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Film Analysis Prod Tech


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Powerpoint on Production Elements for narrative

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Film Analysis Prod Tech

  1. 1. Film Language and Analysis Production Elements
  2. 2. PRODUCTION ELEMENTS <ul><li>Camera/Film </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Mis-en-scene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acting </li></ul><ul><li>Sound/ Music </li></ul><ul><li>Editing </li></ul>
  3. 3. CAMERA / FILM <ul><li>FRAMING </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOSITION </li></ul><ul><li>SHOT SELECTION </li></ul><ul><li>MOVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS </li></ul><ul><li>FILM STOCK </li></ul>
  4. 4. CAMERA / FILM: Framing <ul><li>Framing refers to what is within the frame of the camera (and hence what the audience sees in the onscreen frame). </li></ul><ul><li>The edges of the screen create a space where aspects of what happens in front of the camera can be included or excluded. </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of film means there is a selection process; what is within the frame must be decided upon. This selection process also means some things are left out of the frame. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CAMERA / FILM: Composition <ul><li>When analyzing the visual image composition refers to the position of objects or elements within the frame. </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of thirds : the frame can be divided into thirds. Cinematographers often use this grid to compose framings that are pleasing to the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of lines and diagonals can also be used to draw the eye into the frame. </li></ul><ul><li>Using such composition techniques enables filmmakers the opportunity to develop imagery audiences find pleasing, as well as emphasize specific aspects of their subjects. </li></ul>
  6. 6. CAMERA / FILM: Shot Selection <ul><li>Filmmakers have a wide variety of shots to choose from. These shots frame the subject in different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Shot selection can help tell the story. For example, in the opening sequence of American Beauty the audience is shown an establishing shot . A long shot of the neighbourhood where the action will take place. </li></ul>
  7. 7. CAMERA / FILM: Movement <ul><li>When we discuss movement, we can look at the way things move within a static frame, and we can look at the way the camera moves to capture its subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Some camera movements: pan, track, crane, tilt, zoom </li></ul><ul><li>When analyzing film one should consider why the camera is moving or static, and what relationship this camera movement has with the action (or subject) on screen. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CAMERA / FILM: Focus <ul><li>Focus can be used to literally focus the audience on a subject or an aspect of a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Deep focus : imagine a shot where there are two subject one positioned a few meters in front of the other. When both subjects are in focus, deep focus is being used. </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow focus : when only one subject or an aspect of the subject is in focus, shallow focus is being used. </li></ul>
  9. 9. CAMERA / FILM: Film Stock <ul><li>Filmmakers can use different types of film stock to develop different visual moods or feelings within the frame. The most obvious is black and white vs. colour. However, there are different stocks within colour. </li></ul><ul><li>Filters can also be applied to the camera during filming, which will cause certain colours to stand out or be eliminated. Filmmakers used filters to colour the film, creating different visual effects. </li></ul>
  10. 10. LIGHTING <ul><li>When looking at lighting consider the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic or Expressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity, direction and quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour and focus </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. LIGHTING: Three point lighting <ul><li>The back light creates depth within the frame and pulls the subject out from the background. </li></ul><ul><li>The key light lights the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The fill lights is used to minimize shadows. </li></ul>
  12. 12. LIGHTING <ul><li>High key lighting </li></ul>Images from: How does lighting relate to the genre of the film?
  13. 13. LIGHTING <ul><li>Low key lighting </li></ul> How does lighting relate to the genre of the film?
  14. 14. MIS-EN-SCENE <ul><li>Mis-en-scene: the term comes from French and means “putting in the scene”. In film language mis-en-scene refers to the visual imagery within the frame. Filmmakers create their own world and mise-en-scene refers to the visual components of this world. </li></ul>
  15. 15. MIS-EN-SCENE <ul><li>Mis-en-scene consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Décor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costume/Acting </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. MIS-EN-SCENE: Décor <ul><li>Décor can set the social scene for characters; providing visual evidence of social status. </li></ul><ul><li>Décor can help create a mood or emotion for the film. </li></ul><ul><li>When watching a film, think about: </li></ul><ul><li>How does the décor affect the characters and action of the film? How does the décor help create a visual space for the film? </li></ul>
  17. 17. MIS-EN-SCENE: Lighting <ul><li>How does the lighting help create the visual look of the film? </li></ul>
  18. 18. MIS-EN-SCENE: Space <ul><li>Depth, size, proportions and placement of objects can be manipulated through camera placement and the use of different lenses. </li></ul><ul><li>When looking at space in film, also consider the use of off-screen space. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the use of space help develop the visual look of the film? </li></ul>
  19. 19. MIS-EN-SCENE: Costume/Acting <ul><li>How is the visual look of the film affected by the costumes characters wear? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the visual look of the film affected by the cast of the film? Have the filmmakers type-cast any characters? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mis-en-scene and Visual Composition STUDY DESIGN NOTE <ul><li>The study design lumps mis-en-scene with visual composition. While visual composition can be seen as a component of mis-en-scene, as we’ve seen in previous slides, it is more than just visual composition. </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve discussed visual composition as an aspect of camera, but it also relates heavily to mis-en-scene. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ACTING <ul><li>Acting can be considered a production element, since choices are made about things such as acting style and casting. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of star power can affect the way an audience reacts to a character, as can the use of previously unknown actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Type-casting can often relate to genre. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the acting in the film affect the story elements? Genre? </li></ul>
  22. 22. SOUND / MUSIC <ul><li>Diegetic </li></ul><ul><li>Non-diegetic </li></ul><ul><li>Sound bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Over </li></ul><ul><li>Other considerations </li></ul>
  23. 23. SOUND: Diegetic <ul><li>Diegesis: the time and space of the world of the audio-visual narrative. </li></ul><ul><li>Diegetic sound is sound presented as originating from within the world of the film. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice, music, and sound effects that seem to belong within the world of the film are considered diegetic sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diegetic sound is sound the characters within the film world can hear. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. SOUND: Non-diegetic <ul><li>Non-diegetic is any sound added to a film, that is not within the world of the film. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-diegetic sound can not be heard by the characters within the film, and is aimed at the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>At times, sound can originate as non-diegetic and move to diegetic and vice versa. </li></ul>
  25. 25. SOUND: Sound bridge <ul><li>A sound bridge occurs when sound from one scene carries over into the next scene, or when sound from the next scene begins before the visual edit occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sound bridges connect scenes, and are used in continuity editing to relate scenes to one another. </li></ul>
  26. 26. SOUND: Voice Over <ul><li>When a voice (often a character within the film) is heard while the audience sees images in which the character isn’t actually speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>A voice over can be used to narrate. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the voice over affect the action that is being presented visually? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is providing the voice over, and why has the filmmaker chosen this character for voice over narration? </li></ul>
  27. 27. SOUND: Other considerations <ul><li>Source: Where is the sound originating? </li></ul><ul><li>Off screen sound </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul>
  28. 28. EDITING <ul><li>Editing is the joining together of shots, and includes the visual image and sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Styles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elliptical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montage </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. EDITING: Techniques Transitions: how the film moves between shots <ul><li>Crosscutting (parallel editing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Editing using two or more lines of action occurring in different locations, often occurring at the same moment in (film) time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shot-reverse shot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This editing technique gives the effect of the camera being in the centre of two (or more) characters in conversation . Often the camera seems to shift 180˚. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fades, dissolves, wipes </li></ul>
  30. 30. EDITING: Techniques <ul><li>Match </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques used to join as well as divide two shots by making some sort of connection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A cut which matches two different views of the same action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A cut to match a character and their point of view (what they’re looking at) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How long are the shots, are some longer or shorter than others? How does the duration of the shot affect the action? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. EDITING: Styles <ul><li>Continuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Editing that develops narrative in a manner that creates the effect of continuous time and space. Time moves forward in a linear and logical manner. The film space doesn’t seem to change when the camera moves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 180˚ rule is followed (see graphic on next slide) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. EDITING: Styles Continuity (Cont’d) <ul><li>The 180˚ rule applies when the plane between two actors isn’t broken (here characters are A and B) </li></ul>Graphic from
  33. 33. EDITING: Styles <ul><li>Montage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A method of editing where a juxtoposition of shots is used to create a mood or feeling. The emotional response comes from the images, even though the images may not be directly related. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often montage sequences develop a visual rhythm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montage can be applied to sound editing, too. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. EDITING: Styles <ul><li>Elliptical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When editing moves through time creating an ellipses in the plot and story duration. Many hours, days, months or years may pass in a short period of time, but the visual image leads the audience along the journey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jump cuts are used to push the action along. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to pass time, and reflect a characters mental state. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. REFERENCES / SOURCES <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Media: new ways and meanings by Stewart & Kowaltzke </li></ul><ul><li>Real Images; film and television by McMahon and Quin </li></ul><ul><li>The Media Student’s Book by Branston and Stafford </li></ul>