Production Elements


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Production Elements

  1. 1. Film production techniques
  2. 2. So far….. <ul><li>We have looked at the structure of narrative film. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be summed up as the story elements of a film: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot structure Cause and effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative possibilities point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theme Genre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character Time structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting Resolution </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. But that’s just half of it… <ul><li>The other important aspect of film are the techniques used to make them, or the Production elements </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve begun looking at these already, and most are obvious, like the type of shots and camera angles. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mise en scene <ul><li>Is the umbrella term given to everything we see inside a shot or a scene </li></ul><ul><li>Think of it as the visual composition of a film. </li></ul><ul><li>How each individual component comes together to make meaning is one of the most analised elements of film studies. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Stemming from the theater, the French term “ mise en scène ” literally means &quot;putting on stage .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>When applied to the cinema, mise en scène refers to everything that appears before the camera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sets, props, actors, costumes, and lighting. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In the discussion of visual composition of a film it is easy to compare a director’s work with that of a photographer, but this denies the essence of the medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Film and television is about space and time, and the process of selection , duration , focus and movement is what constructs meaning in a text. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What does the mise en scene tell us in the following shots?
  8. 10. <ul><li>These single frames or stills from a film are the smallest single part of a film, like a letter is the smallest part of a novel. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking this analogy further, the next step up from a letter is a word, and we can think of a shot the same way. </li></ul><ul><li>Some principles of the shot: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The longer a camera lingers on a subject, the more important that subject has to the narrative </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>More is more: the size of a character or object in a shot reveals much about the importance and/or dominance within the narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Close ups are about emotional engagement and revealing secrets </li></ul><ul><li>Light and shadow reveal goodness and badness in characters, places and objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Camera angles reveal dominance and submission </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth camera movements - pan, tilt, track, zoom - indicate control and order. Jerky hand held camera movements indicate disarray </li></ul><ul><li>Selective focus forces an audience to attend to the subject and may raise questions about what and why they can’t clearly see some part of the action. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Examples.. <ul><li>As you can see I got sick of thinking for an example for each of the previous principles….. That’s your job. </li></ul><ul><li> Now. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Sound <ul><li>Diegetic sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound that comes from the narrative action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-diegetic sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound that originates fromoutside the narrative </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Diegetic <ul><li>You can think of this as every sound a character in a movie would hear; dialogue , sound effects , and music coming from a radio or band . </li></ul>
  13. 15. Non-diegetic <ul><li>Are all the sounds that a character could not hear inside the world of the narrative; soundtrack music , film score , special sound effects and voice over . </li></ul><ul><li>Non-diegetic is sometimes referred to as “ sound-over ” </li></ul>