Common Sense is not soCommon Sense is not so
commoncommon
Presented by Subhendra BasuPresented by Subhendra Basu
MotivationMotivation
• Computers can :Computers can :
a)a) Beat people at chessBeat people at chess
b)b) Recognise pattern...
Motivation (contd)Motivation (contd)
• Whats wrong with computers ?Whats wrong with computers ?
a)a) Do they need more mem...
IntroductionIntroduction
• This presentation deals with questions about what itThis presentation deals with questions abou...
Uncommon SenseUncommon Sense
• A 1956 program solved hard problems in mathematicalA 1956 program solved hard problems in m...
Common SenseCommon Sense
• ““Common Sense is not so common. Instead, it is an immenseCommon Sense is not so common. Instea...
Society of MindSociety of Mind
• The term “Society of Mind” was coined by Prof.The term “Society of Mind” was coined by Pr...
The World of BlocksThe World of Blocks
BUILDER
BEGIN ADD END
FIND PUTGET
SEE GRASP MOVE RELEASE
Choose a place to start th...
Double LifeDouble Life
• Builder leads a double life.Builder leads a double life.
• Its “knowing-how-to-build” does not re...
PanalogyPanalogy
““Rajeev gave Bikram the book.”Rajeev gave Bikram the book.”
Physical Realm: “give” refers to book’s moti...
Mystery of the MindMystery of the Mind
• How is a personality more than just a set ofHow is a personality more than just a...
Are we machines ?Are we machines ?
• The Author claims, “Each one of us already has experiencedThe Author claims, “Each on...
ConflictConflict
PLAY
PLAY-WITH-DOLLS PLAY-WITH-BLOCKS PLAY-WITH-ANIMALS
BUILDER WRECKER
BEGIN ADD END PUSHER
EAT SLEEP
NoncompromiseNoncompromise
• Its easy to ward off small distractions whenIts easy to ward off small distractions when
thin...
MiscellanyMiscellany
• Hierarchy or HeterarchyHierarchy or Heterarchy
• What happens if another agent wrests controlWhat h...
Pain, Pleasure and InfatuationPain, Pleasure and Infatuation
• Pain and pleasure simplifies our point of view. They engage...
SelfSelf
• Single-self view: “I think, I want, I feel. Its me, myself,Single-self view: “I think, I want, I feel. Its me, ...
ConsciousnessConsciousness
• In every normal person’s mind, there areIn every normal person’s mind, there are
processes th...
Problem SolvingProblem Solving
• Puzzle Principle: We can program a computer to solvePuzzle Principle: We can program a co...
Difference EnginesDifference Engines
SITUATION
GOAL –
DESCRIPTION
AGENTS
Actual Inputs
Ideal Inputs
DIFFERENCES
IntentionsIntentions
• Do difference-engines “really” want ?Do difference-engines “really” want ?
• ““Rolling ball”: Eight...
GeniusGenius
• How do we explain our Einsteins and Beethovens ?How do we explain our Einsteins and Beethovens ?
• Its not ...
Memory : K-LinesMemory : K-Lines
• The Author proposes a theory of memory based on the idea of aThe Author proposes a theo...
Do you want what you like ?Do you want what you like ?
• Liking’s job is to shut off alternatives.Liking’s job is to shut ...
Enjoying discomfortEnjoying discomfort
• What makes ordinary people work for years at jobs theyWhat makes ordinary people ...
EmotionEmotion
• ““There is no such thing as anThere is no such thing as an emotion machineemotion machine.”.”
• We’re alw...
Mathematics Made HardMathematics Made Hard
• Mathematics is the quest for absolute consistencyMathematics is the quest for...
JokesJokes
• In 1905, Sigmund Freud published a book explaining that weIn 1905, Sigmund Freud published a book explaining ...
ConclusionConclusion
• A brain or a machine that has a mind must beA brain or a machine that has a mind must be
composed o...
ReferencesReferences
1.1. ““The Society of Mind” by Dr. Marvin Minsky,The Society of Mind” by Dr. Marvin Minsky,
Simon & S...
DISCUSSION
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  1. 1. Common Sense is not soCommon Sense is not so commoncommon Presented by Subhendra BasuPresented by Subhendra Basu
  2. 2. MotivationMotivation • Computers can :Computers can : a)a) Beat people at chessBeat people at chess b)b) Recognise patternsRecognise patterns c)c) Assemble cars in factoriesAssemble cars in factories d)d) Pilot planes or shipsPilot planes or ships • But NO computer canBut NO computer can a)a) Read a bookRead a book b)b) Clean a houseClean a house c)c) Baby-sitBaby-sit d)d) Drive on Noida roadsDrive on Noida roads
  3. 3. Motivation (contd)Motivation (contd) • Whats wrong with computers ?Whats wrong with computers ? a)a) Do they need more memory, speed,Do they need more memory, speed, complexity ?complexity ? b)b) Is it due to wrong kinds of instruction sets ?Is it due to wrong kinds of instruction sets ? Answer: Deficiencies of today’s machines stemAnswer: Deficiencies of today’s machines stem from the limited ways of programming themfrom the limited ways of programming them
  4. 4. IntroductionIntroduction • This presentation deals with questions about what itThis presentation deals with questions about what it takes to have common sense like us.takes to have common sense like us. • Can machines have common sense ?Can machines have common sense ? • Is it possible to have intelligence without emotion ?Is it possible to have intelligence without emotion ? • Are we machines ?Are we machines ? • Most of the statements in this presentation areMost of the statements in this presentation are speculations.speculations. • This is not an evidence of scientific scholarship but anThis is not an evidence of scientific scholarship but an adventure story for the imaginationadventure story for the imagination
  5. 5. Uncommon SenseUncommon Sense • A 1956 program solved hard problems in mathematicalA 1956 program solved hard problems in mathematical logic. It was only in the 1970s could people come uplogic. It was only in the 1970s could people come up with a robot programs to play with children’s buildingwith a robot programs to play with children’s building blocks.blocks. • To be considered an “expert”, one needs a largeTo be considered an “expert”, one needs a large amount of knowledge of only a relatively few varieties.amount of knowledge of only a relatively few varieties. In contrast, an ordinary person’s “common sense”In contrast, an ordinary person’s “common sense” involves a much larger variety of different types ofinvolves a much larger variety of different types of knowledge-and this requires more complicatedknowledge-and this requires more complicated management systems.management systems.
  6. 6. Common SenseCommon Sense • ““Common Sense is not so common. Instead, it is an immenseCommon Sense is not so common. Instead, it is an immense society of hard-earned practical ideas-of multitudes of life-society of hard-earned practical ideas-of multitudes of life- learned rules and exceptions, disposition and tendencies,learned rules and exceptions, disposition and tendencies, balances and checks.”balances and checks.” • Here is a part of a story: “Taniya was invited to Basu’s party. SheHere is a part of a story: “Taniya was invited to Basu’s party. She wondered if he would like a pen. She went to her room andwondered if he would like a pen. She went to her room and shook her piggy bank. It made no sound”shook her piggy bank. It made no sound” Why did Taniya shake her piggy bank ?Why did Taniya shake her piggy bank ? No computer yet knows how to answer a question like that.No computer yet knows how to answer a question like that. • A computer program with some “common sense” was made byA computer program with some “common sense” was made by Dr. Push Singh at MIT. It was implemented in LISP with aDr. Push Singh at MIT. It was implemented in LISP with a PROLOG subsystemPROLOG subsystem • We are least aware of what our minds do best.We are least aware of what our minds do best.
  7. 7. Society of MindSociety of Mind • The term “Society of Mind” was coined by Prof.The term “Society of Mind” was coined by Prof. Marvin Minsky at MIT Media LabMarvin Minsky at MIT Media Lab • Mind is made of many smaller processes calledMind is made of many smaller processes called agents. Each agent by itself has no intelligenceagents. Each agent by itself has no intelligence but when organised in societies leads to truebut when organised in societies leads to true intelligence.intelligence. • ““The Author” = Prof Marvin MinskyThe Author” = Prof Marvin Minsky • The Author says, “In science, one can learn theThe Author says, “In science, one can learn the most by studying what seems the least”most by studying what seems the least”
  8. 8. The World of BlocksThe World of Blocks BUILDER BEGIN ADD END FIND PUTGET SEE GRASP MOVE RELEASE Choose a place to start the tower Add a new block to the tower Decide whether it is high enough First ADD must FIND a new block. Then the hand must GET that block and PUT it on the tower top
  9. 9. Double LifeDouble Life • Builder leads a double life.Builder leads a double life. • Its “knowing-how-to-build” does not reside inIts “knowing-how-to-build” does not reside in any part. Where does it get its ability ?any part. Where does it get its ability ? • The answer: Its not sufficient to know what eachThe answer: Its not sufficient to know what each agent does. We have to know which agent talksagent does. We have to know which agent talks to which of the other and in what ways.to which of the other and in what ways. • Builder, as an agency knows its jobBuilder, as an agency knows its job • Builder, as an agent knows nothing at all.Builder, as an agent knows nothing at all.
  10. 10. PanalogyPanalogy ““Rajeev gave Bikram the book.”Rajeev gave Bikram the book.” Physical Realm: “give” refers to book’s motion through spacePhysical Realm: “give” refers to book’s motion through space Social Realm: Rajeev’s motivation. Was Rajeev just being generous,Social Realm: Rajeev’s motivation. Was Rajeev just being generous, or hoping to ingratiate himselfor hoping to ingratiate himself Dominion Realm: Bikram is not only holding the book but also hasDominion Realm: Bikram is not only holding the book but also has gained permission to hold it.gained permission to hold it. When we select an inappropriate realm of thought, we immediatelyWhen we select an inappropriate realm of thought, we immediately switch to a relevant point of view, without starting over again.switch to a relevant point of view, without starting over again. The Author argues that our brains use special machinery thatThe Author argues that our brains use special machinery that links corresponding aspects of each view to the same ‘role’ orlinks corresponding aspects of each view to the same ‘role’ or ‘slot’ in a larger-scale structure that is shared across several‘slot’ in a larger-scale structure that is shared across several different realms. Such a structure is called “Panalogy” ordifferent realms. Such a structure is called “Panalogy” or “Parallel Analogy”“Parallel Analogy”
  11. 11. Mystery of the MindMystery of the Mind • How is a personality more than just a set ofHow is a personality more than just a set of traits? (subjective)traits? (subjective) Why is a chain more than its various links ?Why is a chain more than its various links ? (objective)(objective) • Mind still holds its mystery – because we stillMind still holds its mystery – because we still know so little how mental agents interact toknow so little how mental agents interact to accomplish all the things they do.accomplish all the things they do.
  12. 12. Are we machines ?Are we machines ? • The Author claims, “Each one of us already has experiencedThe Author claims, “Each one of us already has experienced what it is like to be simulated by a computer.”what it is like to be simulated by a computer.” • ““I certainly don’t feel like a machine.” But if you’re not aI certainly don’t feel like a machine.” But if you’re not a machine how can you say how it feels like to be a machine.machine how can you say how it feels like to be a machine. • ““I think, therefore I know how the mind works.” == “I driveI think, therefore I know how the mind works.” == “I drive my car so I know how the engine works.” Knowing to usemy car so I know how the engine works.” Knowing to use something is not the same as knowing how it works.something is not the same as knowing how it works. • Still even if our brain is a kind of computer, its scale is very large.Still even if our brain is a kind of computer, its scale is very large. The Author argues that when we finally discover how to makeThe Author argues that when we finally discover how to make intelligent programs, the task of building machines for them tointelligent programs, the task of building machines for them to inhabit will be a solved problem.inhabit will be a solved problem.
  13. 13. ConflictConflict PLAY PLAY-WITH-DOLLS PLAY-WITH-BLOCKS PLAY-WITH-ANIMALS BUILDER WRECKER BEGIN ADD END PUSHER EAT SLEEP
  14. 14. NoncompromiseNoncompromise • Its easy to ward off small distractions whenIts easy to ward off small distractions when things are going well. But when there is conflictthings are going well. But when there is conflict or the agents are individually incompetent, aor the agents are individually incompetent, a different interest takes control.different interest takes control. • Tiny mental agents simply cannot know enoughTiny mental agents simply cannot know enough to be able to negotiate with one another or toto be able to negotiate with one another or to find effective ways to adjust to each other’sfind effective ways to adjust to each other’s interference. Only larger agencies could beinterference. Only larger agencies could be resourceful enough to do such things.resourceful enough to do such things.
  15. 15. MiscellanyMiscellany • Hierarchy or HeterarchyHierarchy or Heterarchy • What happens if another agent wrests controlWhat happens if another agent wrests control from Play and what happens to the agents Playfrom Play and what happens to the agents Play controlled ?controlled ? Ans: Many different possibilities:Ans: Many different possibilities: a)a) Wrecker, freed from Play’s constraint wrecksWrecker, freed from Play’s constraint wrecks the whole thingthe whole thing b)b) Child goes to bed but “builds” towers in hisChild goes to bed but “builds” towers in his head.head.
  16. 16. Pain, Pleasure and InfatuationPain, Pleasure and Infatuation • Pain and pleasure simplifies our point of view. They engage thePain and pleasure simplifies our point of view. They engage the same agencies so they appear opposed. Both distract us fromsame agencies so they appear opposed. Both distract us from long term goals. They interfere with our ability to plan by makinglong term goals. They interfere with our ability to plan by making us focus to relieve/prolong our present feelings.us focus to relieve/prolong our present feelings. • ““I can scarcely think of anything else.” (Most of my mind hasI can scarcely think of anything else.” (Most of my mind has stopped working)stopped working) ““Unbelievably perfect” (No sensible person believes such things)Unbelievably perfect” (No sensible person believes such things) ““She has flawless character” (I’ve abandoned my critical faculties)She has flawless character” (I’ve abandoned my critical faculties) ““There is nothing I would not do for her” (I’ve forsaken most ofThere is nothing I would not do for her” (I’ve forsaken most of my usual goals)my usual goals)
  17. 17. SelfSelf • Single-self view: “I think, I want, I feel. Its me, myself,Single-self view: “I think, I want, I feel. Its me, myself, who think my thoughts. Its not some nameless crowdwho think my thoughts. Its not some nameless crowd or cloud of selfless parts.”or cloud of selfless parts.” • Multiple-self view: “One part of me wants this, anotherMultiple-self view: “One part of me wants this, another part wants that. I must get better control of myself.”part wants that. I must get better control of myself.” • A paradox: Perhaps its because there are no persons inA paradox: Perhaps its because there are no persons in our heads to make us do the things we want – nor evenour heads to make us do the things we want – nor even ones to make us want to want – that we construct theones to make us want to want – that we construct the myth that we’re inside ourselves.myth that we’re inside ourselves.
  18. 18. ConsciousnessConsciousness • In every normal person’s mind, there areIn every normal person’s mind, there are processes that we call consciousness. Accordingprocesses that we call consciousness. According to popular belief, they enable use to know whatto popular belief, they enable use to know what is happening inside our minds. This isis happening inside our minds. This is misleading.misleading. • Our conscious thoughts use signal-signs to steerOur conscious thoughts use signal-signs to steer the engines in our minds, controlling countlessthe engines in our minds, controlling countless processes of which we’re never much aware.processes of which we’re never much aware.
  19. 19. Problem SolvingProblem Solving • Puzzle Principle: We can program a computer to solvePuzzle Principle: We can program a computer to solve any problem by “generate and test”, without knowingany problem by “generate and test”, without knowing how to solve it in advance, provided only that we havehow to solve it in advance, provided only that we have a way to recognize when the problem is solved.a way to recognize when the problem is solved. • The only problem is the lack of connection between itsThe only problem is the lack of connection between its generator and its test. Without some notion of progressgenerator and its test. Without some notion of progress towards a goal, its hard to do better than mindlesstowards a goal, its hard to do better than mindless chance.chance. • The most powerful way is to divide the problem intoThe most powerful way is to divide the problem into smaller subproblems.smaller subproblems.
  20. 20. Difference EnginesDifference Engines SITUATION GOAL – DESCRIPTION AGENTS Actual Inputs Ideal Inputs DIFFERENCES
  21. 21. IntentionsIntentions • Do difference-engines “really” want ?Do difference-engines “really” want ? • ““Rolling ball”: Eighteenth-century physicistRolling ball”: Eighteenth-century physicist d’Alembert showed that one predict thed’Alembert showed that one predict the behavior of a rolling ball by describing it as abehavior of a rolling ball by describing it as a difference-engine whose goal is to reduce itsdifference-engine whose goal is to reduce its own energy.own energy. • The ball isn’t “trying” to do anything; theThe ball isn’t “trying” to do anything; the impression of intention is only in the observer’simpression of intention is only in the observer’s mind.mind.
  22. 22. GeniusGenius • How do we explain our Einsteins and Beethovens ?How do we explain our Einsteins and Beethovens ? • Its not enough to learn a lot; one also has to manageIts not enough to learn a lot; one also has to manage what one learns.what one learns. • These masters have, beneath the surface of theirThese masters have, beneath the surface of their mastery, some special knacks of “higher-order”mastery, some special knacks of “higher-order” expertise, which help them organize and apply theexpertise, which help them organize and apply the things they learn.things they learn. • It is these hidden tricks of mental management thatIt is these hidden tricks of mental management that produce the systems that create these works of genius.produce the systems that create these works of genius.
  23. 23. Memory : K-LinesMemory : K-Lines • The Author proposes a theory of memory based on the idea of aThe Author proposes a theory of memory based on the idea of a type of agent called a “Knowledge-line” or “K-Line” for short.type of agent called a “Knowledge-line” or “K-Line” for short. • We keep each thing we learn close to the agents that learn it inWe keep each thing we learn close to the agents that learn it in the first place.the first place. • Whenever you “get a good idea”, solve a problem or have aWhenever you “get a good idea”, solve a problem or have a memorable experience, you activate a K-line to represent it. A K-memorable experience, you activate a K-line to represent it. A K- Line is a wirelike structure that attaches itself to whicheverLine is a wirelike structure that attaches itself to whichever mental agents are active when you solve a problem or have amental agents are active when you solve a problem or have a good idea.good idea. • When you activate that K-Line later, the agents attached to it areWhen you activate that K-Line later, the agents attached to it are aroused, putting you in a “mental state” much like the one youaroused, putting you in a “mental state” much like the one you were in when you solved the problem or got that idea. Thiswere in when you solved the problem or got that idea. This should make it relatively easy for you to solve new, similarshould make it relatively easy for you to solve new, similar problems.problems.
  24. 24. Do you want what you like ?Do you want what you like ? • Liking’s job is to shut off alternatives.Liking’s job is to shut off alternatives. • To choose between alternatives, the highest levels ofTo choose between alternatives, the highest levels of the mind demand the simplest summaries. If your “top-the mind demand the simplest summaries. If your “top- level” feelings are mixed, you wouldn’t be able to take alevel” feelings are mixed, you wouldn’t be able to take a decision. At the level of action, you’re forced todecision. At the level of action, you’re forced to simplify right down to expressions like “Yes” or “No”.simplify right down to expressions like “Yes” or “No”. • To “enjoy” an experience, some of our agents mustTo “enjoy” an experience, some of our agents must summarize success – but other agents must besummarize success – but other agents must be censuring their subordinates for failing to achieve theircensuring their subordinates for failing to achieve their goals.goals. • The surer you are that you like what you are doing, theThe surer you are that you like what you are doing, the more completely your other ambitions are beingmore completely your other ambitions are being suppressed.suppressed.
  25. 25. Enjoying discomfortEnjoying discomfort • What makes ordinary people work for years at jobs theyWhat makes ordinary people work for years at jobs they hate, so that someday they will be able to…some seemhate, so that someday they will be able to…some seem to have forgotten what ? Why do children enjoy rides into have forgotten what ? Why do children enjoy rides in Appu Ghar, knowing that they will be scared, evenAppu Ghar, knowing that they will be scared, even sick ?sick ? • There is more to motivation than immediate reward.There is more to motivation than immediate reward. Once we have solved a problem, our agencies get downOnce we have solved a problem, our agencies get down to catering to a higher-level cause for discontent.to catering to a higher-level cause for discontent. Nothing gets done if we were satisfied.Nothing gets done if we were satisfied. • When a situation gets completely out of control, weWhen a situation gets completely out of control, we construct some inner plan for tolerating it. Forconstruct some inner plan for tolerating it. For example, “I certainly shall learn from this.”example, “I certainly shall learn from this.”
  26. 26. EmotionEmotion • ““There is no such thing as anThere is no such thing as an emotion machineemotion machine.”.” • We’re always using images and fantasies in ordinary thought.We’re always using images and fantasies in ordinary thought. We use “imagination” to solve a geometry problem, or chooseWe use “imagination” to solve a geometry problem, or choose what to eat for dinner.what to eat for dinner. • The use of fantasies, emotional or not, is indispensable for everyThe use of fantasies, emotional or not, is indispensable for every complicated problem-solving process.complicated problem-solving process. • Our culture wrongly teaches us that thoughts and feelings lie inOur culture wrongly teaches us that thoughts and feelings lie in almost separate worlds. In fact, they’re always intertwined.almost separate worlds. In fact, they’re always intertwined. • Emotions are varieties or types of thoughts, each based on aEmotions are varieties or types of thoughts, each based on a different brain-machine that specializes in some particulardifferent brain-machine that specializes in some particular domain of thought.domain of thought. • The question is not whether intelligent machines can haveThe question is not whether intelligent machines can have emotions, but whether machines can be intelligent without anyemotions, but whether machines can be intelligent without any emotions.emotions.
  27. 27. Mathematics Made HardMathematics Made Hard • Mathematics is the quest for absolute consistencyMathematics is the quest for absolute consistency • Teachers try to convince their students that equationsTeachers try to convince their students that equations and formulas are more expressive than words.and formulas are more expressive than words. • Unless the new ideas become connected to the rest ofUnless the new ideas become connected to the rest of the child’s world, that knowledge can’t be put to work.the child’s world, that knowledge can’t be put to work. • The ordinary goals of ordinary citizens are not the sameThe ordinary goals of ordinary citizens are not the same as those of professional mathematicians andas those of professional mathematicians and philosophers- who like to put things into forms with asphilosophers- who like to put things into forms with as few connections as possible.few connections as possible.
  28. 28. JokesJokes • In 1905, Sigmund Freud published a book explaining that weIn 1905, Sigmund Freud published a book explaining that we form censors in our minds as barriers against forbiddenform censors in our minds as barriers against forbidden thoughts. Most jokes, he said, are stories designed to fool thethoughts. Most jokes, he said, are stories designed to fool the censors.censors. • A joke’s power comes from a description that fits two differentA joke’s power comes from a description that fits two different frames at once. The first meaning must be transparent andframes at once. The first meaning must be transparent and innocent, while the second meaning is disguised andinnocent, while the second meaning is disguised and reprehensible.reprehensible. • The censors recognize only the innocent meaning because theyThe censors recognize only the innocent meaning because they are too simple-minded to penetrate the forbidden meaning’sare too simple-minded to penetrate the forbidden meaning’s disguise. Then, once that first interpretation is firmly planted indisguise. Then, once that first interpretation is firmly planted in the mind, a final turn of word or phrase suddenly replaces it withthe mind, a final turn of word or phrase suddenly replaces it with the other one. The censored thought has been slipped through; athe other one. The censored thought has been slipped through; a prohibited wish has been enjoyed.prohibited wish has been enjoyed.
  29. 29. ConclusionConclusion • A brain or a machine that has a mind must beA brain or a machine that has a mind must be composed of smaller things that cannot think at all. Thecomposed of smaller things that cannot think at all. The structure of this presentation reflects this idea.structure of this presentation reflects this idea. • A mind is too complex to fit the mold of narratives thatA mind is too complex to fit the mold of narratives that start out here and end up there; a human intellectstart out here and end up there; a human intellect depends upon the connections in a tangled web-whichdepends upon the connections in a tangled web-which simply wouldn’t work at all if it were neatly straightenedsimply wouldn’t work at all if it were neatly straightened out.out. • We are very far from developing true intelligence in aWe are very far from developing true intelligence in a machine but it is good to have a beginningmachine but it is good to have a beginning
  30. 30. ReferencesReferences 1.1. ““The Society of Mind” by Dr. Marvin Minsky,The Society of Mind” by Dr. Marvin Minsky, Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 1988Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 1988 2.2. ““Computing Commonsense”, P.Singh,Computing Commonsense”, P.Singh, M.Minsky and I Eslick, BT TechnologyM.Minsky and I Eslick, BT Technology Journal, Vol 22 No 4, Oct 2004Journal, Vol 22 No 4, Oct 2004 3.3. ““The Emotion Machine” by Marvin Minsky,The Emotion Machine” by Marvin Minsky, draft (http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky)draft (http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky)
  31. 31. DISCUSSION

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