Copyleft

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Copyleft

  1. 1. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com COPYLEFT Anju Srinivasan
  2. 2. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com IntroductIon Copyleft is an idea. To understand it you first need to understand copyright. Copyright is a law which restricts the public's natural right to use, modify, and share creative works such as a written report or the original sheet music for a song. It also covers works such as poetry, movies and computer software. The work may be published or unpublished but it is placed under copyright restriction the very moment the work is authored.
  3. 3. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com EVoLutIon Pre- 1992 The Copyright Act, 1957 Life +50 Post- 1992 Amendment of 1992 Life +60 Post 2012 Copyright Amendment Act, 2012 Even photographs get Life +60
  4. 4. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com orIgIn of copyLEft There were certain drawbacks in Copyright which led to the origin of Copyleft. Need for free access to ideas Lack of incentivisation Danger of Monopolization
  5. 5. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com tHE concEpt Copyright is more like a monopoly than a property. The protection it offers creative people are thin and unreliable at best, at the cost of propping up a system for exploitation. Now various arguments have been propagated that this monopolization locks away knowledge from the public, that it hurts free speech and basically doesn’t help anyone at all other than the copyright holder. This whole arrangement of exclusivity lead to the origin of the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line. Such arrangement came to be known as copyleft.
  6. 6. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com Copyleft uses Copyright law , but flips it over to serve the opposite of its usual purpose. Instead of fostering privatization, it becomes a guarantee that everyone has the freedom to use, copy, distribute and modify software or any other work. It can be seen that copyleft emerged out of hackers ethic, in pursuit of knowledge for knowledge’s sake. If someone releases a novel under the copyleft license and a publishing house prints it and makes a profit off the author’s work, there is nothing wrong with this as long as copyleft is passed down.
  7. 7. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com REPRESENTATION The copyleft symbol is a backwards C in a circle (copyright symbol © mirrored). COPYRIGHT COPYLEFT
  8. 8. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com ECONOMIC BENEFITS The economic incentives to work on copyleft content can vary. Traditional copyright law is designed to promote progress by providing economic benefits to creators. When choosing to copyleft their work, content creators may seek complementary benefits like recognition from their peers. Copyleft software has economic effects beyond the individual creators. The presence of quality copyleft software can force commercial producers to increase the quality of their products, which must compete with free software. This may also have the effect of preventing large commercial entities from applying monopoly
  9. 9. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com COPylEFT lICENSE The concept of Copyleft is usually implemented in the details of a specific copyright license, such as the GNU General Public License and the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike License. Copyright holders of creative work can unilaterally implement these licenses for their own works to build communities that collaboratively share and improve those copylefted creative works. Copyleft attempts to create a commons based on reciprocal rights and responsibilities- those who want to share the common resources have certain ethical obligations to respect the rights of other users. Everyone can add to the commons, but no one may subtract from it.
  10. 10. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com GNu GENERAl PuBlIC lICENSE Copyleft type licenses are a novel use of existing copyright law to ensure a work remains freely available. The GNU General Public License, originally written by Richard Stallman, was the first software copyleft license to see extensive use, and continues to dominate in that area.  GNU is not in the public domain. Everyone will be permitted to modify and redistribute GNU, but no distributor will be allowed to restrict its further redistribution. That is to say, proprietary modifications will not be allowed.
  11. 11. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com GPL Stallman justified software sharing, protesting that when sharing, the software online can be copied without the loss of the original piece of work. Everyone is a winner. The software can be used multiple times without ever being damaged or wearing out. As Stallman deemed it impractical in the short term to eliminate current copyright law and the wrongs he perceived it perpetuated, he decided to work within the framework of existing law. In 1985, he created his own copyright license, which evolved into the GNU General Public License, which is now one of the most popular Free Software licenses.
  12. 12. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CREATIVE COMMONS & COPYLEFT.ORG Creative Commons, a non-profit organization founded by Lawrence Lessig. Creative Commons provides free tools that let authors, scientists, artists and educators easily mark their creative works with the freedoms they want it to carry. You can use CC to change your copyright terms from ‘All Rights Reserved’ to ‘Some Rights Reserved’. Similarly, copyleft.org is a collaborative project to create and disseminate useful information, tutorial material and new policy ideas regarding all forms of copyleft licensing.
  13. 13. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com FREE SOFTWARE Free software means software that respects user’s freedom and community. Roughly it means that users have the freedom to run, distribute, copy, study, change and improve the software. Free software is a matter of liberty and not price. It is synonymous with free speech. A program is free software if the program's users have the four essential freedoms: 1) to use it for any purpose, 2) to know how it works, 3) to improve it by modifying, and 4) to share or propagate or distribute the modified code to others.
  14. 14. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CASE LAW Apple Computer Inc., v. Frankline computer Corporation (714 F.2d 1240) In this case it was held that the definition of ‘literary’ includes computer programmes as ‘works of authorship’. Section 2(o) in The Copyright Act 1957: “literary work includes tables compilations and computer programmes…” This is a problem as copyrighted software code ensconces ideas and blocks access to matter which does not belong to the software coder. All the information is digitized whereas the key remains only in the hands of a few.
  15. 15. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com STRONG & WEAK COPYLEFT The strength of the copyleft governing a work is an expression of the extent that the copyleft provisions can be efficiently imposed on all kinds of derived works. Weak copyleft refers to licenses where not all derived works inherit the copyleft license. Weak copyleft licenses are generally used for the creation of software libraries, to allow other software to link to the library, and then be redistributed without the legal requirement for the work to be distributed under the library's copyleft license. Only changes to the weak-copylefted software itself become subject to the copyleft provisions of such a license. This allows programs of any license to be compiled and linked against copylefted libraries and then
  16. 16. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CONCLUSION The Copyright law clearly states that works that are restricted by copyright cannot be copied or modified without the permission of the Copyright holder and this includes reproducing the work in another medium. Nothing forces someone to publish their work, but once they do the public should have the right to use, modify and share it and this is normally done by way of a license. Under copyleft, the author claims a copyright on the work and makes a statement in the form of a license that other people have the right to use, modify and share the work so long as their modified versions are put under the same license and anyone receiving a copy of the work must be
  17. 17. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CONCLUSION The basic aim of copyleft is to develop a more permissive regime that allows for the creation of a shared space of commons from which everyone can derive benefit. The fact that the current generation is guilty of copyright violations in some form or the other is indicative of an untenable legal position. I urge you all to gain more awareness about this concept and spread the word around, and exercise your freedom by opting for free software for all your work, and participate in it to help ourselves sustain our culture and knowledge forever.
  18. 18. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com THANK YOU
  19. 19. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE #1533, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 - 6552921 HYDERABAD Suite 132 & 133, Level 1, Midtown, Road No 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500034. Tel: +91 - 40 - 6050 6009 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com DISCLAIMER Any copyrighted material in this presentation is used in fair use for the purpose of study, review or critical analysis only, and will be removed at the request of the copyright owner(s).

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