What isn’t in Web of Science • Non-journal literature • New journals – Need at least two years for calculation of Impact Factors – Need to build reputation • Journals that change titles!
  24. 24. Academic validity of bibliometrics • Controversial • Biases in journal selection • Self-citations – 13% • Review journals ‘over-rated’ • Common author names a problem – use ORCID etc • Free/’open access’ journals highly-rated? • Probably better in Life Sciences than in other fields • Journals - look at position in ranking rather than absolute numbers • Journals - look at trends
  25. 25. IEEE Spectrum rank and trend
  26. 26. Criticisms of bibliometrics • Blockbuster paper • Incorrect papers (Hwang example) • Errors – often due to poor referencing
  27. 27. What else can we measure? • Altmetrics – Article usage • How many times is an article accessed? – Social media • How many times is an article mentioned on Twitter or Facebook?
  28. 28. Useful guide • Measuring Research Impact – http://library.soton.ac.uk/bibliometrics

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