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Media terminology

I don't claim ownership of this presentation and can't remember where I got it from, but it's useful for revision purposes.

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Media terminology

  1. 1. TMEDIATERMINOLOGYkey terms in media analysis
  2. 2. CODESAll media texts areencoded. The codesthemselves aresymbolic, technical,or written. Thetechnical code useddepends on theplatformJ
  3. 3. ENCODING/DECODINGmeanings are encodedby producers anddecoded by the audience
  4. 4. DPOSITIONINGmedia texts attempt toplace the audience in aposition whereby theyhold a point of view, orfeel a particular emotion(in other words, we’retalking aboutmanipulation)
  5. 5. PREFERRED/DOMINANTA preferred meaning is onethat might be put in placeby the producers, or by thedominant values of society
  6. 6. gRESISTANT/ABERRANTAn aberrant readingtakes place when theaudience is resistant tothe dominant valuesof society and insteadnegotiates* or resiststhe intended meaning*see reception theory
  7. 7. QNARRATIVEThe media trains us to see theworld in terms of narrative:beginning (equilibrium), middle(disruption and conflict), & end(new equilibrium). All mediatexts have a narrative structure
  8. 8. OGENREa category of texts withcommon conventions ofstyle, narrative, andstructure
  9. 9. ICONOGRAPHYparticular visualsigns associatedwith certain genres.“The iconography of thistext includes a desertedhouse and a sinisterclown, both evocative ofthe horror genre”
  10. 10. MEDIATIONanything weexperiencethrough themedia (asopposed todirectly) ismediated.
  11. 11. MISE-EN-SCÈNEwhatever appearswithin the frame –setting, lighting,characters, props“The director uses the mise-en-scène to create a sense ofloneliness by framing thecharacter against anenormous, empty landscape.”
  12. 12. CREGULATIONLaws, rules, guidelines which define andrestrict the parameters within which themedia work.Self-regulation – within the industry ( complaints commission)Government regulation: often operated byQANGOs! (Quasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisations - likeOFCOM)
  13. 13. qDISMEMBERMENTin advertisingespecially,women’s bodiesare cropped/masked in orderto emphasisesexualised bodyparts.
  14. 14. NEWSVALUEScriteria applied todetermine what isnewsworthy.“News values determine theprominence given to newsstories, their order, andwhether they are included orexcluded from the newsagenda.”
  15. 15. cSTEREOTYPEAn oversimplified,sometimes humorous,representation whichis used to categoriseand evaluatemembers of aparticular group
  16. 16. bVOYEURISMThe practice ofgaining pleasure fromlooking at otherpeople whilstremaininganonymous.
  17. 17. AUDIENCEthere aremain waysof lookingataudiences31. Hypodermicmodel2. Uses &Gratificationsmodel3. Receptionmodel
  18. 18. HYPODERMICthe media is powerfuland influential, able toinject ideas &behaviours directlyinto the audience —which must beprotected from itspower.
  19. 19. zUSES&GRATIFICATIONSTheory of audiencewhich emphasisesthe range of needs/pleasures fulfilledby consumption ofthe media.
  20. 20. RECEPTIONTheory of audience thatemphasises the rangeof ways in whichaudiences receive andrespond to media texts– including resistant ornegotiated readings