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Artificial Intelligence


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Artificial Intelligence

  3. 3. INTELLIGENCE ! <ul><li>Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines. </li></ul>
  4. 4. SYNTHETIC INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Artificial intelligence is “the study and design of intelligent agents . </li></ul>
  5. 5. INTELLEGENT AGENTS <ul><li>It is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success. AI can be seen as a realization of an abstract intelligent agent i.e AIAI. </li></ul>
  6. 6. INTELLEGENT AGENTS <ul><li>Among the traits that researchers hope machines will exhibit are reasoning , knowledge , planning , learning , communication , perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects . </li></ul>
  7. 7. HISTORY
  8. 8. HISTORY <ul><li>In the early 80s, AI research was revived by the commercial success of expert systems ; applying the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts. By 1985 the market for AI had reached more than a billion dollars. </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Question- ‘ CAN’ it be done ??
  10. 10. Problems of AI
  11. 11. Deduction, Reasoning, Problem solving <ul><li>Early AI researchers imitated the process of step-by-step reasoning that human beings use when they solve puzzles, play board games, or make logical deductions. </li></ul><ul><li>AI research had also developed successful methods for dealing with uncertain or incomplete information. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Deduction, Reasoning, Problem solving <ul><li>Human beings solve most of their problems using unconscious reasoning, rather than the conscious, step-by-step deduction that early AI research was able to model. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of unconscious problem solving, which forms part of our commonsense reasoning , is largely unsolved. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Unconscious Knowledge <ul><li>Much of what people know isn't represented as &quot;facts&quot; or &quot;statements&quot; that they could actually say out loud. They take the form of intuitions or tendencies and are represented in the brain unconsciously. This unconscious knowledge informs, supports and provides a context for our conscious knowledge. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Unsupervised Learning <ul><li>Find a model that matches a stream of input &quot;experiences&quot;, and be able to predict what new &quot;experiences&quot; to expect. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Motion & Manipulation <ul><li>Intelligence is required for robots to be able to handle such tasks as object manipulation and navigation , with sub-problems of localization (knowing where you are), mapping (learning what is around you) and motion planning (figuring out how to get there). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Approaches to AI
  17. 17. Cybernetics & Brain Simulation <ul><li>A number of researchers have explored the connection between neurology , information theory , and cybernetics . Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Artificial Neural Networks <ul><li>It consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons and processes information using a connectionist approach to computation . In most cases an ANN is an adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or internal information that flows through the network during the learning phase. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Knowledge based AI
  20. 20. Expert Systems <ul><li>An expert system , also known as a knowledge based system, is a computer program that contains the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts, related to a specific subject. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Expert Systems <ul><li>The most common form of expert system is a computer program , with a set of rules , that analyzes information about a specific class of problems, and recommends one or more courses of user action. The expert system may also provide mathematical analysis of the problem(s). </li></ul>
  22. 22. So the answer is This ‘CAN’ be done !!
  23. 23. Applications of AI
  24. 24. Welcome to the FUTURE
  25. 25. Speech Recognition <ul><li>While it is possible to instruct some computers using speech, most users have gone back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Understanding Natural Language <ul><li>Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is presently possible only for very limited domains. </li></ul>HELLO !
  27. 27. Conversation between ME & ELIZA Eliza: Hello. I am ELIZA. How can I help you? ME: hello! I am NIKET. Eliza: How do you do. Please state your problem. ME: I am in a dilemma. Eliza: How long have you been in a dilemma? ME: since a long time . Eliza: Please go on. ME: I want to know if GOD exists . Eliza: Do you wish that god exists? ME: yes Eliza: You are sure? ME: yes Eliza: You are sure? ME: yes Eliza: You are sure? ME: yes Eliza : You are sure?
  28. 28. Game Playing <ul><li>There is some AI in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute force computation--looking at hundreds of thousands of positions. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Game Playing <ul><li>The most obvious is in the control of any NPCs in the game, although scripting is currently the most common means of control. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Pattern Recognition <ul><li>For example, a vision program may try to match a pattern of eyes and a nose in a scene in order to find a face. More complex patterns, e.g. in a chess position are also studied. These more complex patterns require quite different methods than do the simple patterns. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Genetic Programming <ul><li>Genetic programming is a technique for getting programs to solve a task by mating random Lisp programs and selecting fittest in millions of generations. </li></ul>
  32. 32. DANGERS of AI I Hate HUMANS !!
  33. 33. SUPERINTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Deep Blue chess program which beat world chess champion. </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Blue searches over 200 million moves per second.. It evaluates each position and makes its choice of move based on the evaluation algorithm. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Conflicts between Androids and Humans <ul><li>Androids will displace humans from their jobs. The result may be attempts by some humans to destroy androids. </li></ul>
  35. 35. NANOMACHINES <ul><li>Human-surpassing computing power is usually estimated at 10^17 ops/sec…… even primitive nanocomputing will allow to put this amount of computing power in your shirt pocket, and power it for ten watts </li></ul>
  36. 36. NANOMACHINES <ul><li>This one an electron micrograph of an actual T4 bacteriophage infecting a bacterium. You can see its little cell puncturing device penetrating the bacterium. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Question – ‘SHOULD’ we do this ?
  38. 38. Hey you ! Do my homework . You are gone buddy !