spokEn : phonEtics
WrittEn : grammar
•Phonology of English
•44 Speech Sounds
•Organs of Speech
•Classification of Speech Sounds
Organs of Speech
• The Muscles of the chest, the lungs and the wind pipe –
Pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism
• Trachea, Larynx : The vocal cords.
• Vocal Cords Drawn Wide Apart, Vocal Cords Held
Loosely Together, Vocal Cords held Tightly Together.
• The Pharynx, The Lips, The Teeth, The Teeth Ridge,
The Hard Palate, The Soft, Palate, The Uvula, The
• Active and Passive Articulator
• In the production of vowel sounds there is, in the
pharynx and the mouth, no obstruction and no narrowing
of a degree that would cause audible friction . In this way
vowels are essentially a tone or a hum issuing from
Glottis , with the vocal cords normally vibrating.
• Consonants are described in terms of their place of
articulation, manner of articulation and whether the vocal
cords are vibrating or not. In this way they can be
Bilabial, Labio-dental, Dental, Alveolar, Post-Alveolar,
Retroflex, Palato-alveolar, palatal, Velar, Uvular, Glottal.
• In accordance to manner of articulation they can be
Plosives, Afffricate, Nasal, Roll, Tap, flap, lateral,
Fricatives, Frictionless continuant,semi-vowel.
• No one to one correspondence between spelling and sound.
• A letter of alphabet may stand for different sounds or combinations of
sounds, in different words, and conversely, a given sound may be
represented by different letters, or combination of letters, in different words.
• An example for the first type is the letter u in the words cut, put, rude,
minute, bury and university. An example of second type may be the k-
sound represented differently in different words : by the letter k in Kit, ck in
rock, c in cut, cc in acclaim, ch in chemistry and qu in queen.
• To understand the correct pronunciation of words there arose the need of
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), devised by the International Phonetic
• Phonetic transcription is useful to represent the pronunciation of the word,
or a longer sequence, unambiguosly.for ex. Take the word Tortoise and
the transcription given is
• It is helpful in comparing different varieties of same language. Thus the
English words last, fast and class are transcribed as
Words with transcription
Sell /sel/ See /si /ː Set /set/ Sat /sæt/ Pot /p t/ɒ
Pack /pæk/ Tell /tel/ Thick /θ k/ɪ Kill /k l/ɪ Leaf /li f/ː
Feel /fi l/ː Deal /di l/ː Rat /ræt/ Cat /kæt/ Top /t p/ɒ
Seat /si t/ː Read /ri d/ː Thief /θi f/ː Speak /spi k/ː Peck pek/
Sack /sæk/ Pat /pæt/ Tea /ti /ː Deaf /def/ Death /deθ/
Dress /dres/ Two /tu /ː Pea /pi /ː Loss /l s/ɒ Wrest /rest/
• Study of Correct Order of Words
• Morphology : forms of words
• Evolution of Words : Root Words
• Sociological Context
• Grammatical Context
• Study of Suffixes and Prefixes
• Eg : Class+es
un+ classify + fied
Friend + ly + liness + un friendlilness
• Syntax : the way that words and Phrases
are put together to form sentences in a
• Correct Order of Words
• Parts of Speech
• Form and Functions of Parts of Speech
• Structure of a Clause : SVOCA
• Sentence and Types of Sentences
Phrase, Clause and Sentence
• Phrase : A group of Words without finite verb, especially one that forms
part of a sentence like “ the green car” or “ on Friday morning” in a
sentence, which when alone do not convey a complete sense.
• Clause : A group of words which includes necessarily a subject and a finite
verb, which is a part of sentence, and it all alone makes complete sense.
There are two kinds of clauses : Subordinating Clause and Co-ordinating
Correct Clause = Subject+ Verb + Object + Compliment + Adverbial.
• Sentence : A group of Clauses and Phrases makes a sentence.
E.g. : My Uncle reads a novel everyday for four hours from 2:00 pm to
6:00 pm on the terrace of our house. Here My Uncle- Subject ,
Reads – verb, A novel – direct object, Everyday- complement to verb,
For four hours- adverbial of time, from 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm- adverbial of time,
on the terrace- adverbial of place, of our house – adverbial of place.
• Subject : the main doesr of the action verb, or main
qualifier of the state verb, it denotes the one who is
directly involved in the function. Eg. The Student asked
me a question.
• Object : when asked what to the verb, the answer is
direct object and it is almost always a thing, when asked,
who to the verb, the answer is indirect object, and it is
always a person.
• Compliment : a phrase that adds to noun, adjective or
• Adverbial : a phrase that addssomething about an
action, state i.e the verb of the sentence.
Parts of Speech
• Noun : Name of a person, place, animal, thing, a quality or an activity. E.g. Ria,
Canada, Rabbit, Chair, Courage, Plant.
• Adjective : a word that describes a person or a thing. For e.g. a big house, red wine,
and a clever idea.
• Pronoun: A word that is used instead of a Noun or Noun phrase.
• Verb: A word that expresses and action such as eat, an event such as happen, or a
state such as exist.
• Adverb: a word that adds more information about place, time, manner, cause or
degree to a verb. For e.g. ‘speak kindly’, ‘incredibly deep’, ‘just in time’, ‘too
• Preposition: word or a group of words such as in, from, to, out of and on behalf of,
used before a noun or a pronoun to show place, position, time or method. E.g. in,
on, at, under etc.
• Conjunction : a word that joins words, phrases or sentences, for e.g. and, but, or.
• Interjection : a short sound, word or phrase spoken suddenly to express an emotion.
E.g. OH! Look out!.
• Refer to an event, i.e. happening thought of as single occurrence , with a
definite beginning and end e.g.
• become, get, come, leave, hit, close, take.
• Refer to a state, i.e. a state of affairs, which continues over a period, and does
not need to have a well-defined beginning and end, e.g. be, remain, contain,
know, resemble, seem.
She became unconscious. (event)
She remained unconscious (state)
• The distinction between ‘state’ and ‘event’ gives rise to the following three
basic kinds of verb meaning (ask when to clarify the kind of verb)
(1) State : Napoleon was a Corsican
(2) Single Event : Columbus discovered America.
(3) Habit (Combines state and event) : Paganini played the
(4) Use of adverbial of duration like “for sixty four years” to show habit
Forms of verb
• Base Form, Infinitive, Present tense form, 3rd
singular present tense form, past tense, past participle,
• Regular verbs = base form, past tense with ed, past
participle with ed.
• Irregular verbs : All three are same
All three are different.
Any two are same.
Functions of verb
• Auxilliary verbs : Modal and primary
• Main Verb : Finite and Non finite
Time : PresenT Time(simPle PresenT Tense)
Present State :
I am Hungry
Do you like my hat?
Or general truths like
A cube has eight corners.
Present Event :
I declare the meeting closed.
She serves- and it’s an ace!
I work in two elementary schools.
Do you drink beer?
It rains a lot in this part of the world.
The Progressive Aspect
The Progressive Aspect refers to activity in progress, and therefore
(A) That the activity is temporary
(B) that it does not have to be complete.
•He wrote a novel several years ago. (i.e. he finished it.)
•He was writing a novel several years ago. (but I don’t whether he
Verbs which most typically take the progressive are verbs denoting
activities like walk, read, drink, write, work etc, or Processes like
change, grow, widen, improve etc and certain verbs denoting a
momentary events like Knock, jump, nod, kick, etc suggest repitition.
Verbs which normally do not take the progressive.
Verbs of perceiving : Feel, hear, see, smell, taste. To express continuing perception we often use
these verbs with can or could.
•I can see someone through the window, but I cant hear what they are saying (Not : I am seeing … I
am hearing) (activity verbs : look and listen can take progressive.)
•You look ridiculous, in that hat. (not : you are looking ridiculous)
•It sounds as if the concert’s already started. (not : it is sounding…)
Verbs referring to state of mind or feeling : Believe, adore, desire, detest, dislike, doubt, forget, hate,
hope, imagine, know, like, love, mean, prefer, remember, suppose, understand, want, wish, etc.
•I suppose I’d better buy them a Christmas present.
•I hope I haven’t kept you all waiting.
•I doubt whether the standards of the schools are improving.
•He seems/appears to be enjoying himself.
Verbs referring to a relationship or a state of being : Be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost,
depend on, deserve, equal, fit, have, involve, matter, owe, own, possess, remain, require, resemble,
etc. while think, imagine, hope, expect sometimes take ‘ing’. The verb ‘be’ takes ‘ing’ only when an
adjective or a noun follows it like.. I am being nice to you.
The verb have, when it is a state verb, does not go with the progressive: He has a good job. (Not :
He is having a good job.) But have often goes with the progressive when it denotes a process or
activity: They were having a Breakfast.
Verbs referring to internal sensation (hurt, feel, ache, itch etc). These can be used either with the
progressive with little difference of effect.
•My back hurts/ is hurting.
•I felt/was feeling ill.
Present Progressive (temporary present)
• Look! it is snowing !
• The children are sleeping soundly now.
• They are living in a rented house
(Use of temporary progressive with repetitive meaning of
the habitual present)
• I am playing golf regularly these days.
• She is not working at the moment
• He is walking to work while his car is being repaired.
Past Time and Perfect Aspect
• The past tense is used when the past happening is
related to a definite time, in the past, which we may call
‘then’. Hence the simple past tense means ‘past-
happening-related- to-past- time’.
He was in prison for ten years. (this probably means ‘Now
he is out’)
• In contrast, the perfect aspect is used for a past
happening which is seen in relation to a later event or
time. Thus the present perfect means ‘past-happening-
related- to present time’. For example:
He has been in prison for ten years. (this probably
means that he is still there.)
The Past Tense
• Refers to definite time in the past which is shown by
past-time adverbial, the preceding language context or
the context outside language.
a. Chandra came to England since 1955.
b. The parcel arrived last week.
c. Joan has became engaged; it took us completely by
d. Did you get any letters? (here we can use the past tense
without language context, because it is understood that
the mail arrives at a given time in the day.)
The Present Perfect
Action is just completed thus it is in past but leading up to present time.
1.Past events with results in the present time. For ex.
•The Taxi has arrived.
•All police leave has been cancelled.
•Her doll has been broken.
2. Indefinite events in a period leading up to present perfect.
•Have you (ever) been to Florence?
•All the family have suffered from the same illness.
3. Habit in a period leading upto present time
•She has attended lectures regularly (this semester)
•He has played regularly at Wimbledon since he was eighteen.
4.State leading up to the Present time.
•That Supermarket- how long has it been open?
•She has always had a vivid imagination.
The Present Perfect Progressive
• The activity continues till present.
1)You have been fighting.
2)I have been reading your book.
(normally : I am still reading your book.)
3) I have been studying for exams.
4) She has been explaining to me.
The Past Perfect
The Past Perfect means ‘past in the past’; that is, a time further in the
past as seen from a definite time in the past:
oThe house had been empty for several months (when we bought it).
oThe goalkeeper had injured his leg , and couldn’t play.
oTheir relationship had been ideal until Claire’s announcement ‘I’m
leaving – there’s someone else’.
If we put the events described in (2) and (3) further into past, they both
end up in the past perfect (2a, 3a)
They tell me that . . . The parcel arrived on April 15th
The parcel has already arrived. (3)
They told me that .. . The parcel had arrived on April 15th
The Parcel had already arrived (3a)
Perfect aspect with infinitives
• Infinitives and participles have no tense, and so cannot
express the differences between past tense and perfect
aspect. Instead, the perfect express general past
• He seems to have missed to point of your joke. Or
It seems that he has missed the point.
• More than 1000 people are said to have been arrested.
• She is proud of having achieved stardom while still a
She is proud that she has achieved stardom.
Adverbials in relation to the past and present perfect
• For Past
I rang her parents yesterday (evening).
A funny thing happened to me last Friday.
In 2000 a new law was introduced.
In the evening he attended an executive meeting of the tennis club
The fire started just after ten o’clock.
The Present Perfect (a period leading up to present, or recent past
Since January, life has been very busy.
I haven’t had any luck since I was a baby.
Up to now her life hasn’t been altogether rosy.
To Show state or habit in the past :
used to and would
“Used to” expresses a state or habit in the
past, as contrasted with the present :
•My uncle used to keep horses.
•I used to know her well.
Would can also express a past habit, with
the particular sense of ‘characteristic,
•He would wait for her outside the office.
The Future Time
• Shall and Will + base verb expresses future time reference
1 Simple Future tense:
• We Will know our exam results in May.
• It will be Diwali in a week.
2.Future Continuous tense:
• It will be raining when we start.
• I will be going to Shimla the coming Summer.
3.Future Perfect Tense :
• I shall have written my exercise by then.
• By the end of this month I will have worked here for five years.
4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense :
• I will have been teaching for twenty years next July.
• I will have been writing a novel after 4 years.
Other Future Markers
• Usage of Be going to + Infinitive denotes future fulfulling from
1. Aren’t you going to put a sweater on? It is cold outside.
2. It is going to rain. (there are black clouds in sky).
• Usage of Simple Present tense especially with time adverbials
and conditional clauses.
1. I will get her to phone you when/if/after she comes in.
2. Tomorrow is Thursday.
Usage of Present Continuous tense to show or talk about
something we have planned to do in future:
1. We are eating out tonight.
2. Mr. A.R. Rahman is arriving this evening for tomorrow’s
Primary Auxilliary : to be, to do, to have.
Modal Auxilliary : can, could, may, might,
shall, should, will, would, must, ought to,
used to, need to and Dare to.
• May : shows possibility of the fact
• Can : Idea that is possible to be well executed.
also shows an ability. Also used to question the ability.
• Could/ Might: to express the possibility in past but was
not done. For hypothetical possibility also we use could
• May have : shows possibility in the past
• Would : hypothetical certainty.
• Must/ have to : it shows certainty, or logical possibility
• Ought to/should ; shows probability, weaker to must.
• Need not : negation of certainty.
• Will and shall : future prediction, with certainty.