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Canada AD Study


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Canada AD Study

  1. 1. Life Cycle Assessment Bainbridge Graduate School 30 October 2006 American Center for LCA, IERE
  2. 2. IERE, ACLCA & R. Schenck <ul><li>IERE is an NGO founded in 1995, with a mission to support fact-based environmental decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>ACLCA is the flagship program of IERE. It promotes LCA in the USA, and acts as the professional society of LCA </li></ul><ul><li>Rita Schenck is the founder & executive director, and represented the US in negotiating the LCA standards </li></ul>
  3. 3. LCA History <ul><li>First LCA’s in the US in the 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on energy systems </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1980, several workshops hosted by the Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC) </li></ul><ul><li>European Type III ecolabels begin (Blue Angel) </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1990’s ISO standards created (the ISO 14040 series) </li></ul><ul><li>US EPA Purchasing programs begin </li></ul><ul><li>In the 2000’s UNEP partnered with SETAC to develop better data systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Production & Consumption programs </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Systems Analysis; Input-output Industrial System Raw Material Extraction Manufacturing, Production Distribution , Transportation Operations and Maintenance Recycle and Waste Management Inputs (resources) energy, materials Outputs air and water emissions, wastes
  5. 5. Indicators of All Impact Categories Human Toxicity Ozone Depletion Ecotoxicity Fossil Fuel Depletion Photochemical Smog Eutrophication Acidification Climate Change
  6. 6. Phases of a Life Cycle Assessment Goal and Scope Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Interpretation
  7. 7. ISO and the 14040 series <ul><li>ISO makes voluntary standards to support international trade: ISO is sister organization of WTO </li></ul><ul><li>14040 series are guidance on how to do LCA’s </li></ul><ul><li>Standards exist on scoping, inventory, impact assessment and interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Currently being-re-written to have fewer standards </li></ul>
  8. 8. Scoping <ul><li>The system function and functional unit: the economic or social good provided by the goods or services in question. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact categories: which environmental concerns are included and which are excluded </li></ul><ul><li>The system boundary: which processes are included and which ones are excluded </li></ul><ul><li>The audience of the LCA and therefore whether it will be a public and peer reviewed document. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical issues such as engineering conventions and impact assessment models </li></ul>
  9. 9. System Function/Functional Unit <ul><li>Only unique part of LCA </li></ul><ul><li>Connects social benefits (goods and services) to environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Makes the Market drive environmental improvement </li></ul><ul><li>System function can be as simple as vehicle miles traveled or as complicated as governmental function </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mass and Energy Inventory Manufacturing Energy Materials Air Emissions Water Emissions Wastes
  11. 11. FLOWS <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity (location) </li></ul><ul><li>Water (location & type) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel (in ground) </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals (in ground) </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass (harvested) </li></ul><ul><li>Land use (area & location) </li></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CO </li></ul><ul><li>PM (10, 2.5) </li></ul><ul><li>CH 4 </li></ul><ul><li>SO X </li></ul><ul><li>NO X </li></ul><ul><li>NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Hg </li></ul><ul><li>Pb </li></ul><ul><li>VOC (NM) </li></ul><ul><li>Dioxin </li></ul><ul><li>PAH’s </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>COD </li></ul><ul><li>TDS </li></ul><ul><li>TSS </li></ul><ul><li>BOD (5,7,10) </li></ul><ul><li>Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>NH3 (as N) </li></ul><ul><li>TKN (as N) </li></ul><ul><li>NO3, NO2 (as N) </li></ul><ul><li>PAH’s </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphates (as P) </li></ul><ul><li>Cu </li></ul><ul><li>Ni </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Cd </li></ul><ul><li>Cr </li></ul><ul><li>Pb </li></ul><ul><li>Hg </li></ul><ul><li>Wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Solid waste </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive Waste (high, low, medium) </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Waste </li></ul>Not a comprehensive list, but a minimum list
  12. 12. Electricity Life Cycle Use Transportation Disposal Raw Material Acquisition Generation
  13. 13. Raw Materials
  14. 14. Transport
  15. 15. On site Transport Water Production & Processing Generation Pollution Control Material Storage & Handling Maintenance Transmission Distribution Resource Extraction Processing Manufacturing Distributed generation Construction & Demolition Disposal Fleet Operations System Boundary
  16. 16. <ul><li>Water Resource Depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Resource Depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuel Depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Land Use/Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Conservation </li></ul>Environmental Impacts Categories <ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Stratospheric Ozone Depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Photochemical Smog </li></ul><ul><li>Acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Human Toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-Toxicity </li></ul>
  17. 17. Life Cycle Impact Assessment <ul><li>Uses the inventory data </li></ul><ul><li>Models Indicators, not actual impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators are assumed to correlate with impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Takes thousands of data points and boils them down to 10-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome is the ecoprofile </li></ul>
  18. 18. Example Impact Assessment <ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Uses air emissions inventory of CO 2 , N 2 O, CH 4 and others </li></ul><ul><li>Measure Global Warming Potential </li></ul><ul><li>Does not measure effects of droughts, floods, sea level rise or local warming </li></ul>
  19. 19. After Impact Assessment <ul><li>Normalization, Scoring and other methods </li></ul><ul><li>Used to clarify data for decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>Based on value judgments, not science </li></ul>
  20. 20. Normalized Type III Ecolabel % of land farmed 99 160 Biodiversity/Land Use % of feed is GMO 78 168 Gene Modified Organisms moles hormone used 0.0 0 Hormone Used lbs soil eroded 8 67 Soil losses moles antibiotic used 0.0001 70 Antibiotic Use lbs water used 59 34 Water Use lb oil equivalents 2.0 92 Fossil Fuel Depletion lbs water polluted 0.1 42 Aquatic Toxicity lbs PM-10 464 84 Air-based Toxicity lbs ozone equivalents 0.0 12 Photochemical Smog lbs PO 4 equivalents 0.065 107 Eutrophication lbs SO 2 equivalents 0.1 66 Acidification lbs CFC-12 equivalents 0.0 0 Stratospheric Ozone Depletion lbs CO 2 equivalents 3.8 40 Climate Change Unit per Pound Meat Farm Result % of US Average Impact Category Rosendahl Farm #rfne001 Pork Ecoprofile
  21. 21. Interpretation Phase <ul><li>Reviews data quality </li></ul><ul><li>Makes recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Not always done in LCA, or done cursorily (some important exceptions) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Uses of LCA LCA DfE Vendor Management Annual Reports Emissions Trading Product Stewardship Public Policy Marketing & Labels EMS
  23. 23. Public Policy Benefits of LCA’s <ul><li>Provides a format to integrate all environmental issues and programs </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies best use of limited governmental resources </li></ul><ul><li>Supports environmentally preferable purchasing programs </li></ul><ul><li>Supports efforts under Kyoto Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Uses private resources to achieve environmental tracking and improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes public disclosure in a transparent format </li></ul>
  24. 24. LCA in EMS <ul><li>Many multi-nationals have begun using LCA’s in their EMS’s </li></ul><ul><li>Since LCA measures performance based on impact categories, differences in compliance systems are avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Comparisons between business units are easier </li></ul>
  25. 25. LCA is Hard Numbers <ul><li>You can track progress </li></ul><ul><li>You can green your supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>It is not based on different laws in different countries </li></ul><ul><li>You can be assured that your environmental dollars are really making improvements </li></ul><ul><li>You can prove to NGO’s and others that you have made a good decision </li></ul>
  26. 26. LCA in Design for Environment & Product Stewardship <ul><li>LCA’s permit one to identify opportunities for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>LCA’s identify potential problems in the use phase of the life cycle– where the customer is most concerned </li></ul>
  27. 27. LCA in Emissions Trading <ul><li>LCA underlies the emissions trading system of the Kyoto Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriately designed products e.g. buildings should be able to demonstrate life cycle energy use reductions and have carbon credits to trade </li></ul>
  28. 28. ISO & International Law <ul><li>ISO is the sister organization to the WTO </li></ul><ul><li>Role is to create international standards to facilitate international trade </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption imbedded in international law is that, by definition, ISO-based national and local laws do not create trade barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. LCA-based Laws in Europe <ul><li>2002 Restriction on the use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS) </li></ul><ul><li>2003 Integrated Product Policy (IPP) </li></ul><ul><li>2003 End of Life Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>2004 EU Directive on Packaging & packaging waste </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) </li></ul><ul><li>2006 Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>2006 (expected) Batteries Directive </li></ul>
  30. 30. A few comments on EU laws <ul><li>Most of the EU laws seem to be focused on end-of-life (waste minimization, product take back) kinds of issues </li></ul><ul><li>REACH is really focused on toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentally, laws say “you make it, you own it” Product design is key to the thought process. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries must harmonize with directives </li></ul><ul><li>Litigation is underway for some national laws </li></ul><ul><li>Take back is problematic for long-distance suppliers </li></ul>
  31. 31. USA implication of EU Laws <ul><li>WEEE, REACH are creating problems for US Manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative to address these issues is underway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Saunders [email_address] </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Japanese LCA Based Laws <ul><li>Laws come from MITI (Ministry of Economy, Trade & Industry) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocols– Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling Oriented Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Integrated Policy (Hazardous Chemical Management) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So far, Japan’s focus is internal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Life Cycle Inventory (US$11MM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling in-country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Type III ecolabel </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Other Countries Considering LCA Approach <ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul>
  34. 34. Implications for the USA <ul><li>US business is at risk because its LCA infrastructure is poorly funded </li></ul><ul><li>It is easy to argue that distant sources are less environmentally desirable because of the impacts of transport </li></ul><ul><li>US Laws are not based on LCA, and are less able to be applied to other countries (e.g. low sulfur fuel failure) </li></ul><ul><li>Credible, inexpensive & rapid US based analysis is not currently possible </li></ul>
  35. 35. Life Cycle Thinking <ul><li>A way to get life cycle benefits without having to perform the full LCA </li></ul><ul><li>Basically the same as the scoping phase of LCA </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluates the entire value chain </li></ul><ul><li>May calculate certain impacts, e.g. climate change </li></ul>
  36. 36. About 85% of building impacts come from the operations & Maintenance Industrial System Raw Material Extraction Manufacturing, Production Distribution , Transportation Operations and Maintenance Recycle and Waste Management Inputs (resources) energy, materials Outputs air and water emissions, wastes
  37. 37. Where do Building Impacts Come From ? <ul><li>W ater Use/abuse </li></ul><ul><li>E nergy Use </li></ul><ul><li>T oxics Use </li></ul>Stay out of the WET
  38. 38. LC Activities in USA <ul><li>Federal Governmental </li></ul><ul><li>State and Local Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate </li></ul><ul><li>NGO </li></ul>
  39. 39. Federal Government <ul><li>US EPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LC Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRACI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel Alternatives study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmentally Preferable Purchasing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NIST: BEES/USDA </li></ul><ul><li>NREL: North American Database </li></ul>
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Data Sources - The US LCA Database <ul><li>The US LCI database is a set of free unit process inventories– so far about 80 </li></ul><ul><li>It is sponsored by the national renewable energy laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Find it at </li></ul>
  42. 43. Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program <ul><li>Two executive orders supporting “green Purchasing” were written during Clinton Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Required all U.S. government purchasing to take into account environmental preferability of products: Life cycle approach required </li></ul><ul><li>Program Managed through the EPA </li></ul><ul><li>General Services Administration and many other parts of U.S. Government have programs </li></ul><ul><li>For More Info see </li></ul>
  43. 44. EPP Guidance Principles <ul><li>Include environmental considerations as part of the normal purchasing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize pollution prevention early in the purchasing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine multiple environmental attributes throughout a product’s or service’s life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare relevant environmental impacts when selecting products and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and base purchasing decisions on accurate and meaningful information about environmental performance </li></ul>
  44. 45. North American LCI Data Base <ul><li>Collaboratively funded by NREL, other US Government agencies (GSA, Forest Service, EPA, Navy) Automotive industry </li></ul><ul><li>Find it at </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory of common unit processes (about 80 so far) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuels (including combustion) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wood products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum casting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 46. NREL <ul><li>National Renewable Energy Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Tests prospective renewable energy technologies </li></ul><ul><li>10 to 20 assessments per year </li></ul><ul><li>All assessment Include Life Cycle environmental assessment and cost assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Selected technologies candidates for federal funding/support </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen technologies and Biorefineries current focus </li></ul>
  46. 47. National Institute of Standards and Technology <ul><li>BEES Program </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1997; updated to conform to ISO standards </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Ecobalance Inventory Database </li></ul><ul><li>Uses EPA’s TRACI impact models </li></ul><ul><li>Calculates LCC as well as LCA </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Consensus Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life-Cycle Costing (ASTM E917) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building Element Classification (ASTM E1557) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment (ISO 14040) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis (ASTM E1765 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Available on the Web: Contains hundreds of products </li></ul><ul><li>First Focus on the building products industry </li></ul>
  47. 48. BEES <ul><li>Moving to bio-based products to support environmentally preferable purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>“USDA is adopting the BEES Analysis method in order to establish a uniform methodology and platform for analysis of environmental and health effects and life cycle costs” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  48. 50. State and Local Governments <ul><li>State of Oregon doing LCA for packaging industry regulation </li></ul><ul><li>State of California uses LCA for Environmentally Preferable Purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>City of Seattle is considering including an LC commitment in its sustainability policy </li></ul><ul><li>Many city governments members of SPPC and support “green” purchasing </li></ul>
  49. 51. Universities <ul><li>Over 30 Universities in the USA teach LCA courses </li></ul><ul><li>Several Universities have strong programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Washington (web-based program starting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnegie Mellon (EIO originator) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley (EIO and Health impact assessment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Michigan (Cleaner production) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yale (Industrial Ecology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIT </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. University Projects <ul><li>Many different kinds of LCA’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-to-wheel studies for fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen economy studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-based materials studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I/O studies for country-wide assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of indicators </li></ul></ul>
  51. 53. NGO’s <ul><li>Developing NGO Community in LCA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPPC: Sustainable Products Purchasing Coalition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IERE: Institute for Environmental Research and education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WRI: World Resources Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Defense: several projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WBCSD: World Business Council on Sustainable Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US Green Building Council (LCA into LEED) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Building Initiative </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. US Businesses Doing LCA’s <ul><li>Dupont </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics industry, through American Plastics Council </li></ul><ul><li>Conoco-Philips </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive Industry (GM & Ford) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics industry (HP, AT&T, others) </li></ul><ul><li>Agribusiness (bio-based products) </li></ul><ul><li>Building Industry, especially flooring </li></ul>
  53. 55. Wal-Mart’s Sustainability Program <ul><li>Many different teams </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging is the first to get out of the door </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta test February 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some life cycle data (climate change) incorporated into the scorecard for packaging materials </li></ul>
  54. 56. In Summary <ul><li>LCA is an environmental performance measurement tool </li></ul><ul><li>It has many uses both internal and external, business and governmental </li></ul><ul><li>It is used all over the globe </li></ul><ul><li>LCA was invented in USA, but got off to a slow start </li></ul><ul><li>A groundswell of support and activity is underway </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate high activity over the next decade </li></ul>