Pag. | 2 CONTENTS CONTEXT AND STATE OF ART OF TANGIBLE HERITAGE IN CAHUL DISTRICT, REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA 1. Introduction.Republic of Moldova and Cahul district tangible heritage 3 2. Tangible cultural heritage‐ evolution of concepts 3 3. Legislative background for tangible heritage protection in Republic of Moldova 4 4. Cahul district and project area tangible cultural heritage character 5 5 Territory sustainable development through tangible and intangible heritage 6 6. A model of minor historic rural center revival and management 6 Tangible and intangible heritage of Rimetea (Alba County, Romania)
Pag. | 3 Context and state of art of Tangible heritage in Cahul district, Republic of Moldova 1. Introduction.Republic of Moldova and Cahul district tangible heritage Located in the southern part of the Republic of Moldova,having a surface of 448200 ha, Cahul district is composed of plains and hilly areas, with over 11% forests occupieing the district land and an important natural scentific Reserve, between Prut river and the Danube,“The Lower Prut”natural reserve, formed of meadows, ponds and natural lakes.Landscape represents the integratorfactor that embraces a small size localities system, formed of one town- Cahul- and 55 localities, ofwhich 37 communes and 18 villages.It’s geographical position and the history of this region shaped a multicultural environment, presentin the cultural life of the villages and also in their tangible and intangible heritage.Tangible and intangible heritage are interrelated by a dynamic link, as tangible values -built, naturalor artefacts-protection is significant for communities identity in the future and enable them todevelop in a sustainable way, based on their heritage and cultural values, they become aware of.Although in terms of figures, tangible heritage recorded in the oficial Register for Monuments in theCahul district is not significant, cultural spaces(linked to a site, landscape or to a building) as amarket place or a village square are part of the local identity, being both a site and socio-culturalplace, due to their significance for the community or inhabitants.2. Tangible cultural heritage‐ evolution of concepts Approaching international definition of tangible heritage in charters or resolutions at European level, the change of the concept can be seen as an evolution from specific categories (emblematic monument buildings or archeological remains) to a larger array‐ groups of less important buildings, man‐made sites, artifacts and landscapes‐ including natural features, geological and physiographical formations, natural landscapes but also cultural/man‐made ones. The conservation of tangible heritage as well as safeguarding and transmitting cultural practices, traditional knowledge and skills calls for putting tangible heritage in its wider context ‐ relating it more closely to the concerned communities ‐“translate” intangible heritage to“tangible forms “of heritage, as inventories, records, exhibitions/ museums and support the practitioners for the
Pag. | 4 transmission of skills; meaning that intangible heritage should support tangible heritage values and be included in tangible manifestations, in order to become a visible sign of local history and culture. This integrated way of dealing with heritage, encompassing tangible and intangible, must be sustained also by a new way of acting at local and at the same time at territorial level, in restoring these values, revitalizing and enhancing them in a coherent and inclusive approach. 3. Legislative background for tangible heritage protection in the Republic of Moldova As a country in a process of transition, Republic of Moldova faces several issues concerning the recognition and the protection of some heritage values considered in European legislation on the same level of importance as emblematic architectural or archaeological values‐ rural settlements, vernacular architecture, urban fabric or cultural landscapes. The policy concerning heritage preservation is formed of several laws, starting June 22, 1993‐Law regarding the protection of historical monuments(with subsequent modifications‐2012), followed in 27 may 1999 by the Law on culture and in 2002 by the ratification of the Convention on protection of World cultural and natural heritage (UNESCO, Paris 1972). In order to be protected, an objective‐(site, monument of architecture or art) ‐has to be inscribed in the Register of Monuments Protected by the State(RMPS) or in the Register of Monuments Protected by Local Authorities(RMPLA)‐ corresponding to the national or local value of the objectives. The National Agency on Monuments, Inspection and Restoration, as professional and scientific body in the heritage field, was founded in 2006; consequently the RMPS was published only 4 years later, in February 2010, the protection of monuments coming into force then. Protected areas are defined in the Regulations for Protected Natural and Built areas (Governmental resolution 1009/2000) which provide protection to heritage (urban, architectural and archaeological values) only in a limited area, concerning the surroundings that include objectives on the RMPS. In figures, out of 15,000 cultural sites representing Republic of Moldova cultural heritage, only a number of 5206 are included in RMPS‐ 4086 of national importance and 1120 of local importance. Unfortunately, for monuments of local importance‐ that generally form the historical background of a locality, including minor historic centers ‐ few districts benefit of the RMPLA‐ and Cahul district has not yet completed it, in order to enable a better protection policy and the implementation of sustainable development processes and programs based on tangible heritage enhancement.
Pag. | 5 4. Cahul district and project area tangible cultural heritage character The importance of cultural heritage for cities or villages resides both in historical meanings or significant images as in the intangible values incorporated in buildings and places, the “spirit of place” that adds quality to the community life of a territory: traditions, skills and habits, music, dance, folklore. Sustainable development of the district by joining heritage to economic and social development proves to be a challenge for today strategies and programs, as out of 5206 objectives included on the RMPS, the South region of Moldova is represented only by a number of 20 objective‐ this small number having a low impact on the territorial development from a cultural point of view. The project area‐ including the town of Cahul and Borceag, Colibasi, Valeni and Slobozia Mare villages‐ is represented by some monuments of architecture and art ‐6 orthodox churches, 1 memorial house, 10 monuments of art and 1 park. These are not reflecting the richness of the territory, as local ethnographical museums, public traditional places (“hora”squares) or traditional craftsman workshops, cultural landscapes or even traditional/vernacular architecture, are not taken into consideration to be listed at local or national level and therefore to have an important part to play in a strategy of sustainable development adapted to local context, capable of producing synergies of the economy with social and cultural life in the area. The analysis of the territory heritage values puts into light a specificity in villages morphology, adapted to the relief and natural landscape, where local communities have practiced agriculture, vine and fruit tree growing, shaping the land into cultural landscapes, thus producing a specific architecture for living or storing their products (houses, caves), developing skills in crafts with local materials (wood, earth, reed, straw). Historical valuable landmarks as roman wall remains‐ archeology that links trans frontier territories ‐Romania‐ Moldova and Ukraine, can also be taken into account in the development of a competitive cultural tourism of the area through a cultural networks. Tangible natural environment has undeniable value for an important part of the territory (Colibasi, Valeni,Slobozia Mare villages) as a scientific natural reserve ‐“the Lower Prut Reserve”since 1991and being naturally connected, a relict of the old Danube banks, to the UNESCO Danube DeltaBiosphere Reserve(RO).In terms of heritage, the character of Cahul district and specifically the project area is a symbioticrelationship between nature and culture, between tangible and intangible- cultural landscape beingthe best definition for all values incorporated in the territory.
Pag. | 6 5. Territorial sustainable development through tangible and intangible heritage The vision over the territorial development is based on a system of objectives‐heritage rehabilitation and valorization (natural, tangible and intangible) being among the priorities to be considered (both from authorities point of view as from stakeholders’). How has each village or each town to act in order to preserve its identity and authenticity but at the same time to develop in a balanced way, to ensure a more qualitative life for its inhabitants and an attractive surrounding for tourism adapted to this territorial scale‐mainly rural‐cultural tourism? A starting point should be the understanding and value of tangible heritage (starting with a scientific evaluation of all tangible assets in the area, implementing a larger vision for the actual national concept of “monuments ” , by including historic urban public spaces, vernaculararchitecture, traditional industries and cultural landscapes).Following steps regard a coherent view of territorial development, including all facets of heritage‐ natural, tangible and intangible. Finally, the territorial strategy of development will connect these localities in a cultural network, each settlement enhancing its identity but benefiting as a whole from the diverse heritage of the other localities. This cultural territorial system is valuable also in terms of community development as inhabitants will be involved along with local authorities in the upgrading of their environment, raising the quality of life by preserving and revitalizing the valuable assets of their territory in heritage based projects. 6. A model of minor historic rural center revival and management Tangible and intangible heritage of Rimetea village, Alba county, Romania Attested since the XIII th century, the village of Rimetea was known for processing iron and miningby German miners, is situated in Transylvania historical region of Romania, in a valley surroundedby rocky mountains. Natural and built architectural landscape form an unique environment whichwas threatened by neglect or by improper, ” unsympathetic”-as defined by Transylvania TrustFoundation professionals- interventions on historical buildings.The best stage of the settlement development was during the XVIIIth century- architecturalensembles from XVIII-XIXth centuries being preserved and enhanced through this heritageconservation and development project.
Pag. | 7 Initiated by professionals and NGOs, financially and scientifically supported by international bodies(as the Vth district of Budapest and former vice president of ICOMOS), a grant system wasimplemented and coordinated by Transylvania Trust Foundation since 1996, during 10 years beingoffered to130-140 building owners grants to preserve and have a pro-active attitude towardsconservation of the area values (buildings and plots as well).The project developed also an educational tool for students (1996-1998 an architectural survey was inplace) and most important for local community economic and social life-employment for craftsmenand possibility in learning traditional skills related to old buildings rehabilitation.Recognized as a best practice for vernacular heritage, Rimetea village heritage project was awardedby the European Union the prize for Cultural heritage- Europa Nostra award 1999.As a long term objective, by rural and cultural tourism this area was brought to a new life, tangibleheritage, intangible heritage and nature sustaining development adapted to the local context, theimportance of protecting tangible and intangible heritage being significant not only for reflecting onand better understand the past but also to maintain the identity and pride of their inheritance, for localcommunities in the future.