Naila Khalil Afifa Affan Milha John Hamza Jamil
News Bulletin is an organized collection oflatest happenings across the world andbroadcast in regular intervals.
Written stories in the form of a script. voice reports from journalists, either recordedor live; recorded sound called actuality.
International news National News Local Stories Sports News Entertainment news Business news Weather news
Try to avoid seeing the bulletin simply as acollection of individual, self-contained stories. Ifyou put a string of economic stories at the startof the bulletin, you risk losing your listenersinterest. They expect a balance of items, some heavy andsome light, some about major political eventsand some about ordinary people.
Pace mean the length and tone of a story as itappears to the listeners. You must also get theright pace of stories through your bulletin.Some stories have a fast pace. The report ofa fire, for example, will usually be written inshort sentences, using short snappy words toconvey simple ideas. It will have a fast pace.
Your ideal bulletin will have a steady pacethroughout to maintain interest, with variationsin pace during certain sections; slower at times tolet your listeners catch their breath or faster atother times to pick up their lagging interest
Bulletins are the broadcasting equivalent of apage on a newspaper, except that in radio andtelevision you are more limited in where youplace the different parts because, as we know,news bulletins are linear, therefore all theelements must be placed along the line of timeso they are used most effectively.
Your listeners will use the headlines to judgewhether or not the bulletin is worth listening to. Remember that if you tell everything in theheadlines, listeners have no need to hear the restof the bulletin.
When writing headlines about announcements orhumorous stories, it is best to be mysterious, to keep thereal information secret. For example, if you have a story about rising petrolprices, you might write the headline "Motorists faceanother shock at the petrol pumps". Never write theheadline "Petrol is to rise by 10 cents a litre" -
Sometimes called tail-enders closing stories are almost as important as lead stories. Theyare the last stories your listeners will hear and rememberfrom the bulletin. You need to choose them carefully. Light or funny stories make the best tail-enders. They addrelief and a change of pace to heavy bulletins. They shouldbe written in a more informal way than other stories.
Each closing headline should be a summary of themain point of the story, written in one sentence. Do not simply repeat the opening headline or intro ofeach story as a closing headline. This is laziness which does not serve your listeners.Never repeat teasers as closing headlines: give thedetails.
Short grabs of actuality are a useful part of newsbulletins, for a number of reasons: They can often tell the story more effectively than ascript. If your story is about a violent protest outside anembassy, a 10-second grab of demonstrators chantingand shouting will convey the atmosphere better thanany words.
They are often a chance to let people within yourcommunity speak on the radio. People like to heartheir own voice on radio occasionally, or the voices ofpeople they know. Actuality grabs should be kept short (between 20 and40 seconds), clear and well-edited. A minute-longgrab of a dull voice will slow the pace of your bulletinand may force listeners to switch off.
By careful timing you will be able to include all yourimportant stories, giving adequate details of each.The exact time of each item depends upon:How long the whole bulletin is;How many items you need to include;How many grabs of actuality you want to use.
You have to balance these three considerations. If yourbulletin is 15 minutes long you can use up to 20stories, several of them with grabs, and still treat eachstory properly. If the bulletin is only five minutes, long you might notmanage more than seven or eight items and have timefor only one or two short pieces of actuality.
A news flash is when the newsreader breaks into aprogram on-air to read an important, urgent newsstory, such as a major disaster or the death of anational leader. The news flash should only be used on extremelyimportant stories.
Urgent news which arrives in the studio as the bulletinis going to air should be read at the next most suitablebreak in the bulletin, although it usually makes senseto use it at the end of the bulletin, just before anyclosing headlines.
One of the major problems in bulletin preparation isranking the stories in correct order. Just follow somesimple steps.First read through all the stories available. Then gothrough them again, making three lists. These categoriesshould be:Important stories which you must use;Stories which you can use, but which are not soimportant;Stories which you cannot use, for any reason.
It is very useful to know your reading rate or thereading rate of the newsreader who will read thebulletin. Reading rates are calculated in words per second (wps)and usually range from 2 wps for slower readers insome languages to 3.5 wps for quite rapid readers inother languages.
Most newsrooms today use computers to produce newsstories and features . If your newsroom uses printed scripts they must betyped neatly, with any last-minute changes clearlycrossed out. If you make more than a couple ofcrossings-out, re-print that script.
Start a new paragraph for each sentence and typedouble-spaced. Type only one story per sheet, as thiswill make it easier to find stories if you want to drop orinsert them during the bulletin. Use good quality paperwhich will not rustle as you move it. Never turn a phrase from one line to the next andcertainly never hyphenate words from one line to thenext.
Never staple the pages of your bulletin together. Youmust be able to pull the sheets aside noiselessly asyou read them. Stack the stories neatly on one sideafter you have read them; do not throw them on thefloor.