CHAPTER  An Overview of Internet and Its Applications
Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Define the different architectures of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight some of the comm...
Chapter Modules <ul><li>Internet, Intranet and Extranet </li></ul><ul><li>Messaging </li></ul><ul><li>E-Commerce </li></ul...
Chapter Modules ( Continued)  <ul><li>Virtual Private Network (VPN) </li></ul><ul><li>WAN and Access Technologies </li></u...
Web Research <ul><li>Audio and Video streaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.calstatele.edu/ats/real </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
MODULE Internet Architectures
Architectures  <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The global  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An...
Internet Defined Internet Backbone  run by major carriers Individuals SOHO User Company Network Internet Service Provider ...
Intranet Defined Internal Company  Backbone Departmental LAN Fire Wall Mini  or Mainframe Computer systems Departmental Co...
Extranet Defined Internet Company’s Intranet Business  Associates Other businesses dealing  with company A. Virtual Privat...
END OF MODULE
MODULE Email and Messaging
Email <ul><li>Messages exchanged among Internet subscribers </li></ul><ul><li>Vary from a simple text based messages to on...
Messaging <ul><li>Email expanded to include a number of other functions and services </li></ul><ul><li>Document sharing an...
Collaboration and Sharing Internet User 1 User 2 Document for  Sharing or Collaboration Sharing:  Both users can see the d...
Implementation Of Messaging Lotus Domino server, Microsoft Exchange Server  Server Client 1 Client 2 Internet Internet ser...
Major Messaging Products <ul><li>Microsoft Exchange Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlook and Outlook Express Clients </li>...
END OF MODULE
MODULE E-Commerce
Web Research <ul><li>e-server in a box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM’s web site </li></ul></ul>
END OF MODULE
MODULE Voice Over IP and Internet Telephony
Voice Over IP and Internet Telephony Defined <ul><li>The use of the internet to transmit voice in real-time </li></ul><ul>...
Internet Telephony Defined <ul><li>Using the Internet (TCP/IP) for largely the telephone related applications </li></ul><u...
Voice over IP Prospects and Challenges <ul><li>Voice transmission over the Internet has been identified as one of the larg...
Internet Telephony <ul><li>A growing market  </li></ul><ul><li>Further information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.intern...
Sample Telephony Applications Source:  Vocaltech <ul><li>Computer-to-Computer Calling  </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-to-Phone...
END OF MODULE
MODULE Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
VPN Defined <ul><li>A private network that uses the public network infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>A secured web of tunne...
Virtual Private Network Public VPN
VPN Implementation Internet Company’s Intranet Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) Fire Wall
VPN Past and Present <ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) </li></ul></ul><...
Base Technologies for VPN <ul><li>Carrier IP </li></ul><ul><li>PPTP </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Relay </li></ul><ul><li>ATM </...
Areas of Applications <ul><li>All major business organizations that require a secured Extranet </li></ul>
END OF MODULE
MODULE WAN and Access Technologies
WAN Scope <ul><li>Enterprise-wide </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan and National </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><li>U...
The Early Days of Communications and Computing  <ul><li>Telecommunication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centered on analog technol...
Long-distance Communications Modulation Digital Digital Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) Analog Interface
Initial WANs <ul><li>Introduced to overcome the limitations of general purpose analog telephone lines used </li></ul><ul><...
Basic Components of the WAN Computers/ Routing algorithms X.25 Driven Leased lines Routing devices
Present Status of WANs <ul><li>Information is carried in digitized form in many segments of the WAN </li></ul><ul><li>Digi...
WANs: Present and Future <ul><li>Move towards digital technology </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fram...
Internet2: The WAN of the Future ATM operating at several hundred Mbps Ramp Business Computer  System ATM Switches High sp...
Possible  Convergence Digital Technology <ul><li>Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterpris...
ATM Promise Server Client 1 Client 2 25 Mbps ISP 100 Mbps Internet Backbone 1 Gbps 300 Mbps
Challeng Posed by Gigabit Ethernet to ATM 1 Gbps (Gigabit) 100 Mbps (Fast) 10 Mbps 1 Mbps (Past) Ethernet Evolution Client...
Wide Area Network Technologies WAN Technologies: X.25 (old) FDDI Frame Relay ATM Los Angeles Seattle New York Florida
Front-end Access Technologies <ul><li>ISDN </li></ul><ul><li>xDSL  </li></ul><ul><li>Cable modem </li></ul><ul><li>Direct ...
Access Speeds <ul><li>Fastest speed of an analog modem is around 56K bps </li></ul><ul><li>Newer technologies operate at f...
Digital Internet Technologies Summarized FDDI Frame Relay ATM Cable Modem Direct Satellite Access xDSL ISDN
END OF MODULE
MODULE Audio and Video Streaming
Audio and Video Streaming <ul><li>Deliver continuous audio and video streams over a low bandwidth connection </li></ul><ul...
Application Areas <ul><li>Dissemination of multimedia information on the web </li></ul><ul><li>Training and education </li...
Streaming Examples Streaming  Software Audio (wav) Video (AVI) Real Format RM, RMA, RT, RP etc. Windows Format ASF etc. Ra...
Hosting of Streamed Media Streaming Server (Real Server or Windows Media  Server) Internet Streaming at 28.8, 56, 128 etc....
Method of Delivery <ul><li>Unicasting </li></ul><ul><li>Multicasting </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting </li></ul>
Major Streaming Technologies <ul><li>Real </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows Media Technologies </li></ul>
END OF MODULE
MODULE Video Conferencing
Video Conferencing <ul><li>The exchanging of audio and video information while engaged in conferencing </li></ul>
Major Types of Video Conferencing <ul><li>Dedicated video conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunication lines are u...
Video Conferencing Standard <ul><li>H.232 Series of standards </li></ul>
Sample Desktop Video Conferencing Products <ul><li>CU-SeeMee </li></ul><ul><li>Intel ProShare </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft ...
END OF MODULE
Keywords <ul><li>Intranet, Extranet, Internet </li></ul><ul><li>VPN, PPTP </li></ul><ul><li>Real Media and Windows Media <...
Keywords  <ul><li>SMTP, POP3, IMAP </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP, H.323, IPv6 </li></ul><ul><li>X.25, ATM, Frame Relay, FDDI </li...
Microcomputer-based Distributed Architecture Fiber Optic Backbone (FDDI) Mainframe/ Minicomputer Systems Bus LAN Ring LAN ...
END OF MODULE
Microcomputers <ul><li>Widespread usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious business computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dramatic in...
Connectivity <ul><li>Computers are increasingly being viewed as  resources in a network and not simply as stand-alone unit...
Downsizing: Path of Evolution Centralized Mainframe More power to the user Better management of shared data Reduced cost o...
Client-Server Computing Architecture <ul><li>Centralized data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control and management </li></ul></ul>...
Preview of Client-Server Computing Back-end data storage and retrieval. Front-end interface and data manipulation tools.  ...
A Preview of Thin-Client Concept Limited front-end processing and storage  Extensive back-end data storage, retrieval and ...
Digitization Of Telecom Network <ul><li>Mode (ATM) </li></ul>
Front-end Access Technologies <ul><li>ISDN </li></ul><ul><li>xDSL  </li></ul><ul><li>Cable modem </li></ul><ul><li>Direct ...
Access Speeds <ul><li>Fastest speed of an analog modem is around 56K bps </li></ul><ul><li>Newer technologies operate at f...
Summary of Digital Technologies in Telecommunications FDDI Frame Relay ATM Cable Modem Direct Satellite Access xDSL ISDN
END OF MODULE
Internet Access Gain access to the  resources on the WWW. Software:  Web Browser Micro Modem Serial Port Internet Access p...
General Access Software:  ProComm Plus, Hyper Terminal Public Switched Network (PSN) Gain access to a company’s mainframe ...
Telecommuting Main Office PSN Satellite Office Home ProComm PLUS ProComm PLUS
Typical LAN  Client OS/ Windows 9x Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Server: Network OS, Applications, Data etc. Windows NT  serv...
EDI Defined Vendor (Supplier) Automate the Purchase/ Supply process Retail (Purchaser)
EDI Example Vendor Retailer Electronic procurement  with minimum  human intervention Purchase Order Invoice etc.
Distributed Data Processing Data/server Data/server Query Data/server Oracle  Distributed DBMS
Transparency in the Search Process Data/server Data/server Query Data/server Oracle  Distributed DBMS 1 3 2
END OF MODULE   END OF CHAPTER
END OF MODULE   END OF CHAPTER
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Overview of Internet.ppt

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Overview of Internet.ppt

  1. 1. CHAPTER An Overview of Internet and Its Applications
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Define the different architectures of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight some of the communication applications on the Internet </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Modules <ul><li>Internet, Intranet and Extranet </li></ul><ul><li>Messaging </li></ul><ul><li>E-Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Over IP and Internet Telephony </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Modules ( Continued) <ul><li>Virtual Private Network (VPN) </li></ul><ul><li>WAN and Access Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Audio and Video Streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Web Research <ul><li>Audio and Video streaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.calstatele.edu/ats/real </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.microsoft.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extranet </li></ul><ul><li>e-server in a box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet appliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VPN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.cisco.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.lucent.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overcoming latency in TCP/IP </li></ul>
  6. 6. MODULE Internet Architectures
  7. 7. Architectures <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The global </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Internet restricted to the company’s own perimeter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranet extended to include outside organizations dealing with a particular organization </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Internet Defined Internet Backbone run by major carriers Individuals SOHO User Company Network Internet Service Provider (ISP) Internet Service Provider (ISP)
  9. 9. Intranet Defined Internal Company Backbone Departmental LAN Fire Wall Mini or Mainframe Computer systems Departmental Computer System Internet
  10. 10. Extranet Defined Internet Company’s Intranet Business Associates Other businesses dealing with company A. Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  11. 11. END OF MODULE
  12. 12. MODULE Email and Messaging
  13. 13. Email <ul><li>Messages exchanged among Internet subscribers </li></ul><ul><li>Vary from a simple text based messages to one that carries different attachments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word, PowerPoint documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any computer file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video and audio clippings etc. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Messaging <ul><li>Email expanded to include a number of other functions and services </li></ul><ul><li>Document sharing and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Whiteboard applications </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling of group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Collaboration and Sharing Internet User 1 User 2 Document for Sharing or Collaboration Sharing: Both users can see the document but only one can make changes Collaboration: Both users can see and also make changes to the document NetMeeting
  16. 16. Implementation Of Messaging Lotus Domino server, Microsoft Exchange Server Server Client 1 Client 2 Internet Internet service Provider WWW Services
  17. 17. Major Messaging Products <ul><li>Microsoft Exchange Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlook and Outlook Express Clients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lotus Domino Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cc:Mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus Notes (Client) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Netscape ??? </li></ul>
  18. 18. END OF MODULE
  19. 19. MODULE E-Commerce
  20. 20. Web Research <ul><li>e-server in a box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM’s web site </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. END OF MODULE
  22. 22. MODULE Voice Over IP and Internet Telephony
  23. 23. Voice Over IP and Internet Telephony Defined <ul><li>The use of the internet to transmit voice in real-time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of digitized voice using the Internet Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Telephony is an example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage of the Internet to transmit telephone calls </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Internet Telephony Defined <ul><li>Using the Internet (TCP/IP) for largely the telephone related applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination of voice traffic </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Voice over IP Prospects and Challenges <ul><li>Voice transmission over the Internet has been identified as one of the largest growth areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies will in the future use the Internet extensively for voice communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current IP is not well suited for voice transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latency being the biggest drawback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth restrictions also hamper voice transmission </li></ul><ul><li>IP is being improved to carry voice </li></ul>
  26. 26. Internet Telephony <ul><li>A growing market </li></ul><ul><li>Further information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.internettelephony.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Products (???) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Net meeting (Microsoft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooltalk (Netscape) etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term focus is on regularly using the Internet as a viable alternative to the Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) </li></ul><ul><li>H.323 is the prominent standard for Internet telephony </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sample Telephony Applications Source: Vocaltech <ul><li>Computer-to-Computer Calling </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-to-Phone Calling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires ITSP service in addition to regular ISP service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.dialpad.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phone-to-phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Live Motion Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whiteboarding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share and edit photos, documents and drawings with others in real time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice Mail: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record compressed voice files and sending them as attachments. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. END OF MODULE
  29. 29. MODULE Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
  30. 30. VPN Defined <ul><li>A private network that uses the public network infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>A secured web of tunnels that links various nodes to form the Virtual Private Network </li></ul>
  31. 31. Virtual Private Network Public VPN
  32. 32. VPN Implementation Internet Company’s Intranet Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) Fire Wall
  33. 33. VPN Past and Present <ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on next generation public network technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: VPNWorx , VPN Quick Reference Guide </li></ul>
  34. 34. Base Technologies for VPN <ul><li>Carrier IP </li></ul><ul><li>PPTP </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Relay </li></ul><ul><li>ATM </li></ul>
  35. 35. Areas of Applications <ul><li>All major business organizations that require a secured Extranet </li></ul>
  36. 36. END OF MODULE
  37. 37. MODULE WAN and Access Technologies
  38. 38. WAN Scope <ul><li>Enterprise-wide </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan and National </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying network infrastructure for the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Fastest growing network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth is appreciable in the area of Virtual Private Network </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. The Early Days of Communications and Computing <ul><li>Telecommunication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centered on analog technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data communication needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centered around digital technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital to analog interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For long distance communications </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Long-distance Communications Modulation Digital Digital Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) Analog Interface
  41. 41. Initial WANs <ul><li>Introduced to overcome the limitations of general purpose analog telephone lines used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better conditioned lines such as leased lines were used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Driven by a collection of computers for routing the data traffic from source to destination </li></ul><ul><li>Arpanet was the first WAN to be created </li></ul><ul><li>X.25 was the initial communication technology used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X.21 was used in Europe </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Basic Components of the WAN Computers/ Routing algorithms X.25 Driven Leased lines Routing devices
  43. 43. Present Status of WANs <ul><li>Information is carried in digitized form in many segments of the WAN </li></ul><ul><li>Digital communication lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over copper wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over fiber-optics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications and computer communications are merging in terms of deploying digital technology </li></ul>
  44. 44. WANs: Present and Future <ul><li>Move towards digital technology </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame Relay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Point-to-point digital communication will become widely used in the future </li></ul><ul><li>The WAN of the future will be designed to meet with the increasing bandwidth demands of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet2 </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Internet2: The WAN of the Future ATM operating at several hundred Mbps Ramp Business Computer System ATM Switches High speed digital lines
  46. 46. Possible Convergence Digital Technology <ul><li>Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul>Point-to-point ATM connection is possible probably under a single technology ATM
  47. 47. ATM Promise Server Client 1 Client 2 25 Mbps ISP 100 Mbps Internet Backbone 1 Gbps 300 Mbps
  48. 48. Challeng Posed by Gigabit Ethernet to ATM 1 Gbps (Gigabit) 100 Mbps (Fast) 10 Mbps 1 Mbps (Past) Ethernet Evolution Client 2 10 Mbps/ 100 Mbps/ 1 Gbps Server ISP Client 1 Hub
  49. 49. Wide Area Network Technologies WAN Technologies: X.25 (old) FDDI Frame Relay ATM Los Angeles Seattle New York Florida
  50. 50. Front-end Access Technologies <ul><li>ISDN </li></ul><ul><li>xDSL </li></ul><ul><li>Cable modem </li></ul><ul><li>Direct satellite access </li></ul><ul><li>ADSL is an example of xDSL </li></ul>
  51. 51. Access Speeds <ul><li>Fastest speed of an analog modem is around 56K bps </li></ul><ul><li>Newer technologies operate at faster speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Newer technologies have made a significant contribution in increasing the speed of communication </li></ul>
  52. 52. Digital Internet Technologies Summarized FDDI Frame Relay ATM Cable Modem Direct Satellite Access xDSL ISDN
  53. 53. END OF MODULE
  54. 54. MODULE Audio and Video Streaming
  55. 55. Audio and Video Streaming <ul><li>Deliver continuous audio and video streams over a low bandwidth connection </li></ul><ul><li>Packet switching networks do no guarantee real-time and continuous delivery of data packets </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming involves compression and decompression (CODEC) </li></ul>
  56. 56. Application Areas <ul><li>Dissemination of multimedia information on the web </li></ul><ul><li>Training and education </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Streaming Examples Streaming Software Audio (wav) Video (AVI) Real Format RM, RMA, RT, RP etc. Windows Format ASF etc. Raw File Streamed File
  58. 58. Hosting of Streamed Media Streaming Server (Real Server or Windows Media Server) Internet Streaming at 28.8, 56, 128 etc. Kbps
  59. 59. Method of Delivery <ul><li>Unicasting </li></ul><ul><li>Multicasting </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting </li></ul>
  60. 60. Major Streaming Technologies <ul><li>Real </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows Media Technologies </li></ul>
  61. 61. END OF MODULE
  62. 62. MODULE Video Conferencing
  63. 63. Video Conferencing <ul><li>The exchanging of audio and video information while engaged in conferencing </li></ul>
  64. 64. Major Types of Video Conferencing <ul><li>Dedicated video conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunication lines are used solely for the purpose of setting up a video conferencing facility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desktop video conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video conferencing conducted from a computer connected to the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Video Conferencing Standard <ul><li>H.232 Series of standards </li></ul>
  66. 66. Sample Desktop Video Conferencing Products <ul><li>CU-SeeMee </li></ul><ul><li>Intel ProShare </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft NetMeeting </li></ul><ul><li>PictureTel </li></ul>
  67. 67. END OF MODULE
  68. 68. Keywords <ul><li>Intranet, Extranet, Internet </li></ul><ul><li>VPN, PPTP </li></ul><ul><li>Real Media and Windows Media </li></ul><ul><li>Network appliance and Internet Appliance </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing, Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Messaging Server and Messaging Client </li></ul>
  69. 69. Keywords <ul><li>SMTP, POP3, IMAP </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP, H.323, IPv6 </li></ul><ul><li>X.25, ATM, Frame Relay, FDDI </li></ul><ul><li>T1, T3, OC1, OC2 </li></ul><ul><li>ISDN, xDSL, Cable Modem, Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Unicasting, Multicasting and Broadcasting </li></ul>
  70. 70. Microcomputer-based Distributed Architecture Fiber Optic Backbone (FDDI) Mainframe/ Minicomputer Systems Bus LAN Ring LAN WAN Gateway (TCP/IP) Modem Gateway External Digital/ Analog Lines
  71. 71. END OF MODULE
  72. 72. Microcomputers <ul><li>Widespread usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious business computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dramatic increase in power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparable to mainframes of the past </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declining cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordable to use in all levels of business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access services and resources on the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Connectivity <ul><li>Computers are increasingly being viewed as resources in a network and not simply as stand-alone units any more </li></ul><ul><li>LANs, Departmental networks, Enterprise networks, WANs etc. are deployed widely in business </li></ul>
  74. 74. Downsizing: Path of Evolution Centralized Mainframe More power to the user Better management of shared data Reduced cost of ownership Distributed Network Client-Server Architecture Thin-client concept
  75. 75. Client-Server Computing Architecture <ul><li>Centralized data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control and management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributed processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing using client-tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mainframe advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputer flexibility </li></ul>
  76. 76. Preview of Client-Server Computing Back-end data storage and retrieval. Front-end interface and data manipulation tools. Server Clients
  77. 77. A Preview of Thin-Client Concept Limited front-end processing and storage Extensive back-end data storage, retrieval and Processing Powerful Server Thin Clients
  78. 78. Digitization Of Telecom Network <ul><li>Mode (ATM) </li></ul>
  79. 79. Front-end Access Technologies <ul><li>ISDN </li></ul><ul><li>xDSL </li></ul><ul><li>Cable modem </li></ul><ul><li>Direct satellite access </li></ul><ul><li>ADSL is an example of xDSL </li></ul>
  80. 80. Access Speeds <ul><li>Fastest speed of an analog modem is around 56K bps </li></ul><ul><li>Newer technologies operate at faster speeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Mbps region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newer technologies have made a significant contribution in increasing the speed of communication </li></ul>
  81. 81. Summary of Digital Technologies in Telecommunications FDDI Frame Relay ATM Cable Modem Direct Satellite Access xDSL ISDN
  82. 82. END OF MODULE
  83. 83. Internet Access Gain access to the resources on the WWW. Software: Web Browser Micro Modem Serial Port Internet Access provider ISP
  84. 84. General Access Software: ProComm Plus, Hyper Terminal Public Switched Network (PSN) Gain access to a company’s mainframe to run Unix applications Micro Modem Serial Port
  85. 85. Telecommuting Main Office PSN Satellite Office Home ProComm PLUS ProComm PLUS
  86. 86. Typical LAN Client OS/ Windows 9x Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Server: Network OS, Applications, Data etc. Windows NT server Operating System
  87. 87. EDI Defined Vendor (Supplier) Automate the Purchase/ Supply process Retail (Purchaser)
  88. 88. EDI Example Vendor Retailer Electronic procurement with minimum human intervention Purchase Order Invoice etc.
  89. 89. Distributed Data Processing Data/server Data/server Query Data/server Oracle Distributed DBMS
  90. 90. Transparency in the Search Process Data/server Data/server Query Data/server Oracle Distributed DBMS 1 3 2
  91. 91. END OF MODULE END OF CHAPTER
  92. 92. END OF MODULE END OF CHAPTER

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