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Brain Enhancement - The Road to Superintelligence

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Brain Enhancement - The Road to Superintelligence

  1. 1. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T BRAIN ENHANCEMENT THE ROAD TO SUPERINTELLIGENCE
  2. 2. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T BRAIN ENHANCEMENT RECENTLY ALL OVER THE NEWS
  3. 3. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T CURRENT AND FUTURE STATE TODAY’S APPLICATIONS, RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS IN FIVE FIELDS ELECTRONIC BRAIN STIMULATION STIMULATING SPECIFIC REGIONS OF THE BRAIN WITH ELECTRICAL IMPULSES TO TRIGGER ENHANCEMENT SMART DRUGS NEURO-DRUGS WHICH ARE TRIGGERING OR ENHANCING SPECIFIC BRAIN ACTIVITIES BRAIN READING BEING ABLE TO SCAN, READ AND TRANSLATE SPECIFIC BRAIN ACTIVITIES AND INTENTIONS BRAIN IMPLANTS CHIPS IMPLANTED INTO THE BRAIN AS TRANSMITTER AND IMPULSE-GIVER OF BRAIN ACTIVITIES BRAIN MAPPING STUDYING THE ANATOMY AND THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BRAIN WITH THE AIM OF SIMULATING IT DIGITALLY
  4. 4. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T ELECTRIC BRAIN STIMULATION STIMULATING SPECIFIC REGIONS OF THE BRAIN WITH ELECTRICAL IMPULSES TO TRIGGER ENHANCEMENT
  5. 5. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T CURRENT STAT E ELECTRIC BRAIN STIMULATION TODAY • ELECTRIC BRAIN STIMULATION HAS A LONG HISTORY AS TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY • TDCS AS NEW PROMISING SOLUTION TO TREAT ILLNESSES AND TO ENHANCE BRAIN PERFORMANCE • SCIENTIST S AND DIY COMMUNITIES ARE INCREASINGLY EXPERIMENTING WITH TDCS • SO FAR ONLY ONE CONSUMER DEVICE ON THE MARKET ! EVER SINCE THE ROMAN EMPIRE, NONINVASIVE ELECTRIC BRAIN STIMULATION HAS BEEN PURSUED AS A CURE FOR A LARGE VARIETY OF DISEASES. RECENTLY HOWEVER, THE TECHNOLOGY HAS BECOME EVERMORE POPULAR, IN PARTICULAR I N THE FORM OF TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION, OR TDCS. ! TODAY, TDCS I S USED I N MANY SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS AS WELL AS DIY COMMUNITIES AROUND THE GLOBE: THE MILITARY USES IT TO TREAT POST-TRAUMAT I C STRESS DISORDER OR TO BOOST CONCENTRATION AND SCIENTISTS ARE EXPERIMENTING I T S BENEFITS TO TREAT VARIOUS NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES AS WELL AS I T S BRAIN ENHANCING CAPABILITIES BY CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS WITH PATIENTS AND ORDINARY PEOPLE. AS RESULT S HAVE BEEN VERY POSITIVE, MANY DIY COMMUNITIES AND EARLY ADOPTERS AROUND THE WORLD ARE USING SELF-MADE DEVICES TO ENHANCE THEIR CONCENTRATION, TO IMPROVE THEIR LEARNING OR THEIR INNER-FOCUS.
  6. 6. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T FUTURE STATE ELECTRIC BRAIN STIMULATION „tDCS has the potential to improve — or more accurately to overclock — almost every aspect of your life“ SEBASTIAN ANTHONY EXTREMETECH.COM BLOGGER IN AN ARTICLE ABOUT THE FOC.US CONSUMER TDCS DEVICE
  7. 7. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T ELECTRIC BRAIN STIMULATION I N THE FUTURE FUTURE STATE • ELECTRIC BRAIN STIMULATION BECOMES MORE MAINSTREAM • TDCS WILL B E A COMMON METHOD TO TREAT BRAIN DISORDERS • MORE CONSUMER DEVICES WILL F LOCK TO THE MARKET • ORDINARY PEOPLE WILL U S E TDCS DEVICES TO IMPROVE THEIR FOCUS AND TO LEARN SKILLS MORE RAPIDLY • HOWEVER, RATHER AN INTERIM TECHNOLOGY ! I N THE FUTURE, ELECTRIC BRAIN STIMULATION WILL BECOME A MAINSTREAM TECHNOLOGY, USED BY A GROWING NUMBER OF PEOPLE. IN HEALTHCARE, THE USE OF ELECT R I C BRAIN STIMULATION FOR NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES AND BRAIN DISORDERS WILL BE COMMON PLACE AS IT BECOMES A MUCH CHEAPER AND I N SOME CASES BETTER ALTERNAT I V E THAN ORDINARY DRUG TREATMENT. ! FURTHERMORE, MANY NEW CONSUMER DEVICES WILL FLOCK TO THE MARKET, PROMISING ENHANCED FOCUS AND FASTER LEARNING FOR STUDYING, GAMING, WORKING AND OTHER APPLICATIONS. ! HOWEVER, WHEN LOOKING INTO THE MORE DISTANT FUTURE, ELECTRIC BRAIN STIMULATION MIGHT BE ONLY AN INTERIM TECHNOLOGY BEFORE OTHER HEREIN DISCUSSED TECHNOLOGIES (E.G. SMART DRUGS OR BRAIN IMPLANTS) WILL BE ABLE TO PROVIDE ITS BENEFITS I N A BETTER WAY.
  8. 8. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T SMART DRUGS NEURO-DRUGS WHICH ARE TRIGGERING OR ENHANCING SPECIFIC BRAIN ACTIVITIES
  9. 9. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T TODAY CURRENT STATE SMART DRUGS • SMART DRUGS = NARCOLEPSY, ATTENTION-DEFICIT OR DEPRESSION DRUGS • INCREASINGLY USED BY ORDINARY PEOPLE (E.G. STUDENTS) • TREND FROM TREATMENT TO ENHANCEMENT DRUGS SETTING IN • NEW DRUGS SPECIFICALLY FOR COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT ARE BEING LAUNCHED, SO-CALLED NOOTROPICS ! TODAY MOST OF THE NEURO-ENHANCING SMART DRUGS THAT ARE IN USE ARE ACTUALLY NOT SPECIFICALLY AIMED AT BEING USED FOR BRAIN ENHANCEMENT. DRUGS L I K E ADDERALL, RITALIN OR MODAFINIL ARE DRUGS THAT ARE BEING P R E S C R I B E D F O R PAT I E N T S WI T H AT T E N T ION - D E F I C I T, D E P R E S S ION OR NARCOLEPSY. ! HOWEVER, INCREASINGLY THESE DRUGS ARE BEING TAKEN BY ORDINARY PEOPLE TO ENHANCE THEIR COGNITIVE SKILLS. STUDENTS USE SMART DRUGS TO KEEP UP WITH ASSIGNMENTS AND BEFORE EXAMS, COMPANY EXECUTIVES USE THEM TO DEAL WITH WORK STRESS AND TO BE AHEAD OF THEIR COLLEAGUES, SCIENTISTS USE THEM WHILE DOING RESEARCH AND MUSICIANS AND ART I ST S USE THEM TO ENHANCE THEIR PERFORMANCE AND WORK. WHAT HAS LONG BEEN COMMON PLACE I N THE MILITARY I S MORE AND MORE COMING TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC. WE ARE SEEING A PARADIGM SHIFT TAKING PLACE, WHICH IS TRANSFORMING SMART DRUGS INTO A CONSUMER PRODUCT COMPARABLE TO ENERGY DRINKS, COFFEE OR OTHER STIMULANTS.
  10. 10. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T FUTURE STATE SMART DRUGS „[…] My prediction is that we are going to ingest information. You're going to swallow a pill and know English. You're going to swallow a pill and know Shakespeare. […] So once it's in your bloodstream, it basically goes through it and gets into the brain, and when it knows that it's in the brain in the different pieces, it deposits it in the right places.“ NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE FOUNDER OF MIT MEDIA LAB AT TED CONFERENCE BEING ASKED TO MAKE A PREDICTION
  11. 11. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T I N THE FUTURE FUTURE STATE SMART DRUGS • SMART DRUGS = SMART DRUGS • DRUGS FOR BOOSTING COGNITIVE POWER BUT ALSO FOR LEARNING TO PLAY INSTRUMENTS, FOR UPLOADING KNOWLEDGE AND FOR INCREASING HAPPINESS • USED BY ALMOST EVERYONE AND ACCEPTED AS ORDINARY OR EVEN NECESSARY DRUG, SUPPLEMENT OR TOOL • HUGE MARKET WITH MANY PLAYERS AND VARIOUS KINDS OF PRODUCT S ! I N THE FUTURE SMART DRUGS WILL BE COMMON PLACE, A CONSUMER GOOD EVERYBODY BUYS. THESE DRUGS WI L L NOT ONLY BE ABLE TO BOOST OUR COGNITIVE POWER IN TREMENDOUS WAYS, THEY WILL ALSO BE ABLE TO GIVE US KNOWLEDGE JUST BY INGESTING A P I L L . PEOPLE WI L L BUY DRUGS TO LEARN TO PLAY INSTRUMENTS AND SPORT S , OR TO OBTAIN MEMORIES AND PLEASURES THEY HAVEN’T HAD YET. ! THE OVERWHELMING POTENTIAL OF THESE DRUGS WILL CREAT E A MULTI -BILLION DOLLAR MARKET WITH MANY COMPANIES AND VARIOUS KINDS OF PRODUCTS THAT W I L L B E COMMON P LACE AT WORK, IN EDUCAT ION, HEALTHCAR E , ENTERTAINMENT AND ADVENTURE.
  12. 12. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T BRAIN READING BEING ABLE TO SCAN, READ AND TRANSLAT E SPECIFIC BRAIN ACTIVITIES AND INTENTIONS
  13. 13. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T TODAY CURRENT STATE BRAIN READING • MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BRAIN READING THROUGH HIGH-END, HIGH-COST SCANNERS • NEURO-HEADSETS ABLE TO TRANSLAT E A LIMITED RANGE OF BRAIN COMMANDS TO CONTROL COMPUTERS • SCIENTISTS CAN COPY AND IMPLANT MEMORIES IN MICE AS WELL AS RECONSTRUCT IMAGES AND VIDEOS FROM HUMAN BRAIN ACT I V I TY SCANS ! TODAY THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF NONINVASIVE BRAIN READING FIELDS: ONE FIELD I S THE MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BRAIN READING, WHERE fMRI SCANNERS ARE BEING USED TO DIAGNOSE DISORDERS OR PSYCHOLOGICAL ILLNESSES AND TO RESEARCH AND BETTER UNDERSTAND THE HUMAN BRAIN. THE OTHER AND RATHER NEW FIELD I S THE BRAIN-MACHINE INTERFACE, WHERE NEURO-HEADSETS ARE READING AND TRANSLATING BRAIN ACT I V I T I E S I N TO ACTIONS. ! B E T T E R S CA N N E R S , MORE COMPUTING POWER AND MORE I N T E L L I G E N T SOFTWARE IS STEADILY BOOSTING PROGRESS IN BOTH F IELDS. TODAY, SCIENTIST S CAN COPY AND IMPLANT MEMORIES INTO MICE AND RECONSTRUCT IMAGES AND VIDEOS BASED ON BRAIN ACT I V I TY SCANS. ON THE OTHER HAND, EEG-HEADSETS ARE USED I N NEUROGAMING AND COMPUTER INTERACTION TO CONTROL VIRTUAL AND R E A L OBJECT S (GAME-CHARACT E R S , PROST H E T I C S OR DRONES) V I A THOUGHT.
  14. 14. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T BRAIN READING BEING ABLE TO SCAN, READ AND TRANSLAT E SPECIFIC BRAIN ACTIVITIES AND INTENTIONS „[…] A brain pacemaker would give an Alzheimer's person the gift of memory […]. Those memories are placed on a chip that can then be uploaded into the brain. This was once considered science fiction, but already we've taken the first steps, at least for animals.“ MICHIO KAKU AUTHOR OF „THE FUTURE OF THE MIND“ WHEN ASKED ABOUT MOST SURPRISING RECENT SCIENTIFIC BREAKTHROUGH
  15. 15. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T I N THE FUTURE FUTURE STATE BRAIN READING • BRAIN READING THROUGH HIGH-END, LOW-COST, TINY SCANNERS • SCANNERS ARE ABLE TO PERFECTLY TRANSLATE BRAIN COMMANDS TO CONTROL OUR ENVIRONMENT • UNCONSCIOUS MIND BECOMES MEASURABLE, UNDERSTANDABLE AND ACCESSIBLE • DATABASES AND MARKETPLACES OF BRAIN ACTIVITY SCANS WITH CORRESPONDING ACTIONS EXIST • PEOPLE CAN UPLOAD MEMORIES, INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE ! I N THE FUTURE WE WILL BE ABLE TO EFFECTIVELY AND RAPIDLY SCAN BRAIN ACTIVITY WITH TINY AND CHEAP DEVICES. THUS, PRODUCING SCANS THAT WE WILL PERFECTLY INTERPRET AND TRANSLAT E I N M I L L I -SECONDS. SUCH SCANS WILL BE USED TO CONTROL OUR ENVIRONMENT, SUCH AS COMPUTERS AND CONNECTED OBJECTS VIA THOUGHT, IN A MUCH MORE INTUITIV WAY AS WELL AS TO UNDERSTAND OUR COGNITIVE WELL-BEING. ! FURTHERMORE, WE WILL CREAT E DATABASES OF BRAIN ACT I V I TY SCANS WITH THE CORRESPONDING ACTIONS, MEMORIES AND INFORMATION. PEOPLE WI L L BE ABLE TO BUY PATTERNS TO UPLOAD MEMORIES, OBTAIN SKILLS, INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE. NEW KINDS OF DEVELOPERS WILL USE THESE DATABASES TO CREATE COMPLETELY NEW, ART I F I C I A L PATTERNS FOR DESIRED MEMORIES, INFORMATION AND MUCH MORE.
  16. 16. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T BRAIN IMPLANTS CHIPS IMPLANTED INTO THE BRAIN AS TRANSMITTER AND IMPULSE-GIVER OF BRAIN ACTIVITIES
  17. 17. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T TODAY CURRENT STATE BRAIN IMPLANTS • BRAIN IMPLANTS USED WITH SMALL PERCENTAGE OF PATIENTS TO TREAT DEAFNESS, BLINDNESS OR NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS • IMPLANTS ENABLING PATIENTS TO OVERCOME THEIR HANDICAPS OR DISORDERS • NOVEL IMPLANT TECH AND APPLICATIONS ARE BEING TESTED ! TODAY BRAIN IMPLANTS OR SOMETIMES CALLED NEUROPROSTHETICS ARE USED WITH PATIENTS THAT HAVE HEARING DISORDERS, PARKINSON’S DISEASE, THAT ARE BLIND OR EVEN PARALYZED. THESE IMPLANTS EITHER TRY TO REWIRE DAMAGED BRAIN AREAS OR TO TRANSLATE OR CREATE NEUROLOGICAL SIGNALS FROM THE BRAIN TO DEVICES OR BODY PART S AND VICE VERSA. THUS, THESE CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES ENABLE PATIENTS TO OVERCOME THEIR DISABILITIES I N LIMITED WAYS. A COCHLEAR IMPLANT FOR EXAMPLE TRANSLATES SOUND INTO ELECTRIC IMPULSES AND SENDS THESE V IA NERVES DIRECTLY TO THE BRAIN, THEREBY OVERCOMING THE PATIENTS SENSORY HAIR CELL DAMAGE. ! NOWADAY S , BRAIN IMPLANTS AND PROCEDURES ARE STILL VERY RISKY AND HIGHLY INVASIVE. THE RELATIVELY BIG WIRES AND CHIPS INSERTED INTO THE BRAIN ARE PRONE TO INFECTIONS AND COULD TRIGGER INTERNAL BLEEDING. HOWEVER, SCIENTIST S ARE ALREADY WORKING ON THE NEXT GENERATION OF BRAIN IMPLANTS AS CHIPS BECOME INCREASINGLY SMALLER WHILST IMPROVING IN PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY-EFFICIENCY.
  18. 18. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T FUTURE STATE BRAIN IMPLANTS "Eventually you'll have an implant, where if you think about a fact, it will just tell you the answer." LARRY PAGE FOUNDER OF GOOGLE FORECASTING THE FUTURE OF GOOGLE SEARCH
  19. 19. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T I N THE FUTURE FUTURE STATE BRAIN IMPLANTS • BRAIN IMPLANTS AS COMMON TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS AND OTHER HANDICAPS • INCREASINGLY ORDINARY PEOPLE WILL USE IMPLANTS TO ENHANCE THEIR CAPA B I L I T I E S • A BRAIN NET WILL ENABLE A PERSON TO BE CONNECTED TO THE INTERNET, TO UPLOAD INFORMATION AND MEMORIES ! I N T H E F U T U R E , B R A I N I M P L A N T S WILL NOT ONLY BECOME A COMMON TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR PAT I E N T S WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL D I S E A S E S , NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS AND OTHER HANDICAPS, RATHER THEY WILL ALSO B E ADA PT E D B Y O R D I N A RY P E O P L E W I T H T H E A I M TO ENHANC E THE I R CAPABILITIES. PEOPLE WI L L CHOOSE A BRAIN IMPLANT IN ORDER TO CONNECT THEIR BRAIN WITH THE CLOUD TO BE ABLE TO EXTEND THEIR MEMORY STORAGE, P R O C E S S I N G P O W E R A N D U LT I M AT E LY T O E N A B L E T H EM T O U P L O A D INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS INTO THEIR BRAIN. A BRAIN CONNECTED TO THE INTERNET WI L L LEAD TO COMPLETELY NEW KINDS OF COMMUNICATION, EDUCATION, INTELLIGENCE BENCHMARKS AND MANY MORE RADICAL CHANGES. ! THE BRAIN IMPLANT I T S E L F WILL RATHER BE A BRAIN NET, CONSISTING OF A LARGE AMOUNT OF SENSORS AND TRIGGERS IMPLANTED THROUGHOUT THE B R A I N , M A K I N G I T P O S S I B L E TO R E A D A N D T R I G G E R A L L K I N D S O F NEUROLOGICAL PROCESSES.
  20. 20. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T BRAIN MAPPING STUDYING THE ANATOMY AND THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BRAIN WITH THE AIM OF SIMULATING IT DIGITALLY
  21. 21. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T TODAY CURRENT STATE BRAIN MAPPING • UNDERSTANDING OF THE HUMAN BRAIN ST I L L VERY NARROW • TODAY’S TECHNOLOGIES NOT ABLE TO SCAN THE BRAIN IN THE DETAIL STRUCTURE THAT WOULD BE NEEDED • U.S. AND EU BRAIN INITIATIVES HAVE LAUNCHED WITH THE AIM OF MODELING THE HUMAN BRAIN ! TODAY OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE HUMAN BRAIN IS STILL VERY NARROW. WE KNOW TO SOME EXTENT WHICH AREAS OF THE BRAIN ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR WHICH KIND OF TASK, HOWEVER WE LACK A DEEPER AND MORE DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF THE SPECIFIC TASKS EVERY SINGLE NEURON PERFORMS. THE COMPLEXITY OF OUR BRAIN SEEMS TO BE JUST TOO VAST FOR US TO FINALLY GET A DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF I T AND TO MODEL IT ON A COMPUTER - A HUMAN BRAIN HAS APPROX . 86 BILLION NEURONS WITH APPROX . UP TO 100,000 SYNAPSES. ! NONETHELESS, WE HAVE INCREASINGLY SEEN SIGNIFICANT PROGRESS IN BRAIN MAPPING. THE EMERGENCE OF OPTOGENICS FOR EXAMPLE ALLOWS US TO TURN OFF SPECIFIC AREAS OF THE BRAIN I N ORDER TO BE ABLE TO FOCUS ON JUST A TINY AMOUNT OF NEURONS AND BRAIN ACT I V I T I E S . IN ADDITION, TWO HIGHLY FUNDED I N I T I ATIVES WITH THE AIM TO MAP THE ENTIRE HUMAN BRAIN HAVE BEEN LAUNCHED I N THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE U. S . THUS, SCIENTISTS ARE MAKING STEADY PROGRESS BY INTRODUCING INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES AND APPROACHES AND BY OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES OF THE PAST.
  22. 22. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T FUTURE STATE BRAIN MAPPING „[…] To create technologies enabling the transfer of an individual’s personality to a more advanced non-biological carrier, and extending life, including to the point of immortality.“ MAIN GOAL OF THE GLOBAL 2045 INITIATIVE A NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION FOUNDED BY RUSSIAN ENTREPRENEUR DIMITRY ITSKOV
  23. 23. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T I N THE FUTURE FUTURE STATE BRAIN MAPPING • AFTER MAPPING THE BRAIN OF CHIMPANZEES WE WILL B E ABLE TO MAP THE ENTIRE HUMAN BRAIN • AFFORDABLE COMPUTATION POWER AND SCANNING TECHNOLOGIES ARE AVAILABLE • PEOPLE ARE MAKING DIGITAL COPIES OF THEMSELVES TO EXTEND THEIR LIFESPAN INTO THE INFINITE • FULL UNDERSTANDING OF ALL BRAIN MECHANISMS WILL RADICALLY TRANSFORM SOCIETY ! I N THE FUTURE, WE WILL BE ABLE TO INCREASINGLY UNDERSTAND MORE AND MORE OF OUR BRAIN’S MECHANISMS WHICH WILL ULTIMATELY ENABLE US TO MODEL THE ENTIRE HUMAN BRAIN. THIS WI L L FURTHER ALLOW US AMONG OTHERS TO COMPREHEND ALL KINDS OF NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES AND TO CONCEIVE OF CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSES IN OUR BRAINS. ! PEOPLE WILL ULTIMATELY BE ABLE TO MAKE DIGITAL COPIES OF THEMSELVES, EXTENDING THEIR LIFESPAN INTO THE INFINITE AND RADICALLY ENHANCING T H E I R N E U R O L O G I C A L P R O C E S S E S A N D T H U S I N T E L L I G E N C E . A S A CONSEQUENCE, THE TECHNOLOGY WILL TRANSFORM L I F E AND SOCIETY IN UNIMAGINABLE WAYS AND LEAD TO THE EMERGENCE OF WHAT MANY WOULD CALL A NEW KIND OF TECHNOLOGICAL HUMAN SPECIES.
  24. 24. TOMCAT T FUTUR I S T @tomcatfuturist www.tomcatfuturist.com thomas.klaffke@gmail.com 09/2014

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