Pedagogy And Technology


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Pedagogy And Technology

  1. 1. Pedagogy and Technology History 6320:History Teaching and Learning Dr. Beth Brunk-Chavez Rhetoric and Writing Studies April 10, 2008
  2. 2. What Teaching with Technology Means <ul><li>Technology Enhanced —f2f with online elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>online course management (syllabus, schedule, assignments, grading) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>online content (e-books, readings, glossary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>online communication (discussions, blogs, email) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid —part f2f, part online (variations) </li></ul><ul><li>Distance —never see the whites of their eyes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Practical Reasons for Teaching with Technology <ul><li>Tracks student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Introduces time-use flexibility for both students and instructors </li></ul><ul><li>Increases students’ computer literacy skills and confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Saves paper—creates a paperless classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Enables efficient use of classroom space </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pedagogical Reasons for Teaching with Technology <ul><li>Enhances students’ writing abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an environment conducive to interaction and community building </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates student-centered learning </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodates a variety of learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Creates visually organized learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Has become a familiar way of learning, researching , communicating </li></ul>
  5. 6. Multiliteracies for a Digital Age Stuart Selber, 2004 <ul><li>Students must be able to use computers effectively as well as participate in the construction and reconstruction of technological systems. What is needed is an approach to computer literacy that is both useful and professionally responsible (7). </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>If teachers fail to adopt a postcritical stance, thus leaving technology design and education to those outside of the field, it is entirely probable that students will have a much more difficult time understanding computers in critical, contextual, and historical ways… </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>… that technology designs, informed by pedagogical and cultural values not our own, will define and redefine literacy practices in ways that are less than desirable… </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>… and that computer literacy initiatives will simply serve to perpetuate rather than alleviate existing social inequities (13). </li></ul>
  9. 10. Objections To Teaching with Technology (They can be overcome.) <ul><li>Time commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of being online all the time </li></ul><ul><li>Student awareness, participation, technological abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Tech issues such as access and system failure </li></ul><ul><li>Fears: of failing, of something new, of change </li></ul>
  10. 11. A Potential Problem with Online Learning <ul><li>A big fear of technology-enhanced pedagogies is that they will decenter the instructor. The students will feel disconnected; so will the teacher. How do students and instructors make an adjustment? </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration—students and instructor working together to create knowledge </li></ul>
  11. 12. Classroom Dynamics <ul><li>In this traditional f2f model, what's missing from is interconnectivity and exchange of ideas between students in a more democratic setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional </li></ul>
  12. 13. Classroom Dynamics <ul><li>In this cooperative model, we see that cooperative activities only go so far in creating a democratic setting, as they still leave the instructor at the top of the hierarchical chain of the traditional classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative </li></ul>
  13. 14. Classroom Dynamics <ul><li>In this collaborative model, interactivity has been achieved and a more democratic classroom is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Necessity of Shared Space <ul><li>Michael Schrage (MIT) argued that &quot;collaboration, without exception, requires&quot; it. The nature of shared space is variable and dynamic; it can be a virtual space, a physical space, or a digital space. It can be a blackboard, a whiteboard, an online chat room, or discussion board. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Shared Space <ul><li>What's important, Schrage found, is that &quot;you need to have the media where the ideas can be captured and represented and those representations can be modified and played with.&quot; Clearly, teaching writing using technology provides ample opportunities to create and use shared space. A digitized class creates and maintains shared spaces in ways that a f2f classroom cannot. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Shared Spaces <ul><li>Until an instructor decides to use the discussion board more as a forum for working through ideas and activities and less as a virtual refrigerator for Post-It notes , then technical efforts toward creating a space for collaborative activity remain empty shells. </li></ul>
  17. 18. What Are Shared Spaces? <ul><li>Whiteboards </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion boards </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul>
  18. 19. “ Ok, I’m sold,” you say, “where do I sign?” <ul><li>Actually, where do I begin ….surprisingly not necessarily with the technology! </li></ul>
  19. 20. Let’s Begin <ul><li>Consider what it is you want to do , then consider how the technology can accommodate (not dictate) your teaching desires. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a map of your map (that is, your syllabus). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what elements must be delivered f2f and what can be done equally well or better online. At the same time imagine what you could do online that can’t be done with a “traditional” delivery method. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Designing the Space <ul><li>Although we can expect students to slug through a poorly organized syllabus, we cannot count on them doing the same online. </li></ul><ul><li>Spend time thinking about how to visually organize the course/assignment/task. What will make sense to the students? </li></ul>
  21. 22. Mapping Their Path <ul><li>Create a map of what will happen when students go online. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Here is an example of what students might do to complete peer critiques. </li></ul></ul>Enter WebCT Click on Discussions Find and click on group Locate thread entitled “ Peer Critique 1” Read directions
  22. 23. More Mapping Post draft Wait until all drafts are posted, then download group members’ drafts from discussions Download peer critique questions from “ week 6 assignments” Complete peer critique by typing in answers to questions and inserting comments Go back to discussions and upload the peer critiqued drafts
  23. 24. After Mapping <ul><li>After you have created the map, create the path for them to get from the start of the assignment to its completion. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to the points where students get lost and ask them for feedback. </li></ul>
  24. 25. If All You Have Is a Hammer… <ul><li>Some technology you might consider: </li></ul><ul><li>WebCT </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>Annotation/book marking tools </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking/Commenting/Formatting tools in Word </li></ul>
  25. 26. What to Consider Before Redesigning a Course <ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Methods and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional goals </li></ul><ul><li>Time to develop materials </li></ul><ul><li>Support for students </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to be flexible </li></ul>
  26. 27. As Future Professors Consider <ul><li>Departmental and Institutional Decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies should be created concerning: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course releases for development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What courses can be modified </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support—teachers and students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching evaluations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scholarship </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Good Things to Remember <ul><li>Don’t get frustrated. It might not work the first time, but don’t give up. </li></ul><ul><li>Help your students to overcome frustration, but don’t hold their hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Help each other. Collaboration is one of the best ways to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Know where your resources are. </li></ul><ul><li>Have fun. Try new things. </li></ul>
  28. 29. A Few Tips <ul><li>Have set policies about what your expectations are generally and specifically. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep groups small—no more than 7 per group. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t interfere with their discussions. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage collaboration, and sometimes cooperation, when appropriate. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Tips <ul><li>Make a clear connection between what is done online and what is done in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Give students a chance to meet each other in both shared spaces. </li></ul>