Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

  1. 1. Session 2 By Prof. Arun Mishra Information Technology for Managers
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Primary Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Various Types of Primary Storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Memory Chip </li></ul><ul><li>Types & Functions of RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Types & Functions of ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Cache Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Registers </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are Types of Storage Devices? Storage Devices Primary Storage Secondary Storage Read-Only Memory (ROM) Random-Access Memory (RAM)
  4. 4. What is Primary Storage? <ul><li>Primary storage is computer memory that is directly accessible to the CPU of a computer without the use of computer's input/output channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage is used to store data that is likely to be in active use. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classification of Primary Storage
  6. 6. What is RAM? <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) is a type of data storage used in computers. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes the form of integrated circuits that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order (random). </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored in RAM can be modified . </li></ul><ul><li>RAM is a volatile storage . Data will lose after switching off the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. DDRam, DDR-2 Ram </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Random Access Memory (RAM)
  8. 8. What is ROM? <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored in ROM cannot be modified . </li></ul><ul><li>ROM is a non-volatile storage . Data remains unchanged even after switching off the computer. (Wikipedia, 2007n) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. EPROM, EEPROM </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Read Only Memory (ROM) <ul><li>PROM – Programmable Read-only Memory </li></ul><ul><li>EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cache Memory
  11. 11. Cache Memory
  12. 12. Operation of Cache Memory
  13. 13. REGISTERS <ul><li>In computer architecture , a register is a small amount of storage available on the CPU whose contents can be accessed more quickly than storage available elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Registers are at the top of the memory hierarchy , and provide the fastest way for a CPU to access data. </li></ul><ul><li>Registers are normally measured by the number of bits they can hold, for example, an &quot; 8-bit register&quot; or a &quot; 32-bit register&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Registers are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory buffer register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory data register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory address register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Type Range Registers (MTRR) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. How REGISTERS function?
  15. 15. Memory Interleaving
  16. 16. Memory Interleaving
  17. 17. Any Questions?

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