LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENTALY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT I Made Gunamantha email@example.comChemical Analysis Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Ganesha University of Education
Outline• Sustainable Development and Environmental Concern• Life Cycle Assessment As An Analytical Tool• Structure of Life Cycle Assessment• Characteristics and Dimensions in Application Life Cycle Assessment• Conclusion
Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needsEvidently this definition does not speakabout the environment per se, but refersto the well-being of people as anenvironmental quality. http://www.ccema-portal.org/
Sustainable Development and Environmental Concern• Since the lives of our and future generations, depends on the long-term functioning of the complicated ecosystems to produce food, raw materials and energy , it means none of our activities would be sustainable if it led to environmental demise.• Should be improved at each stage in production process with three broad objectives : 1) reducing the consumption of resources: this includes minimizing the use of energy, materials, water and land, enhancing recyclability and product durability and closing material loops; 2) reducing the impact on nature: this includes minimizing air emissions, water discharges, waste disposal and the dispersion of toxic substances, as well as fostering the sustainable use of renewable resources; and 3) increasing product or service value: this means providing more benefits to customers through product functionality, flexibility and modularity, providing additional services and focusing on selling the functional needs that customers actually want.• Clean production principle and technological in life cycle product should be adopted by producer• Every calculation has to refer to the whole life cycle and all its processes.
Therefore, it is necessary to take into account a tool with life cycle perspectiveanalysis of system product, from the extraction of raw materials to the disposalprocesses. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is definitely the best-establishedmethodology and better than others (Heijungs, 1993).
1. A “cradle-to-grave” approach “for assessing the Life Cycle Assessment environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product by;– compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a system– evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with these inputs and outputs– interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the objectives of the study.” (ISO 14040)2. Enables estimation of cumulative environmental impacts results from all stages of the product life cycle
Life Cycle Assessment As An Analytical Tool• The technique examines every stage of the life cycle, from the winning of the raw materials, through manufacture, distribution, use, possible re-use/recycling and then final disposal.• For each stage, the inputs (in terms of raw materials and energy) and outputs (in terms of emissions to air, water, soil, and solid waste) are calculated, and these are aggregated over the Life Cycle.• These inputs and outputs are then converted into their effects on the environment, i.e. their environmental impacts.• The sum of these environmental impacts then represents the overall environmental effect of the Life Cycle of the product or service.
History of LCAThe concept of life-cycle assessment first emerged in the late 1960sbut did not receive much attention until the mid-11980sIn 1989, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry(SETAC) became the first international organization to begin oversightof the advancement of LCA.In 1994, the International Standards Organization (ISO) begandeveloping standards for the LCA as part of its 14000 series standardson environmental management. The standards address both thetechnical details and conceptual organization of LCA . 1. ISO 14040-A standard on principles and framework 2. ISO 14041-A standard on goal and scope definition and inventory analysis 3. ISO 14042-A standard on life-cycle impact assessment 4. ISO 14043-A standard on life-cycle interpretation
Structure of LCA Goal and Scope DefinitionLife Cycle Inventory (LCI) Direct ApplicationAnalysis-Flow chart process -Product-Data collection development and-Boundary system determination Interpretation improvement-Emission quantification -Strategic planning -Public policy makingLife Cycle Impact Assessment -Marketing(LCIA) -Other-Classification-Characterization-Weighing-Normalization-Valuation
Definition of goal and scope1. Deﬁne the purpose of the LCA study, ending with the deﬁnition of the functional unit, which is the quantitative reference for the study.2. Deﬁne the scope of the study which embraces two main tasks: - Establish the spatial limits between the product system under study and its neighborhood that will be generally called “environment”. - Detail the system through drawing up its unit processes ﬂowchart, taking into account a ﬁrst estimation of inputs from and outputs to the environment (the elementary ﬂows or burdens to the environment).3. Deﬁne the data required, which includes a speciﬁcation of the data necessary for the inventory analysis and for the subsequent impact assessment phase.4. Define the function unit - is the measure of the performance delivered by the system under study.5. Define the boundary system - the unit processes or activities that will be included in the system under study.
Boundary System Raw water Rain water Energy , phosphate Production Drinking of chemicals water treatment 1 Fertiliser Distribution production Heat, food, Stormwater 3 chemicals collection Use Alternative energy source 2 Treatment Collection (optional) Transport Production Wastewater Sludge Spreading/ of chemicals treatment treatment Transport Disposal/ Incineration Treated wastewaterSystem boundaries of an urban water system including three sub-systems; drinking water (1), wastewater (2) andstormwater (3) and an extended system including production of electricity, chemicals and fertiliser. (Lundin, 2000).
Foreground and Background SystemThe foregroundsystem representsthose activities onwhich measures maybe taken as a resultof decision base onthe study. Thebackground systemrepresents all otheractivities affected bya change ofwastewatertreatment system.For simplicity,electricity deliveredto other parts ofbackground systemin indicated onlygenerally. Tillman, 2000
Life Cycle Inventory Analysis• The inventory analysis is the phase when data is collected and calculations are made in order to specify relevant inputs to and outputs from the product system. This work can be divided into four different substeps (ISO 14041, 1998) which in practise are performed simultaneously.• First, all processes involved in the life cycle of the product system have to be identified. Ultimately, all processes start with the extraction of raw materials and energy from the environment.• Following the data collection, calculation procedures are needed to generate the results of the inventory of the defined system for each unit process and for the defined functional unit of the product system that is to be modelled.• The calculation should result in all system input and output data being referenced to the functional unit.• Aggregation of all data, through addition, then results in an inventory table.
Life Cycle Inventory Table http://www.iees.ch/EcoEng051/EcoEng051_Kirk.htmlAlt0 -the existing wastewater treatment system - a conventional centralized system with denytrification and biogas production. , Alt-1-Utilizing the existing collection system and plumbing, solids are collected at the residences and transported to local digestion anddrying facilities, while the liquids are treated on site in sand filters and then piped to a constructed wetland. The solids are used asfertilizer. Alt 2 – Graywater, urine, and feces are separated using urine-diverting ("no-mix") toilets and additional plumbing. Thegraywater is treated on site in sand filters. Feces, flushwater, and graywater solids are collected at the residences and digested anddried locally. The urine and solids are used as fertilizer.
Life Cycle Impact Assessment• Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is a process to identify and characterize the potential effects produced in the environment by the system under study. The starting point for LCIA is the information obtained in the inventory stage.LCIA is considered to consist of four steps:• Classification, in which the data originated in the inventory analysis are grouped in different categories, according to the environmental impacts they are expected to contribute. Indicators of impact categories include: Climate change, Acidification, Eutrophication, Photochemical smog, Fossil fuel depletion, Ecotoxicity, Ozone depletion Human toxicity.• Characterization, consists of weighting the different substances contributing to the same environmental impact. Thus, for every impact category included in LCIA, an aggregated result is obtained, in a given unit of measure.• Normalization, which involves relating the characterized data to a broader data set or situation, for example, relating SOx emissions to a countrys total SOx emissions.• Weighting, where the results for the different impact categories are converted into scores, by using numerical factors based on values. The advantage of this stage is that different criteria (impact categories) are converted to a numerical score of environmental impact, thus
Some of the steps involved in the life cycle impact assessment
Interpretation Goal and scope Evaluation by: definition Identification -Completeness check of significant -Sensitive check issue -Consistence check Inventory -Others checks analysis Conclutions, Impact recommendations and assessment reporting Interpretation phaseIn the interpretation phase of LCA the findings from the inventory analysis and the impactassessment are combined together in order to reach conclusions and recommendations,consistent with the goal and scope of the study (ISO 1997).This phase may also involve the reviewing and revising of the goal and scope, as well as thenature and quality of the data collected.
Characteristics and Dimension in Application LCA• Base on the structure of LCA, Udo de Haes (1993) divided LCA in two characteristics. 1. First of all it is the life cycle concept itself, as an integrative, holistic point of view. 2. LCA is its scientific background. It includes knowledge from a number of disciplines, and integrates this knowledge within one encompassing model.• LCA as a concept, qualitative LCA and quantitative LCA (Udo de Haes, 1993) . 1. As a concept means the use of this tool as a guiding principle; the responsibility to look and communicate upstream and downstream in the chain, without the use of specific criteria or calculation procedures. 2. In qualitative LCA one makes use of a number of separate criteria, such as types of resources, types of emissions, reusability or recyclability, degradability, product life span, product weight, etc., in total covering in a qualitative way the flow chart of the systems life cycle. 3. In quantitative LCA the building of an encompassing model, describing the inputs and outputs of the system during all stages of the life cycle, is the core characteristic.
SEA = Strategic Environmental Assessment , EIA = Environmental Impact Assessment ; CBA = Cost- benefit analysis ; LCA = Life Cycle Assessment ; SEEA = System of Economic and Environmental Accounting; Total Material Requirement; IOA = Input output analysis ; RA = Risk assessment; En = energy analysis; EF = Ecological footprint; EMS = environmental management System; SFA= substance flow analysis; DMI+direct material input; DMC = Direct material consumption; MIPS = Material intensity per unit serviceFinnveden et al. (2005)
The uses of LCA can be classiﬁed as general and particular:General:• Compare alternative choices.• Identify points for environmental enhancement.• Count on a more global perspective of environmental issues, to avoid problem shifting.• Contribute to the understanding of the environmental consequences of human activities.• Establish a picture of the interactions between a product or activity and the environment as quickly as possible.• Provide support information so that decision-makers can identify opportunities for environmental improvements.Particular:• Deﬁne the environmental performance of a product during its entire life-cycle.• Identify the most relevant steps in the manufacturing process related to a given environmental impact.• Compare the environmental performance of a product with that of other concurrent products or with others giving a similar service.
Benefits of the life cycle approach All necessary inputs and emissions in many stages and operations of the life cycle are considered to be within the system boundaries. This includes not only inputs and emissions for production, distribution, use and disposal, but also indirect inputs and emissions - such as from the initial production of the energy used - regardless of when or where they occur. Identifies key impacts and life-cycle stages of system If real environmental improvements are to be made by changes in the product or service, it is important not to cause greater environmental deteriorations at another time or place in the Life Cycle. LCA offers the prospect of mapping the energy and material flows as well as the resources, solid wastes, and emissions of the total system, i.e. it provides a "system map" that sets the stage for a holistic approach. The power of LCA is that it expands the debate on environmental concerns beyond a single issue, and attempts to address a broad range of environmental issues, by using a quantitative methodology, thus providing an objective basis for decision making. Better decision-making for product/production systems
Limitations of LCA Availability and quality of life-cycle inventory data Uncertainties in the inventory and impact assessment methodology Lack of agreement on some elements of Impact Assessment methodology Differences in LCA problem formulation due to differences in values LCA is not able to assess the actual environmental effects. As above mentioned, Life Cycle Impact Assessment, specially cautions that LCA does not predict actual impacts or assess safety, risks, or whether thresholds are exceeded. The actual environmental effects of emissions will depend on when, where and how they are released into the environment, and other assessment tools must be utilized. For example, an aggregated emission released in one event from one source, will have a very different effect than releasing it continuously over years from many diffuse sources. Clearly no single tool can do everything, so a combination of complementary tools is needed for overall environmental management.
Conclusions• Life Cycle Assessment, one of the newest concepts, allows an integrated approach to minimizing environmental loads throughout the life-cycle of a product, system or service.• A systems analysis, not isolated operations.• Considers upstream and downstream burdens, and foreground and background system.• Multi-media and multi-pollutant. Main components: Goals and Scoping Inventory Analysis Impact Assessment Interpretation