Clean Air Act


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  • 90 Amendments also gave us the authority to begin reducing emissions of 188 air toxics – chemicals suspected, or known to, cause cancer. Since ’90, emissions down by a third. Standards already issued will reduce annual toxic emissions by nearly 1.5 million tons
  • The graph shows residual risk test results only for facilities in each category that are subject to MACT. The focus here is on the maximum cancer risk at each facility due solely to the emissions associated with the source category. The higher the bar, the more facilities were included in the RR test. The higher the percentage in parentheses, the greater the proportion of MACT-affected facilities in the category were included in the RR test. The bluer the bottom of the bar, the more facilities were low-risk. The redder the top of the bar, the more facilities were high risk. Petroleum refineries and marine vessel loading are most-assessed categories. Risk from refineries is much more significant, with most facilities exceeding 1 in a million risk. Categories with a substantial percentage of facilities above 10 in a million include coke ovens, EO sterilizers, HON, petroleum refineries, polymers & resins II and IV, secondary lead, and shipbuilding & repair. For PCE dry cleaners, only one facility assessed, risk> 100 in a million; this is the largest emitter and likely the highest risk facility in that category. For magnetic tape, only one facility currently assessed, risk less than 1 in a million. Graph shows results for 17 source categories; a total of 707 facilities have been modeled to date; 352 of those show risks less than 1 in a million.
  • Clean Air Act

    1. 1. Goal 1 Clean Air and Global Climate Change - An Overview - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    2. 2. Structure of the Goal <ul><li>Clean Air and Global Climate Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaner Air (Criteria Pollutants, Acid Rain, Haze) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air Toxics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratospheric Ozone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and Science </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Significance of Risk/Benefits <ul><li>Comparative Risk Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Brookings Study: “Improve Air Quality” </li></ul><ul><li>Thompson Report (OMB) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Goal 1 Selected Risk Drivers <ul><li>Particulate matter (PM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single greatest threat from ground-level air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of premature deaths per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to many respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precursor to regional haze: link to acid rain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ozone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even at low levels, ozone can cause acute respiratory problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated exposure may permanently injure the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indoor Air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health risks high due to indoor exposures to Asthma Triggers, Radon, ETS and Air Toxics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of poor indoor air quality at 10’s of billions of dollars annually due to direct medical costs and lost productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Toxics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause cancer, reproductive disorders, birth defects, and damage to nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutants persist in the environment increasing exposure and risks (e.g., mercury & dioxins) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Set National standards with states/locals/tribes implementing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( e.g., NAAQS, toxic air pollutants) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help states/locals/tribes attain standards with national programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( e.g., vehicle emission standards, acid rain program) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( e.g. , stratospheric ozone, climate) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide tools for states, locals, tribes, and others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( e.g., emission models, guidance, & grants ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air quality, economic and policy analysis </li></ul>The Air & Radiation Program The Federal Role
    6. 6. Tools for Success <ul><li>Performance standards </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions limits </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Trading and economic incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid voluntary/enforcement programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partnerships with state and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance & technical assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul>
    7. 7. Research Under Air Goal <ul><li>Two major areas of research, described in multi-year plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PM/Ozone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Toxics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia research (e.g., global change, mercury) will be discussed in future Goal meeting </li></ul>
    8. 8. Progress Toward Clean Air 1970-2002 Pollution Down While Growth Continues
    9. 9. Air Quality-Criteria Pollutants: Progress <ul><li>Since 1990, the number of areas in attainment has increased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO: 78 of 78 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM: 73 of 85 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone (1 hr): 80 of 101 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New PM and ozone standards in 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to meet 1999 Regional Haze rule are being coordinated with ozone & PM strategies </li></ul>
    10. 10. Air Quality: Challenges <ul><li>New PM 2.5 and ozone standards set in 1997 upheld by Supreme Court decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next periodic reviews now underway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PM 2.5 single greatest health threat </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone problems persist </li></ul><ul><li>Rules establishing implementation frameworks under development </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Haze: Integrating implementation with PM, acid rain and ozone strategies </li></ul>
    11. 11. Air Quality: Supporting Science for Criteria Pollutants <ul><li>Emission Characterization/Inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment/Staff Paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Based on ORD Criteria Document) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Analysis </li></ul>
    12. 12. Research and Regulatory Program Interactions – PM example Improved understanding of exposure and health effects Improved tools and data for implementation Improved health risk assessment Improved air quality standards More effective implementation Reduced exposure Improved public health ORD OAR States Public Set NAAQS Implement NAAQS
    13. 13. Air Quality: Supporting Science for Criteria Pollutants <ul><li>Health and Exposure Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies of PM health effects in normal and susceptible populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PM mechanisms (including cardiovascular effects) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological effects of PM sources and hazardous components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptible populations and factors susceptibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disentangling PM and co-pollutant effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure response relationship for source-based components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term (10 year) epidemiologic grant to be awarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM Centers (re-compete in planning stages) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human exposure modeling and measurements </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Air Quality: Supporting Science for Criteria Pollutants <ul><li>Implementation Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission profiles/factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. , Emissions from CAFOs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source apportionment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To determine most significant sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To improve AQ models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air quality modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. , CMAQ development and refinement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambient methods/measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. , Support development of FRM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. , Evaluate multi-pollutant control technologies </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Passenger vehicles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>77-95% cleaner starting fall 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trucks and buses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90-95% cleaner starting 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-road diesel equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90-95% cleaner starting 2008 (proposed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(construction, farming, industrial equipment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Clean-burning reformulated gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra low sulfur gas and diesel fuels </li></ul>Vehicle Pollution: Progress
    16. 16. Mobile Source Vehicle Standards: Progress Passenger Car NOx Standards: Progress Non-road Diesel: Progress Non-road Diesel Equipment PM Standards 1996 2011-2015* Highway Diesel NOx Standards
    17. 17. Vehicle Pollution: Challenges <ul><li>Implement 2007 clean diesel rule </li></ul><ul><li>Promulgate non-road diesel rule </li></ul><ul><li>Further reduce pollution from locomotives, marine, and aircraft engines and fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pollution from existing fleet </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) growth </li></ul>
    18. 18. Vehicle Pollution: Challenges (continued) <ul><li>MTBE in drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of renewable fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation planning/conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Certification and Compliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% increase in compliance obligations since 1997 (continuing to grow rapidly) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-use, real-world emission measurement of mobile sources </li></ul>
    19. 19. Vehicle Pollution: Supporting Science <ul><li>Emission Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Models: MOBILE 6, NONROAD, MOVES </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of near-roadway and “hot spot” exposures </li></ul><ul><li>Source apportionment/source signature </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and Risk Assessment (§211 Program) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Assessment </li></ul>
    20. 20. Acid Rain: Progress <ul><li>SO 2 emissions down 5.5 million tons/year </li></ul><ul><li>NOx emissions down 1.5 million tons/year </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall in eastern U.S. up to 25% less acidic </li></ul><ul><li>Program highly cost-effective - Benefits are 40 times the costs </li></ul>
    21. 21. Monitored Reductions in Acid Rain: Progress 1989-1991 1999-2001
    22. 22. Acid Rain: Challenges <ul><li>Many believe the problem of acid rain was solved with passage of 1990 CAAA </li></ul><ul><li>Hubbard Brook Study (March 2001) demonstrates that acid rain is still a significant problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur emissions have declined but overall nitrogen emissions have not changed substantially </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further cuts in emissions still needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With additional 80% reduction in sulfur emissions from electric utilities, streams would change from acidic to non-acidic in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20-25 years </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Acid Rain: Supporting Science <ul><li>Clean Air Status and Trends NETwork (CASTNET) </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-system Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling/Economic Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Temporally-Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME)/Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) (Goal 4) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Air Toxics: Progress <ul><li>Completed standards for major stationary sources will eliminate nearly 1.7 million tons of toxic air emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile source standards will eliminate another 1.1 million tons between 1996 and 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Working with communities to address “hot spot” issues (e.g. Cleveland, Charlotte) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Air Toxic Emissions 1990-2007: Progress With CAA Without CAA 1990/1993 1996 1999 2007 2007 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (projected) (projected) (projected) Emissions [tons/yr] Millions
    26. 26. <ul><li>Assessments show that “hot spots” exist in urban areas due to cumulative impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities want these problems addressed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 30 ongoing projects led by the Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Led to development of Community Action for Renewed Environment (CARE) initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Providing technical assistance and tools to the regions, states, localities, and tribes </li></ul>Air Toxics Community-Based Programs: Progress
    27. 27. Diesel Retrofit Program: Progress <ul><li>Eliminating pollution (tons): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 80K tons of PM,HC, CO & NO x </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPA funded demonstration projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States are creating their own funding mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners match funds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Clean School Bus USA (Energy Bill authorizes EPA $300 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Idling Initiative </li></ul>
    28. 28. Air Toxics: Challenges <ul><li>Assess residual risks/Set standards if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Assess area source emissions and set standards </li></ul><ul><li>Reassess fuels & vehicles in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Propose Utility standard to control mercury and other toxics </li></ul><ul><li>Expand work with communities </li></ul><ul><li>Expand air toxics monitoring networks nationally </li></ul><ul><li>Need for information on exposure and risk at the local level (“hot spots”) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Air Toxics: Supporting Science
    30. 30. National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA)
    31. 31. Air Toxics: Supporting Science (continued) <ul><li>Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual Risk/Petitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NATA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model Development: MOBILE 6.2, MOVES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving emission inventories and air quality modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Analysis </li></ul>
    32. 32. Air Toxics: Supporting Science (continued) <ul><li>Research Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Uncertainty in Air Toxics Risk Assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving Acute Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARE methods, health effects, susceptibility, human exposures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shape of the dose response curve for PAHs, IRIS Assessments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Assessment Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission and human exposure measurement and modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implement Risk Reduction of Air Toxics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Source emissions profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor Air research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National and Community Assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric chemistry and modeling. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission monitoring tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jet REMPI for trace organics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual Risk Support </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Indoor Air <ul><li>Americans spend 90% of time indoors -- some pollutant concentrations average 2-5 times higher than outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary program tackles greatest risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radon -- 2 nd leading cause of lung cancer after smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ETS -- worsens asthma, causes hundreds of thousands of respiratory diseases in children, lung cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other pollutants such as VOC’s & CO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture/mold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutory authority to research and educate, but not to regulate </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Indoor Air: Progress <ul><li>Action through network of over 100 national, state, tribal, and local partners </li></ul><ul><li>Award winning media campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving real results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced children’s exposure to ETS in homes from 27% to 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed homes with high radon levels (700,000); building new radon-resistant homes (1 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved the environment of more than 10,000 schools </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Indoor Air: Challenges <ul><li>Small, voluntary program addressing multiple contaminants and high risks must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain momentum with modest investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have compelling messages based upon sound science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work via kaleidoscope of public, private and non-profit partners, each with financial and/or constituency pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link with EPA regulatory and other community-based risk-reduction activities </li></ul>
    36. 36. Indoor Air: Supporting Science <ul><li>BASE data analysis (survey of office building IAQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor Air Toxics Ranking Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>School Health/Performance Intervention Study Design (with CDC) </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys to assist development of ETS and Asthma measures </li></ul>
    37. 37. Indoor Air: Supporting Science (continued) <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Biological contaminants/sensitization, allergy, and irritation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects, monitoring and mitigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building design and operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on large buildings, HVAC systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indoor air chemistry, emissions and modeling (air toxics) </li></ul><ul><li>Product and Technology Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Human exposure – total/ambient/indoor (PM focus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detroit study </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Title VI – Ozone Layer Protection <ul><li>Phase-out of production and consumption of CFC’s, HCFC’s, and other ozone-depleting substances (ODS) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires controls on various products containing ODS’s </li></ul><ul><li>Implement and enforce rules controlling production, import, and emission of ODS’s </li></ul>
    39. 39. Ozone Layer Protection: Progress On track to save 6.3 M US lives and avoid 299M non-fatal skin cancer and 27.5 M cataract incidences
    40. 40. Ozone Layer Protection: Challenges <ul><li>Ozone layer could begin recovery by 2010 assuming worldwide compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Continued support for the Montreal Protocol Fund essential for worldwide support </li></ul><ul><li>Critical use exemptions, allocation of methyl bromide </li></ul>
    41. 41. Ozone Depletion: Supporting Science <ul><li>Assessments in support of Significant New Alternatives Program (SNAP) </li></ul>
    42. 42. Radiation Program <ul><li>Principal office in EPA focused on ensuring protection of public health and the environment from exposure to radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation and Guidance Development; exploring Voluntary Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Support to rest of Agency for Radiation Risk Assessment and Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory capabilities: analysis and field work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comments on additional options for disposal (ANPRM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Guidance for General Public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant Homeland Security Responsibilities for Radiological Emergency Response </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Climate Change: Progress <ul><li>EPA’s domestic climate change activities build on Agency’s unique strengths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forging partnerships across broad range of stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing strong analytical skills, assessing technology and risks, costs and benefits of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying realistic, near-term actions and innovative policies </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Climate Change: Progress (continued) <ul><li>Domestic Voluntary Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane/High-GWP: EPA leads efforts on non-CO 2 gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Initiatives (Clean Energy/Climate Leaders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State and Local activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic Transportation Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SmartWay and Best Work Places for Commuters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate Support Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GHG Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International activities include work on emission inventories, market-based mechanisms, clean energy and energy efficiency, integrated environmental strategies, transportation </li></ul>
    45. 45. Climate Change: Supporting Science <ul><li>Clean Car Program </li></ul><ul><li>Technology evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring development </li></ul>
    46. 46. NAS Studies <ul><li>PM Research Strategy (January 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Air Quality Management (December 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII) (Late 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Low Level Radioactive Waste disposal </li></ul><ul><li>New Studies: </li></ul><ul><li>New Source Review </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Models (Cross-Media Support) </li></ul><ul><li>Other Studies of Interest: </li></ul><ul><li>Dioxin, TCE, Bio-monitoring and Public Health </li></ul>
    47. 47. Pending Legislation <ul><li>Clear Skies </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address MTBE issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish an EPA - implemented Renewable fuels program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean school bus program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-truck idling program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highway Bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renew Congestion Mitigation Air Quality program (CMAQ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New flexibility on transportation conformity </li></ul></ul>