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IC Engines and Reciprocating Machine
By: Tsegaye Paulos [MSc]
Chapter Contents
 Heat Engine
 IC Engine Classification,
 Engine Components
 Basic Engine Nomenclatures,
 Four stroke and Two stroke Engines
 CI engines, and SI engines
2
1.1 Heat Engine
•A heat engine is a device which transforms
the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal
energy and uses this energy to produce
mechanical work.
It is classified into two types-
(a) External combustion engine
(b) Internal combustion engine
From the above division, this course deals
with the second term, which is IC engine;
Reciprocating Machine.
3
Internal Combustion Engine
In IC engine, the combustion of air and
fuels take place inside the cylinder and
are used as the direct motive force.
It is an engine in which the combustion
of fuel oxidizer mixture occurs in a
confined space for the purpose of
converting the combustion heat into
mechanical work.
4
Classification of IC Engines
It can be classified into the following types:
1. According to the basic engine design
(a) Reciprocating engine (Use of cylinder piston
arrangement),
(b) Rotary engine (Use of turbine)
2. According to the type of fuel used
(a) Petrol engine,
(b) Diesel engine,
(c) Gas engine(CNG, LPG),
(d) Alcohol engine (ethanol, methanol etc)
5
3. According to the number of strokes per cycle
(a) Four stroke and (b) Two stroke engine
4. According to the method of igniting the fuel
(a) Spark ignition engine,
(b) compression ignition engine and
(c) hot spot ignition engine
5. According to the working cycle
(a) Otto cycle (constant volume cycle) engine,
(b)Diesel cycle (constant pressure cycle) engine,
(c) Dual combustion cycle (semi diesel cycle)
engine.
6
6. According to the fuel supply and mixture
preparation
(a) Carburetted type (fuel supplied through the
carburettor), (b) Injection type (fuel injected into
inlet ports or inlet manifold, fuel injected into the
cylinder just before ignition).
7. According to the number of cylinder
(a) Single cylinder and
(b) Multi-cylinder engine
8. Method of cooling- water cooled or air cooled
9. Speed of the engine- Slow speed, medium speed
and high speed engine
7
10. Cylinder arrangement-
Vertical, horizontal, inline, V-type, radial, opposed
cylinder or piston engines.
11. Valve or port design and location- Overhead (I
head), side valve (L head); in two stroke engines:
cross scavenging, loop scavenging, uniflow
scavenging.
12. Application- Automotive engines for land
transport, marine engines for propulsion of ships,
aircraft engines for aircraft propulsion, industrial
engines, prime movers for electrical generators.
8
1.2 Engine Components and Basic Engine
Nomenclature
9
Cylinder block:
It is considered as to be the foundation block of the engine.
It has bores for the pistons, passages for the water to cool the
cylinder, galleries for the lubrication system, and tunnels for push
rods if these are used to operate the rocker arm.
It is the main part of the engine inside which piston reciprocates to
and fro.
It should have high strength to withstand high pressure above 50 bar
and temperature above 2000 ºC.
The ordinary engine is made of cast iron and heavy duty engines are
made of steel alloys or aluminium alloys.
10
Cylinder head: - it is a closed, and often
detachable, end of a cylinder located in cars’
internal combustion engine. It is typically
found on the top portion of the engine block.
It contains such parts: intake and exhaust
valves, the fuel injector and passages for the
fuel and air mixture.
11
• Camshaft: - is a device used to convert rotational motion into
reciprocating or oscillator motion. It turns ½ speed of the
crankshaft.
• It is responsible to open and close the valves in the engine
through its cam lobes and determines the firing order on it.
• Likewise, the camshaft is equipped with gear to drive the
distributor and oil pump; an eccentric may be ground or bolted
onto the camshaft to drive the fuel pump.
Piston: - is a cylindrical shaped mass that reciprocates back and
forth in the cylinder, transmitting the pressure force in the
combustion chamber to the rotating shaft.
12
•Piston has also the following functions, thus:
•To transmit the gas pressure to the crankshaft through
the connecting rod.
•It receives the force of explosion and pressure of
expanding gases and delivers it to the crankshaft in a
rotary manner.
•To absorb the lateral thrust or side pressure due to the
angularity of the connecting rod.
• To seal the inside of cylinder from the crankcase.
•During combustion and early part of expansion stroke,
Piston acts to dissipate heat generated in the
combustion chamber.
•Charge during compression prior to ignition and also
discharged burned gases out of one cylinder.
13
•Crankshaft:- it converts reciprocating motion into rotary
motion.
Piston Rings: - it provides a sliding
seal between the outer edge of the
piston and the inner edge of the
cylinder.
They are divided into two, and these
are, oil ring and compression ring.
Connecting Rod: - it connects the
piston to the crankshaft.
It absorbs the joint effect of the
pressure on the piston combined with
the inertia of the reciprocating parts
and the friction of piston rings, of the
piston, piston rod, and crosshead
14
Valves (Inlet and Outlet) or Port (Inlet and Outlet):
•Valves are used in Four-Stroke Engine, and Ports are
Used in Two-Stroke Engine.
•When the engine in the suction condition then charges
are entering through the inlet valve and after burning of
charge the burned gas goes out of the cylinder with the
help of the outlet valve.
Spark Plug or Fuel Injector:
•Spark plug is used for igniting the charge in a petrol
engine and
•The fuel injector is used in diesel engines where high-
pressure fuel is sprayed by the injector, however, fuel
injector also controls the timing and quantity of fuel
sprayed inside the cylinder.
15
How does a Reciprocating engine work?
The reciprocating engine has four types of strokes.
1. Suction Stroke
2. Compression Stroke
3. Power Stroke
4. Exhaust Stroke
•In suction stroke, fuel goes to the engine cylinder via
inlet valve or port, when the piston goes from TDC to
BDC then there is pressure difference between
atmosphere and vacuum is created inside the cylinder,
due to this vacuum fuel is in through the inlet valve, at
this stage the outlet valve is in closed condition.
16
•In compression stroke, the charge (Fuel or
air+fuel) is compressed due to this its pressure and
temperature gets higher and higher, and at this
time spark plug (for petrol engine) give the spark
and the whole the charge gets burned.
•At this stage, a high thrust produced by the burned
gas to the piston, so that the piston shifted to the
BDC, and the piston is connected with the
crankshaft via a connecting rod, so the crankshaft
is started rotating.
This stroke is called a power stroke.
17
And at exhaust stroke again piston comes
from the BDC to TDC and pushes the
burned gases out of the cylinder.
So this is how a reciprocating engine work,
18
19
Summary of Main IC Engine
components
20
Terminology used in IC engine:
Cylinder bore (D): The nominal inner diameter of the working
cylinder.
Piston area (A): The area of circle of diameter equal to the cylinder
bore.
Stroke (L): The nominal distance through which a working piston
moves between two successive reversals of its direction of motion.
Dead centre: The position of the working piston and the moving
parts which are mechanically connected to it at the moment when the
direction of the piston motion is reversed (at either end point of the
stroke).
a) Bottom dead centre (BDC): Dead centre when the piston is nearest
to the crankshaft.
b) Top dead centre (TDC): Dead centre when the position is farthest
from the crankshaft.
21
Displacement volume or swept volume (Vs): The
nominal volume generated by the working piston
when travelling from the one dead centre to next one
and given as,
Vs=A × L
Clearance volume (Vc): the nominal volume of the
space on the combustion side of the piston at the top
dead centre.
Cylinder volume (V): Total volume of the cylinder.
V= Vs + Vc
Compression ratio (r): r =
𝑉𝑠
𝑉𝑐
22
Four Stroke Cycle Engines
Cycle of operation completed in four strokes of the piston or two
revolution of the piston.
(i) Suction stroke (suction valve open, exhaust valve closed)-charge
consisting of fresh air mixed with the fuel is drawn into the
cylinder due to the vacuum pressure created by the movement of
the piston from TDC to BDC.
(ii) Compression stroke (both valves closed)-fresh charge is
compressed into clearance volume by the return stroke of the
piston and ignited by the spark for combustion. Hence pressure
and temperature is increased due to the combustion of fuel
(iii) Expansion stroke (both valves closed)-high pressure of the burnt
gases force the piston towards BDC and hence power is obtained
at the crankshaft.
(iv) Exhaust stroke (exhaust valve open, suction valve closed)- burned
gases expel out due to the movement of piston from BDC to
TDC. 23
Fig. 2. Cycle of operation in four stroke engine
24
Two Stroke Cycle Engines
• In a 2-stroke engine; Suction and Compression happens in
one movement of the piston, i.e. From BDC to TDC and
• Power stroke and Exhaust stoke happen in another
movement of the piston, i.e. from TDC to BDC.
25
Fig. 3. Cycle of operation in two stroke engine
26
Comparison of Four-stroke and two-stroke engine:
27
28
End!
Thank You!
29

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ic Engine and reciprocating machine ch1.pdf

  • 1. IC Engines and Reciprocating Machine By: Tsegaye Paulos [MSc]
  • 2. Chapter Contents  Heat Engine  IC Engine Classification,  Engine Components  Basic Engine Nomenclatures,  Four stroke and Two stroke Engines  CI engines, and SI engines 2
  • 3. 1.1 Heat Engine •A heat engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal energy and uses this energy to produce mechanical work. It is classified into two types- (a) External combustion engine (b) Internal combustion engine From the above division, this course deals with the second term, which is IC engine; Reciprocating Machine. 3
  • 4. Internal Combustion Engine In IC engine, the combustion of air and fuels take place inside the cylinder and are used as the direct motive force. It is an engine in which the combustion of fuel oxidizer mixture occurs in a confined space for the purpose of converting the combustion heat into mechanical work. 4
  • 5. Classification of IC Engines It can be classified into the following types: 1. According to the basic engine design (a) Reciprocating engine (Use of cylinder piston arrangement), (b) Rotary engine (Use of turbine) 2. According to the type of fuel used (a) Petrol engine, (b) Diesel engine, (c) Gas engine(CNG, LPG), (d) Alcohol engine (ethanol, methanol etc) 5
  • 6. 3. According to the number of strokes per cycle (a) Four stroke and (b) Two stroke engine 4. According to the method of igniting the fuel (a) Spark ignition engine, (b) compression ignition engine and (c) hot spot ignition engine 5. According to the working cycle (a) Otto cycle (constant volume cycle) engine, (b)Diesel cycle (constant pressure cycle) engine, (c) Dual combustion cycle (semi diesel cycle) engine. 6
  • 7. 6. According to the fuel supply and mixture preparation (a) Carburetted type (fuel supplied through the carburettor), (b) Injection type (fuel injected into inlet ports or inlet manifold, fuel injected into the cylinder just before ignition). 7. According to the number of cylinder (a) Single cylinder and (b) Multi-cylinder engine 8. Method of cooling- water cooled or air cooled 9. Speed of the engine- Slow speed, medium speed and high speed engine 7
  • 8. 10. Cylinder arrangement- Vertical, horizontal, inline, V-type, radial, opposed cylinder or piston engines. 11. Valve or port design and location- Overhead (I head), side valve (L head); in two stroke engines: cross scavenging, loop scavenging, uniflow scavenging. 12. Application- Automotive engines for land transport, marine engines for propulsion of ships, aircraft engines for aircraft propulsion, industrial engines, prime movers for electrical generators. 8
  • 9. 1.2 Engine Components and Basic Engine Nomenclature 9
  • 10. Cylinder block: It is considered as to be the foundation block of the engine. It has bores for the pistons, passages for the water to cool the cylinder, galleries for the lubrication system, and tunnels for push rods if these are used to operate the rocker arm. It is the main part of the engine inside which piston reciprocates to and fro. It should have high strength to withstand high pressure above 50 bar and temperature above 2000 ºC. The ordinary engine is made of cast iron and heavy duty engines are made of steel alloys or aluminium alloys. 10
  • 11. Cylinder head: - it is a closed, and often detachable, end of a cylinder located in cars’ internal combustion engine. It is typically found on the top portion of the engine block. It contains such parts: intake and exhaust valves, the fuel injector and passages for the fuel and air mixture. 11
  • 12. • Camshaft: - is a device used to convert rotational motion into reciprocating or oscillator motion. It turns ½ speed of the crankshaft. • It is responsible to open and close the valves in the engine through its cam lobes and determines the firing order on it. • Likewise, the camshaft is equipped with gear to drive the distributor and oil pump; an eccentric may be ground or bolted onto the camshaft to drive the fuel pump. Piston: - is a cylindrical shaped mass that reciprocates back and forth in the cylinder, transmitting the pressure force in the combustion chamber to the rotating shaft. 12
  • 13. •Piston has also the following functions, thus: •To transmit the gas pressure to the crankshaft through the connecting rod. •It receives the force of explosion and pressure of expanding gases and delivers it to the crankshaft in a rotary manner. •To absorb the lateral thrust or side pressure due to the angularity of the connecting rod. • To seal the inside of cylinder from the crankcase. •During combustion and early part of expansion stroke, Piston acts to dissipate heat generated in the combustion chamber. •Charge during compression prior to ignition and also discharged burned gases out of one cylinder. 13
  • 14. •Crankshaft:- it converts reciprocating motion into rotary motion. Piston Rings: - it provides a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of the cylinder. They are divided into two, and these are, oil ring and compression ring. Connecting Rod: - it connects the piston to the crankshaft. It absorbs the joint effect of the pressure on the piston combined with the inertia of the reciprocating parts and the friction of piston rings, of the piston, piston rod, and crosshead 14
  • 15. Valves (Inlet and Outlet) or Port (Inlet and Outlet): •Valves are used in Four-Stroke Engine, and Ports are Used in Two-Stroke Engine. •When the engine in the suction condition then charges are entering through the inlet valve and after burning of charge the burned gas goes out of the cylinder with the help of the outlet valve. Spark Plug or Fuel Injector: •Spark plug is used for igniting the charge in a petrol engine and •The fuel injector is used in diesel engines where high- pressure fuel is sprayed by the injector, however, fuel injector also controls the timing and quantity of fuel sprayed inside the cylinder. 15
  • 16. How does a Reciprocating engine work? The reciprocating engine has four types of strokes. 1. Suction Stroke 2. Compression Stroke 3. Power Stroke 4. Exhaust Stroke •In suction stroke, fuel goes to the engine cylinder via inlet valve or port, when the piston goes from TDC to BDC then there is pressure difference between atmosphere and vacuum is created inside the cylinder, due to this vacuum fuel is in through the inlet valve, at this stage the outlet valve is in closed condition. 16
  • 17. •In compression stroke, the charge (Fuel or air+fuel) is compressed due to this its pressure and temperature gets higher and higher, and at this time spark plug (for petrol engine) give the spark and the whole the charge gets burned. •At this stage, a high thrust produced by the burned gas to the piston, so that the piston shifted to the BDC, and the piston is connected with the crankshaft via a connecting rod, so the crankshaft is started rotating. This stroke is called a power stroke. 17
  • 18. And at exhaust stroke again piston comes from the BDC to TDC and pushes the burned gases out of the cylinder. So this is how a reciprocating engine work, 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. Summary of Main IC Engine components 20
  • 21. Terminology used in IC engine: Cylinder bore (D): The nominal inner diameter of the working cylinder. Piston area (A): The area of circle of diameter equal to the cylinder bore. Stroke (L): The nominal distance through which a working piston moves between two successive reversals of its direction of motion. Dead centre: The position of the working piston and the moving parts which are mechanically connected to it at the moment when the direction of the piston motion is reversed (at either end point of the stroke). a) Bottom dead centre (BDC): Dead centre when the piston is nearest to the crankshaft. b) Top dead centre (TDC): Dead centre when the position is farthest from the crankshaft. 21
  • 22. Displacement volume or swept volume (Vs): The nominal volume generated by the working piston when travelling from the one dead centre to next one and given as, Vs=A × L Clearance volume (Vc): the nominal volume of the space on the combustion side of the piston at the top dead centre. Cylinder volume (V): Total volume of the cylinder. V= Vs + Vc Compression ratio (r): r = 𝑉𝑠 𝑉𝑐 22
  • 23. Four Stroke Cycle Engines Cycle of operation completed in four strokes of the piston or two revolution of the piston. (i) Suction stroke (suction valve open, exhaust valve closed)-charge consisting of fresh air mixed with the fuel is drawn into the cylinder due to the vacuum pressure created by the movement of the piston from TDC to BDC. (ii) Compression stroke (both valves closed)-fresh charge is compressed into clearance volume by the return stroke of the piston and ignited by the spark for combustion. Hence pressure and temperature is increased due to the combustion of fuel (iii) Expansion stroke (both valves closed)-high pressure of the burnt gases force the piston towards BDC and hence power is obtained at the crankshaft. (iv) Exhaust stroke (exhaust valve open, suction valve closed)- burned gases expel out due to the movement of piston from BDC to TDC. 23
  • 24. Fig. 2. Cycle of operation in four stroke engine 24
  • 25. Two Stroke Cycle Engines • In a 2-stroke engine; Suction and Compression happens in one movement of the piston, i.e. From BDC to TDC and • Power stroke and Exhaust stoke happen in another movement of the piston, i.e. from TDC to BDC. 25
  • 26. Fig. 3. Cycle of operation in two stroke engine 26
  • 27. Comparison of Four-stroke and two-stroke engine: 27
  • 28. 28