THE WONDER OF Stefano Gallizio


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This ppt explains how CERN works for all of those interested in nuclear science.

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  • My power point presentation, after having consulted with Dr. Merlo, is going to be about the LHC (lLarge Hadron Collider) in CERN. It is going to be about the structure of the LHC and how it works, also about what the goals were to achieve and the different experiments. How the LHC Works The LHC is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. It is a 27 km ring of super conducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. Inside the accelerator, two beams of particles travel at close to the speed of light with very high energies before colliding with one another. The beams travel in opposite directions in separate beam pipes. Two tubes are kept at a very high vacuum. They are pushed around the accelerator ring by a strong magnetic field. These are built from coils of special electric cable that operates in a super conducting state, efficiently conducting electricity without resistance or loss of energy. This requires chilling the magnets to about ‑271°C – a temperature colder than outer space! There are thousands of magnets in used to push and direct the beams around the accelerator. To precise, 1232 dipole magnets of 15 m length which are used to bend the beams, and 392 quadruple magnets, each 5–7 m long, to focus the beams. Just before the collision, the magnets squeeze the beams closer together to increase the impact of the collision. All of this is to help scientists to answer key unresolved questions in particle physics. For the past few years, scientists have been able to learn more about particles that make up the Universe and the interactions between them. However, there are still some gaps. The LHC helps fill in these gaps. The six experiments at the LHC are all run by international scientists. The two larger experiments are ATLAS and CMS. They are designed to create the largest and vastess view of physics possible. ALICE and LHCb are the two medium experiments. These two experiments are designed to analyse the collisions in the LHC. TOTEM and LHCf are the two smallest experiments. These experiments are made to focus on the ‘forward particles’ (protons and heavy ions).
  • THE WONDER OF Stefano Gallizio

    1. 1. Large Hadron Collider
    2. 2. What is LHC ?
    3. 3. The Large Hadron Collider is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator
    4. 4. It is a 27 km ring of magnets with accelerating structures,
    5. 5. that push the energy of the particles along the ring
    6. 6. The LHC is located in Geneva, in Switzerland
    7. 7. Currently, there are five experiments at the LHC
    8. 8. CMS
    9. 9. ALICE
    10. 10. LHCb
    11. 11. ATLAS
    12. 12. TOTEM
    13. 13. ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb are built in four huge underground caverns,
    14. 14. that are built around the four collision points of the LHC beams
    15. 15. LHC Structure…
    16. 16. Two beams Hadrons, will travel in opposite directions inside the accelerator
    17. 17. Every time the subtomic particles go around the ring, they gain more energy, hence go faster
    18. 18. Then, physicists will use the LHC to reproduce the conditions just after the Big Bang
    19. 20. They will do this by colliding the two beams at very high energy
    20. 22. Expert physicists and experts gather from all over the world to help out with these experiments
    21. 23. No one will know what will happen as a result of these collisions…
    22. 24. … as this experiment is a never before tried experiment
    23. 25. So kids…
    24. 26. don’t try this at home
    25. 27. Past
    26. 28. In the begining of the 1900s, Europe dominated in physics
    27. 29. But unfortunatley, the conflicts of the 1930s-1940s held back european science
    28. 30. By the early 50s, the Americans had understood that further progress needed more sophisticated instruments.
    29. 31. But while Americans were developing new instruments…
    30. 32. european scientists were still using basic instruments and proceeding slower.
    31. 33. Physicists like Rabi, Amaldi, Auger and Rougemont
    32. 34. realized that there was only one way to proceed…
    33. 36. So in 1953, CERN was born.
    34. 37. References :,%2B2008,%2BEuropean%2BCenter%2BNuclear%2BResearch%2B(CERN)%2Bscientists%2Bcontrol%2Bcomputer%2Bscreens%2Bshowing%2Btraces%2Bon%2BAtlas%2Bexperiment%2Bof%2Bthe%2Bfirst%2Bprotons%2Binjected%2BLarge%2BHadron%2BCollider%2BLHC%2B.jpg