<ul>CERN </ul>A VERY SHORT EXPLANATION OF THE LHC (LARGE HADRON COLLIDER) AT CERN (Centre Européen pour la Recherche Nucleaire), GENÈVA This presentation was composed in order to qualify for teaching in english language at the university of Burgos <ul><li>Alfonso de la Fuente Ruiz, 2011 </li></ul>
But why not? <ul><li>Safety of particle collisions at the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Hadron Collider: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hawking's calculation and more general quantum mechanical arguments predict that micro black holes evaporate almost instantaneously. Additional safety arguments beyond those based on Hawking radiation were given in the papers, which showed that in hypothetical scenarios with stable black holes that could damage Earth, such black holes would have been produced by cosmic rays and would have already destroyed known astronomical objects such as the Earth, Sun, neutron stars, or white dwarfs. Further, microscopic black holes generated from a particle accelerator are very small in size and are expected to have a high velocity, making it impossible for them to accrete a dangerously large amount of mass before leaving the earth for good. </li></ul>
The World Wide Web was created at CERN <ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee, 1989 </li></ul>
<ul>Sept. 2008: LHC damaged! </ul><ul><li>Picture below, shows two of the most severely broken interconnects, which are between the magnets in LHC sectors three and four. The superconducting magnets, used to direct and focus the proton beams in the experiment, are cooled by liquid helium. An electrical fault caused the liquid helium to leak, resulting in a need for repairs that has put the experiment out of action until at least summer 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>An electrical fault caused the helium leak. A resistive zone developed in one of the electrical connections, created an electrical arc that punctured one of the helium enclosures around a magnet, according to an analysis by CERN.
The warming helium expanded in the vacuum enclosure of the central subsector of the pipe, damaging the vacuum barriers separating the central subsector from the neighboring subsectors. </li></ul>
2011: Currently a success! <ul><li>Scientific output