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There are three parts in this presentation.

A. Why do we need Convolutional Neural Network

- Problems we face today

- Solutions for problems

B. LeNet Overview

- The origin of LeNet

- The result after using LeNet model

C. LeNet Techniques

- LeNet structure

- Function of every layer

In the following Github Link, there is a repository that I rebuilt LeNet without any deep learning package. Hope this can make you more understand the basic of Convolutional Neural Network.

Github Link : https://github.com/HiCraigChen/LeNet

LinkedIn : https://www.linkedin.com/in/YungKueiChen

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- 1. CNN - Convolutional Neural Network Yung-Kuei Chen Craig
- 2. Summary •Why do we need Convolutional Neural Network? Problems Solutions •LeNet Overview Origin Result •LeNet Techniques Structure
- 3. Why do we need Convolutional Neural Network?
- 4. Problems Source: MNIST database
- 5. Solution Source: MNIST database 𝑓( )= 5
- 6. Problems Source : Volvo autopilot
- 7. Solution Source : Volvo autopilot 𝑓( )
- 8. LeNet Image recognition
- 9. Introduce Yann LeCun •Director of AI Research, Facebook main research interest is machine learning, particularly how it applies to perception, and more particularly to visual perception. • LeNet Paper: Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition. Source : Yann LeCun, http://yann.lecun.com/
- 10. Introduce
- 11. Introduce
- 12. K nearest neighbors Convolutional NN
- 13. •Revolutionary Even without traditional machine learning concept, the result*(Error Rate:0.95%) is the best among all machine learning method. Introduce *LeNet-5, source : Yann LeCun, http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/
- 14. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 linear classifier (1-layer NN) K-nearest-neighbors, Euclidean (L2) 2-layer NN, 300 hidden units, MSE SVM, Gaussian Kernel Convolutional net LeNet-5 TEST ERROR RATE (%) (The lower the better) Introduce
- 15. Overview Source : [LeCun et al., 1998]: Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition Page. 7
- 16. Input Source : [LeCun et al., 1998]: Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition Page. 7
- 17. Input Layer Data : MNIST handwritten digits training set : 60,000 examples test set : 10,000 examples Source : http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/
- 18. Input Layer Source : http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/ Data : MNIST handwritten digits training set : 60,000 examples test set : 10,000 examples Size : 28x28 Color : Black & White Range : 0~255
- 19. Input Layer – Constant(Zero) Padding Source : http://xrds.acm.org/blog/2016/06/convolutional-neural-networks-cnns-illustrated-explanation/ 1.To make sure the data input fit our structure. 2.Let the edge elements have more chance to be filtered.
- 20. Without Padding With Padding
- 21. Convolutional Layer Source : [LeCun et al., 1998]: Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition Page. 7
- 22. Convolutional Layer – Function Extract features from the input image Source : An Intuitive Explanation of Convolutional Neural Networks https://ujjwalkarn.me/2016/08/11/intuitive-explanation-convnets/
- 23. Convolution Convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions to produce a third function, that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions.
- 24. Convolutional Layer Overview Convolutional Layer = Multiply function + Sum Function Layer input Kernel Layer output Source : https://mlnotebook.github.io/post/CNN1/ Multiply Sum
- 25. 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Convolutional Layer – Kernel 1.Any size 2.Any Shape 3.Any Value 4.Any number
- 26. Source : https://cambridgespark.com/content/tutorials/convolutional-neural-networks-with-keras/index.html Convolutional Layer – Computation Multiply Sum
- 27. Convolutional Layer – Computation Layer input Kernel Layer output Source : https://mlnotebook.github.io/post/CNN1/
- 28. Convolutional Layer – Computation 3x3 Kernel Padding = 0 Stride = 1 Shrunk Output Source: https://leonardoaraujosantos.gitbooks.io/artificial-inteligence/content/convolutional_neural_networks.html
- 29. Convolutional Layer – Stride Stride = 1 Stride = 2 Source: Theano website
- 30. Convolutional Layer – Computation 3x3 Kernel Padding = 1 Stride = 1 Same Size Output Source: Theano website
- 31. Convolutional Layer Overview Layer input Kernel Layer output Source : https://mlnotebook.github.io/post/CNN1/
- 32. -1 0 1 -2 0 2 -1 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 -1 -2 -1 X filter Y filter Result
- 33. Convolutional Layer – Result Source : Deep Learning in a Nutshell: Core Concepts, Nvidia https://devblogs.nvidia.com/parallelforall/deep-learning-nutshell-core-concepts/ Low-level feature Mid-level feature High-level feature
- 34. Pooling Layer(Subsampling) Source : [LeCun et al., 1998]: Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition Page. 7
- 35. Pooling Layer – Function Reduces the dimensionality of each feature map but retains the most important information Source : An Intuitive Explanation of Convolutional Neural Networks https://ujjwalkarn.me/2016/08/11/intuitive-explanation-convnets/
- 36. Pooling Layer Overview. Source : Using Convolutional Neural Networks for Image Recognition https://www.embedded-vision.com/platinum-members/cadence/embedded-vision- training/documents/pages/neuralnetworksimagerecognition#3
- 37. Pooling Layer – Max Pooling Source : Stanford cs231 http://cs231n.github.io/convolutional-networks/
- 38. Source : Tensorflow Day9 卷積神經網路 (CNN) 分析 (2) - Filter, ReLU, MaxPolling https://ithelp.ithome.com.tw/articles/10187424 Kernel : 2x2 Stride : 2 Padding : 0 Pooling Layer – Max Pooling
- 39. Pooling Layer – Examples
- 40. Fully Connection Source : [LeCun et al., 1998]: Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition Page. 7
- 41. Fully Connection – Function 1.Flatten the high dimensional input
- 42. Fully Connection – Function 2.Learning non-linear combinations of these features.
- 43. Fully Connection Overview The fully connected means that every two neurons in each layer are connected.
- 44. How Neural Network works? 1 -1 1 1 -1 -2 1 4 -2 0.98 0.12 𝑦1 𝑦2 Sigmoid 0 Source : professor Hung-yi Lee Deep Learning slides page.12 Input Output (1 x 1) + (-1 x -2) + 1 (1 x -1) + (-1 x 1) + 0 Sigmoid
- 45. Activation Functions Sigmoid
- 46. Activation Functions ReLU Tanh
- 47. Output Source : [LeCun et al., 1998]: Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition Page. 7
- 48. Output – Loss Function (Least Squared error ) Output 𝑌 = 𝑆𝑈𝑀((𝑋 𝑇 − 𝑊)2 ) Loss Function (Cost Function): To evaluate the difference between predicted value and the answer.
- 49. [ ] Output – One hot encoding 9 Make sure the differences between any pair of numbers are the same.
- 50. Output – One hot encoding 9-8 = 1 Closer!!! 9-5 = 3 Farther!! Make sure the differences between any pair of numbers are the same.
- 51. Output – One hot encoding 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9:
- 52. 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: Output – One hot encoding 12 + 12 = 2 12 + 12 = 2 Distance between two dots
- 53. Output How can we estimate the result? 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9:
- 54. Output 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 9 Ps: The digit in Matrix is only for expression, not the real calculation
- 55. Overview Source : [LeCun et al., 1998]: Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition Page. 7
- 56. Demo
- 57. Thank you Yung-Kuei (Craig), Chen

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