2010 Hc The Artof Passover

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THE ART OF PASSOVER

The Holiday of Passover is based on the story of the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt. The name ‘PASSOVER’ comes from the ‘Passing over’ of the homes of the Jews during the 10th plague, the death of the first born. Passover is observed at a celebration called a Seder (which means “order”). THE ART OF PASSOVER program tells the story of this holiday using art objects as visual resources.

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2010 Hc The Artof Passover

  1. 1. THE STORY OF PASSOVER: THE STORY OF THE EXODUS (Exodus; 7-12) The story begins in Egypt The Pharaoh issued an edict to kill all the Jewish baby boys Moses’ sister Miriam put baby Moses in a basket in the river She put him where the Pharaoh’s daughter came to bathe He was taken to the palace and raised in the Pharaoh’s house Moses became very powerful in Egypt He saw the Jews as slaves in Egypt Moses killed an overseer when he saw a Jewish slave beaten Moses went to the Pharaoh and said: LET MY PEOPLE GO! Pharaoh wavered in his decision One plague after another came to soften Pharaoh’s heart The plagues were: Rivers turned to BLOOD and all fish died (Dam) FROGS (Tsfardeia) LICE (Kinim) FLIES (Arov) DISEASE (Dever) BOILS (Shkhin) HAIL (Barad) LOCUSTS (Arbeh) DARKNESS (Choshech) The KILLING OF THE FIRSTBORN (Makat Bechorot)-- For the last plague Jews placed blood on their doorposts Their homes were ‘PASSED OVER’ during this last plague The 10 plagues are recognized by Jews, Christians, and Muslims Then Pharaoh allowed the Jews to leave Egypt It was the night of the 15th of Nisan Thus, today we remember slavery and celebrate Freedom We have the HOLIDAY OF PASSOVER Modern Jews often participate in the Seder Various Seders have become popular women's Seders labor Seders interdenominational Seders people outside of Judaism have become interested in the Seder 1
  2. 2. Exodus 12: 10-14 EXODUS 12: 10-14 Plaut, G. (1981) The Torah. New York: UAHC Passover is based on a number of biblical citations This one is among the earliest references in the Torah It highlights how and why you shall eat 2
  3. 3. PASSOVER SYMBOLS Keller, S. (1992) (Ed.). The Jews. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin, Inc Traditionally, Seder plates hold at least 5 Passover symbols: Roasted Egg (symbol of temple sacrifice) Maror (bitter herbs for the bitterness of enslavement) Charoset (fruits and wine for the mortar used for bricks) Karpas (a spring green to be dipped in salt water) Zeroa (a roasted shank bone, symbol of the pascal lamb) 3
  4. 4. TORAH NICHE AND WALLS-Dura-Europos, 3rd c. Scheindlin, R. P. (1996). The Chronicles of the Jewish People. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group, Inc earliest known visual images from Exodus The city was a fortified caravan town Located on eastern frontier It was at the edge of the sassanid (Persian) empire It is now In Syria many different religions lived there, including Jews synagogue located adjacent to the walls of the town Dura-Europos, means “fortress” of “Europos” the name of the Emperor Seleuceus’ I native village 256 CE-Persians conquered and destroyed Dura-Europos Survivors were deported and the city of Dura disappeared people piled mounds of dirt against walls to defend town Houses on the west wall were preserved for archaeologists discovered nearly 1700 years later in 1920 4
  5. 5. MOSES-Dura-Europos, 3rd c. Scheindlin, R. (1996). The Chronicles of the Jewish People New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group, Inc 3rd and 4th c. decoration went from facade to interior It was common to all oriental countries of the empire Rich epigraphical material was excavated Strongly Hellenized Jewish community Only the military attire shows Roman-style influence The Greek influence remained dominant That was in contrast to the Roman occupation Greek influence is toward universal symbolization Romans were interested in individualization They used perspective and the illusion of 3-D space 5
  6. 6. MOSES IN THE RIVER-Dura-Europos, 3rd c. Scheindlin, R. P. (1996). The Chronicles of the Jewish People. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group Moses in a basket made of bulrushes Pharaoh’s daughter rescues him This painting is ‘read’ in sections 6
  7. 7. MOSES LEAVES EGYPT-Dura-Europos, 3rd c. Scheindlin, R. P. (1996). The Chronicles of the Jewish People. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group Adult Moses leads the Israelite slaves out of Egypt Moses is shown twice and is enormous by comparison His size is an indication of his great strength and power Left: Army enters the water Right: Egyptians drown in the Reed/Red Sea Moses is in front of his people moving toward freedom He walks through the dry sea opening God’s open and guiding hands from above oversee all 7
  8. 8. DAYYEINU-“Birds Head” Haggadah, Northern Germany, 13th c. Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.). (1997). Jewish Art. NY: Harry N. Abrams 1000 years later, this biblical story is a continuing saga Now the story is told in “the Haggadah,” or “Telling” It is told in the present tense, as if we were there earliest surviving illuminated German/Ashkenazi Haggadah Rabbi Meir of Rothenberg (1215-1293) permitted 2-D figures No violation-2nd Commandment/not concrete or graven They were not three dimensional (no depth) pointed Jewish hats were required in early 13th c. Germany the song “Dayyeinu” Notice the “Hands of God” coming through the clouds 8
  9. 9. CANTOR-“Birds Head” Haggadah, No. Germany, 13th c. Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.). (1997). Jewish Art. NY: Harry N. Abrams Cantor sings songs of praise Note: “Hallelujah” in the Haggadah 9
  10. 10. MAKING MATZO-“Birds Head” Haggadah-No. Germany, 13th c. Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.). (1997). Jewish Art. NY: Harry N. Abrams The process of preparing the matzot for the Seder includes: a. mixing the dough B. perforating the unleavened bread so it won’t rise C. passing the Matzah to the rabbi for inspection (He is the one in the Jewish hat) the process hasn’t changed much in the past 800 years! 10
  11. 11. GOLDEN Haggadah-Barcelona, 1320 Narkiss, B. (1997). The Golden Haggadah. British Library. Pomegranate Books An Early and sumptuous Spanish Haggadot of the 14th c. 14 pages of miniatures, a text, and 100 Passover piyyutim Passover preparations follow Biblical Miniatures 11
  12. 12. GOLDEN Haggadah-Barcelona, 1320 Narkiss, B. (1997). The Golden Haggadah. British Library Pomegranate Books Background is decorated with patterned geometrical designs Miniatures are painted only on the flesh side of the vellum Miniatures are divided into four framed panels 12
  13. 13. GOLDEN Haggadah-Barcelona, 1320 Narkiss, B. (1997). The Golden Haggadah. British Library Pomegranate Books Genesis and Exodus episodes from Adam to song of Miriam Miniatures read from right to left and from top to bottom Background is of burnished gold 13
  14. 14. “SARAJEVO” Haggadah-Spain, 14th c. (Two views) Narkiss, B. (1992). Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts. Jerusalem: Keter Best-known Hebrew illuminated manuscript reproduced twice in the last 75 years Haggadah and the piyyutim text are heavily decorated initial-words of ascending descending gothic letters Elongated letters extend to the margins of the 9 images dragons and grotesques in initial-word panels and margins 1894-Bosnian Sephardi child brought this book to school father deceased, and family had to sell this heirloom Thus, it reached the National Bosnian Museum in Sarajevo manuscript probably brought to Italy from Spain in 1492 1609-Italy,censored by Giovanni Dominico Vistorini Folio 30 (right): Moses holds Tablets on Mt. Sinai, surrounded by Israelites Joshua appears above then with another pair of Tablets trumpet appears in the sky The background is a diapered pattern in magenta Folio 32(left): A stylized façade of the Temple with three gates The middle gate has a conched arch Inside is the Ark of the Covenant Cherubim wings cover the Ark and the Tablets of the Law 14
  15. 15. SEARCHING FOR LEVEN AND MAKING MATZOT-Rothschild Misc Ferrara, Italy, 1450-70 Narkiss, B. (1992). Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts. Jerusalem: Keter Jews came to Italy in the 2nd century BCE 14-15th century-Jews flourished, primarily from banking 1475-charge of ritual murder brought against Jews of Trent Miscellany-has religious secular texts animal fables This Haggadah is among the religious texts images describe preparations for Passover elder hunts for hametz with a feather He uses a candle for illumination next a woman mixes dough for Matzah She rolls it a young man pricks the dough with a pointed implement another uses a baker’s peel to place the dough in the oven The artist uses vanishing-point perspective The artist has a knowledge of anatomy 15
  16. 16. HAGGADAH-Prague, 1526 Yerushalmi, Y. (1975) Haggadah and History. Philadelphia, Pa.: JPS Johannes Gutenberg invented-printing press, Mainz, Germany 1450-54 He was from Strasbourg two loans from Jewish moneylenders funded his invention 1475-Hebrew typefaces and books came off the press early stages of Hebrew books- manuscript form was retained space was left for initial words to be hand-illuminated last page -colophons made up of lines in gradually diminishing size early Jewish printers thought their work a “holy” craft they did it with painstaking and loving care 1526/27-Gerson Cohen designed and made the Prague Haggadah it had woodcut borders and illustrations These images were called “German Renaissance” It was a blend of Italian Renaissance and German gothic style It as bold borders, medieval and ornamental letters 60 woodcuts It became the prototype for all printed Haggadah This page begins the 2nd part of the Seder, after grace has been said There is a picture of Elijah mounted on his donkey He is the announcer of the Messiah’s approach In the border is Samson carrying the gates of Gaza Judith holding the head of Holofernes Adam and Eve eating the apple letter shin is the initial of the artist’s name: Shahor It is at the bottom to the left of the shield with the rampant lion) A woodcut-Messiah entering Jerusalem is also in this Haggadah 16
  17. 17. MESSIAH ENTERS JERUSALEM (Haggadah)-Amsterdam, 1723 “Next year in Jerusalem” is said at the end of the Seder It says that in Jerusalem all will live together in peace 18th c. view of Jerusalem is as a medieval fortress 17
  18. 18. VIEW OF JERUSALEM-Harman Schedel, Nuremberg,1493 Keller, S. (Ed.) (1992). The Jews. NY: Hugh lauter Levin From Liber chronicarrum. Jerusalem in circular Form. Woodcut. 7 7/16 x 8 7/8” (19 x 22.5 cm) Israel Museum, Jerusalem here King Solomon’s Temple is in the dead center of the city Norman type forts (for warfare) at the top of each building This artist drew what was familiar to him He never saw Jerusalem Schedel was a German scholar he portrayed it in a typically medieval circular form 18
  19. 19. HAGGADAH-Venice, 1609 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Ladino Edition. Ink on Vellum.11 1/8 X 7 5/8 IN.(28.3 X 19.4 CM) Moldovan Family Collection 1609- 3Haggadot: Judeo-Italian, Judeo-German, Judeo-Spanish highly innovative illustrations 1st composite of the stages of the seder and the 10 plagues 19
  20. 20. A. Baking Matza-Shlomo Maduro, Sefer HaMinhagim, 1768 Kaniel, M. (1989). A Guide to Jewish Art. NY: Allied Copperplate engraving from Johann Leusden B. Baking Matza-woodcut, Venice, 1593 Kosofsky, S. M. (2004). The Book of Customs. San Francisco: Harper Collins C. Baking Matza-Philo-logus Hebraeo-Mixtus, Leyden, Holland, 1699 Kosofsky, S. M. (2004). The Book of Customs. San Francisco: Harper Collins 16th-18thc.-Prints to illustrate the Matza baking process They were in a Book of Customs of the Jewish People 20
  21. 21. SEARCHING FOR LEVEN-Bernard Picart, 1725 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY:Hugh Lauter Levin hand colored etching-bedikat hametz (Exodus 12:15) fashionable Jewish home in eighteenth-century Amsterdam cabinet contents-removed to look for crumbs The son holds a candle home clothing-depict social and economic factors 17th c. Holland-genre painting showed a particular moral ethnographic illustrated works produced These included anthologies of Jewish customs Philologus Hebraeo Mixtus, 1663 was the earliest Calvinist theologian Johann Leusden (1624-1699) created it Leusden taught Hebrew at the University of Utrecht Minhagim-Jewish Customs books were produced The most notable is by Bernard Picart (1673-1733) He was a French Protestant He moved from Catholic France to Amsterdam Picart moved in 1710 to find the freedom he lacked He produced 600 illustrations for the Amsterdam publisher The publisher was J. F. Bernard The book is Ceremonies and Religious Customs of the Various Nations of the Known World 21 15/16 th c.-Jews fled the Inquisition to the Netherlands With religious and economic freedom, Jews prospered
  22. 22. THE SEDER TABLE-Bernard Picart, Bohemia, 18th c. Kaniel, M. (1989). A Guide to Jewish Art. NY: Allied Books Family is gathered for the Seder and the table is set fire crackles in the fireplace a holiday lamp hangs above the table 22
  23. 23. WEIGHING AND DELIVERING MATZOT -Waltham, Mass, 1870 Korn, I. (1996). A Celebration of Judaism in Art. NY: Todtri By the 19th century, matzah was made and sold in a bakery It was sold by weight, in contrast to our 1 or 5 Lb packages this engraving appeared in Leslie’s Popular Monthly The American Jewish Historical Society published it 23
  24. 24. PASSOVER SCENE-Moritz Oppenheim, Amsterdam, c. 1882 Parnes, S.(1994). The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Moritz Oppenheim’s image of the Seder was frequently copied It depicts the pleasures of Biedermeir domesticity The tension of assimilationist German nationalism is shown As it contrasts with Jewish tradition Participants in this Seder wear contemporary clothing This shows the variety of Jewish experience in the mid-19th c. Image became a model of contemporary German Judaism It was used to decorate many articles, such as Hungarian Herend Seder dishes etched glass goblets 24
  25. 25. HAD GADYA SUITE-El Lissitzky, 1919 El Lissitzky (1919/2004). Had Gadya: The Only Kid. Getty Research El Lissitzky was born Lazar Markowich in Smolensk, Russia As a Jew, he was not admitted to St. Petersburg art academy He trained as an architect in Darmstadt 1916-the Jewish Ethnographic Society financed expeditions Researched-Dnieper River wooden synagogues art Lissitzky created a modern Jewish style It combined Jewish folk art with a modern art vocabulary his art served Jewish nationalism and the Russian Revolution Created flag for the Red Square revolution on May Day, 1918 1919-Chagall invited Lissitzky to join the Vitebsk Art School Lissitzky’s work became increasingly abstract His aesthetic culminated in “proun” Proun is A Russian acronym for “projects affirming the new” 1 of 10 illustrations from a portfolio illustrating Had Gadya It is sung at the end of the seder service It is not directly related to the text of the Haggadah Song describes a goat consumed by a dog and others Finally, God destroys the last assailant, the Angel of Death Had Gadya is an allegory for oppression of the Jewish people It is an Aramaic poem based on a German ballad It is sung at the end of the Passover Seder Lissitzky saw Had Gadya as an Song of Survival Also, as the triumph of Good over Evil 1919-he created this series after the Bolshevik victory 25
  26. 26. HAGGADAH-Zeev Raban, Israel, 1925 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Zeev Raban was born in Poland, the son of a merchant He received a traditional Jewish and a secular education studied art in Lodz, Munich, Paris, and Belgium 1906-met Boris Schatz, founder of the Bezalel Art School Schatz hired Raban to teach sculpture and anatomy Raban became director of the repousse department He began to develop his own unique style 1929-the Bezalel school closed for lack of funding Raban supported himself by working on commission 1949-designed tombstones for soldiers of the Haganah Raban loved German Jugendstil French Art Nouveau His passion for idealized orientalism remained strong Emphasized decorative patterns borrowed from exotic lands Israelites leaving Egypt placed in a frieze at the foreground stylistically similar to Egyptian Assyrian paintings/reliefs angel wrestling with Jacob modeled after Assyrian reliefs recession of figures is from western tradition angels in Jacob’s dream are from Assyrian winged deities Raban represents The land of Israel with a dual nature Israel is both biblical and cotemporary events 26
  27. 27. HAGGADAH-Marc Chagall, 1987 Chagall, M. (1987). Chagall’s Passover Haggadah. New York: Leon Amiel 1987-This Haggadah was published posthumously It was drawn from Chagall’s biblical images of 1931-56 the order of the service is superimposed on Moses He is pleading with Pharaoh to “Let My People go!” Aaron is shown with the staff Breastplate of high Priest He is behind Moses 27
  28. 28. MIRIAM DANCING WITH THE WOMEN -Chagall, 1987 Chagall, M. (1987). Chagall’s Passover Haggadah. New York: Leon Amiel Chagall’s art combines fantasy, folk art, and cubism 28
  29. 29. HAGGADAH COVER -Eretz Israel, Bezalel, c. 1920s Keller, S. (1992) (Ed.). The Jews. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Bezalel School characteristics are displayed They are the process of repousse and cabochon turquoise Bezalel synthesized European art trends techniques of Eastern applied art biblical or Jewish motifs The Jugendstil approach strongly influenced their style Ze’ev Raban was the Director of metalsmithing He learned these techniques as a student in Munich 29
  30. 30. FIRST SEDER-Reuven Rubin, Israel, 1950. Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Oil on canvas. 101/2 x 64 in. (26.7 x 162.6 cm) The Rubin Museum Foundation, Tel Aviv Reuven Rubin was born in Romania. He studied in Europe and immigrated to Palestine in 1922 bright, expressive colors captured optimism of the settlers 1948: Rubin became Israel’s minister to Romania He helped to arrange exit permits for many Romanian Jews He painted this First Seder in Jerusalem in 1950 This painting is a return to the style of his earlier years Walls of the Old City are visible Through the arch bearded man is dressed as Eastern European Hasidim Rubin holds his son, with his wife behind him The other figures represent various Jewish communities There are parallels to da Vinci’s “Last Supper” Three open arches are similar to da Vinci’s open windows both paintings are symmetrical Both works have 6 adults adjacent to the central figure white-robed man shows his palms up, portraying wounds Clearly, Rubin intended this figure to represent Jesus Rubin reminded the world that Jews suffered and died They rose again to life in their own land Yet this is a FIRST Seder, not a LAST supper dreamlike quality is of a not-yet arrived peaceful future 30
  31. 31. HAGGADAH-Ben Shahn, 1931 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Printed Haggadah. 15 3/8 x 11 5/8 in. (39 x 4.45 cm). Courtesy of Mrs. Ben Shahn Copyright Estate of Ben Shahn/ VAGA, NY 1993 Ben Shahn was born in Kovno, Lithuania He came to the United States when he was eight years old Kovno was a center of socialism Shahn followed in his father’s footsteps He became involved in social issues about discrimination Shahn apprenticed in lithography He traveled extensively He settled in New York and later in Roosevelt, NJ this Haggadah’s elements are juxtaposed for visual impact They are not laid out in traditional visual sequence In this image Moses has his staff upraised He is confronting the serpent of the pharaoh’s magicians He also addresses the last plague, slaying of the firstborn Shahn uses flat color areas, patterning, shallow space the Haggadah illustrates a fight against past oppression Each generation is to think that it happened in our time This is one of Shahn’s early works It used a Jewish theme and his unique calligraphy 31
  32. 32. “SURVIVOR’S” HAGGADAH-Germany, 1946. Touster, S. (2000). A Survivors’ Haggadah Philadelphia: JPS This Haggadah was created by survivors It was for the 1st Passover after the liberation of the camps April 1946-The Allied victory was celebrated in Munich The U. S. Army of Occupation was the Third Army of Bavaria It had an “A” insignia the cover bears this mark printed early in 1946 Y.D. Sheinson, A survivor, created this Haggadah He used woodcuts done by Miklos Adler, another survivor At this post-WWII Seder, Jews of every variety celebrated This Haggadah has extraordinary woodcuts It accurately parallels Exodus and the Holocaust this Haggadah was first published by Achida and Nocham Later it became known as the “A” Haggadah the Sheinson Haggadah took on another life a new cover was emblazoned with the tricolor insignia “A” an additional English title page and epigraph Klausner’s two-page introduction in English Sheinson calls for an end of dissension He wants unity among the Jews 32
  33. 33. PASSOVER SEDER- Arthur Szyk, 1948. Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. New York: Hugh Lauter Levin, Inc. Yeshiva University Museum Collection. New York, NY. Arthur Szyk was born in Lodz, Poland. He spent a brief time in Paris after World War I He was in England at the beginning of World War II In 1940, Szyk came to the United States Szyk did political cartoons dealing with the Allied struggle He addressed the plight of the Jews fleeing the Nazis This work is consistent with his work of the 1930s He shuns contemporary art and painterly abstraction 19th c. realism and medieval manuscripts were his antecedents the illusion of 3-D reality to the most meticulous detail Jeweled colors and fine detail created an elegant work The features of the people are individualized the work is small in size, adding to its preciousness It is a nostalgic view through time to Poland of Szyk’s past It presents a high point of culture It depicts stability, family life, religious strength Despite its realism, it is actually the artist’s private fantasy The reality of the Polish shtetl was very poor There was no wealth needed for the luxurious items shown Examples: silver, rich garments, heaping platter of food Not a specific moment in the Passover Seder Szyk shows the meal and the recitation of the 4 Questions Szyk captured the essence of the Passover Seder 33
  34. 34. HISTORY OF MATZAH (Part I)-Larry Rivers, 1982-84 Barnavi, E. (Ed.) (1992). Historical Atlas of the Jewish People NY: Knopf 1923-Larry Rivers was born Yitzroch Loiza Grossberg in NYC He studied music initially He was a professional jazz saxophonist before turning to art Rivers presents the power of Matzah as a symbol This triptych is acrylic on canvas Matzah stands for more than the Exodus from Egypt Matzah signifies the plight of the Jews through the ages Matza symbolizes fleeing in haste in order to survive Rivers begins this triptych with the Israelites in Egypt Historic images pass dreamlike before the eyes of the viewer These images are superimposed over the Matzah This approach gives the work the feeling of a montage this quality is heightened by transparent washes of color By linking the symbol of Matzah with the Jewish experience Rivers presents the enduring power of the Jewish tradition 34
  35. 35. ORDER OF THE SEDER-David Moss, Rochester, NY,1987 Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art, China: Hugh Lauter Levin Ink, gouache, and gold leaf on vellum. Original Haggadah, collection of Beatrice and Richard D. Levy, Boca Raton 1980-Richard and Beatrice Levy commissioned David Moss They wanted a handwritten illuminated parchment Haggadah They wanted it for their personal Judaica collection Moss studied text artistic traditions for 3 years He searched for fresh insights He sought meaning for contemporary times He created a truly unique work It has calligraphy, micrography, Papercuts, drawings 35
  36. 36. SEDER PLATE-Spain, 1480 Snyder, J. (2004). the Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc Jews probably settled in Spain under the Roman Empire. 412-711 CE: Jews were persecuted under the Visigoths 613CE King Sisebut: Jews must become Christians or leave 711CE-Muslim conquest of Spain The result was that Muslim, Christian Jews lived together 11/12th c. known as The Golden Age of Jews in Spain Plate has Hispano-Moresque decorations Colors techniques are typical of lusterware pottery Inscriptions on ceramics came from Islamic heritage Spanish lusterware originated in Egypt in the 8th c. CE Hebrew words are “Passover, matzah, bitter herbs, seder” It contains numerous mispellings, including “matzah” Unknown whether artist simply made errors Or if plate was designed and decorated by a non-Jewish artist British Museums manuscript shows matzahs on a similar plate These matzot were stacked for distribution to the community 36
  37. 37. SEDER PLATE, Italy, 1673 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Majolica ceramic has a tin base for an opaque white surface It was produced in Italy since the fifteenth century Yellows, greens, and blues show aspects of the holiday This is one of a group of 28 majolica Passover plates All are of similar shape Each has a flange with cartouches of scenes and a text The plates are from different places of origin within Italy The plates range from 1532 and the latest 1889 The biblical scenes are from C. Kirchmayr engravings 1864: These Haggadah illustrations were published in Trieste European Jewish people increasingly assimilated in l.19th c. Yet they preserved ties to the past by collecting Jewish art This provided them with an acceptable mode of connection 37
  38. 38. SEDER PLATE-Germany, 1764 This incised plate has many folk images, done in a naïve style Passover lamb in the center surrounded by an 8 sided figure The four sons occupying separate segments Included are a deer, a rooster, a duck/goose and snakes Remaining welled area has Hebrew text Bordered by a combination of images and text Included are: Jerusalem God’s hand as a mighty sword Various other iconographic images 38
  39. 39. “EXODUS” SEDER PLATE-Lvov, 1800 Silver, parcel gilt, 9 1/2 x 13 1/2 in. (24.1 x 34.3 cm). The Gross Family Collection Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art. China: Hugh Lauter Levin This illustration is from the Amsterdam Haggadah The ten plagues are depicted around the rim. Repousse is the process which created the image The projecting image was hammered forward from the back This technique created the bas-relief 39
  40. 40. SEDER SET-Poland, 18/19th c. Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Rampant lions stand with mouths agape, holding cartouches They convey robust energy through The Cartouches bear blessings for the symbolic foods Grillwork echoes the lions’ curves and their notched paws This craftsman may have seen familiar similar images Analogous lions exist on East European Hanukkah lamps The whole set is crowned by the base for Elijah’s cup 40
  41. 41. SEDER SET-Vienna, 1815. Parnes, S. (1994).The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin 19th c. Affluent Viennese Jews had 3-tiered Seder plates The three tiers hold the three ceremonial matzahs Small rings on the outer rail held a curtain This curtain was intended to conceal the matzahs Eagle shaped feet support the plate Ceremonial containers are figures bearing vessels Moses, the largest, stands in the center of the plate Moses balances a holder for the Cup of Elijah on his head. 3-D human figures in Jewish ceremonial art is unusual Many thought these figures violated the 2nd Commandment Rabbi Sofer, 18/19thc. said the figures were not idols He said that their dress established their identities clearly A curiosity of dress is that: Some figures have on slave loincloths The females are in classic dress Two men are shown in contemporary clothing 41
  42. 42. SEDER PLATE-Josef Vater, Vienna, 1900 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Blue white flowering vines/birds are a folk motif This style characterizes Chinese and later Delftware Six heart shaped segments surround he center Magen David These segments were for the symbolic foods 42
  43. 43. SEDER SET- Bezalel, 1920s Grossman, C. (1989). A Temple Treasury : The Judaica Collection of Congregation Emanu-El of the City of New York. New York: Hudson Hills Press. Silver, embossed, chased, engraved. Diam. 11 in. (27.9 cm) Bequest of Judge Irving Lehman, 1945 The form and quotations specifically state its function Each oval indentation holds a ritual food of Passover The raised center holds a cup of wine The quotations on the rim give the order of the Seder The center has a concluding verse: “Next year in the Land of Israel!” 43
  44. 44. TIERED SEDER PLATE AND ELIJAH CUP- Friedrich Adler, 20th c. Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. New York: Hugh Lauter Levin, Inc. Silver, embossed and cut-out, glass insert. Ht: 4 in. (10.2 cm); diam: 175/16 in. (44 cm). Cup: Silver-plated, repousse and cut- out, moonstones Height: 9 11/16 in. (25 cm) diameter 6 1/16 in. (15.4 cm) Collection of The Spertus Museum of Judaica, Chicago, Il Both motifs and forms influence ritual objects The cup of Elijah was uncommon prior to the 20th c. Friedrich Adler lived from 1870 to 1942 He trained at the Academy of Arts and Crafts in Munich He worked in the Jugendstil (German Art Nouveau) idiom he shifted to grid-like designs and sharp geometric motifs He exhibited in 1914 with Walter Gropius (1883-1969) Other modernists included were later with the Bauhaus Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus in 1919 The Bauhaus wanted well-designed objects with simple forms These objects could be mass-produced The objects should reflect individual fine craftsmanship Bauhaus aesthetic was: form follows function Decoration kept to a minimum The square form reflects The effects of industrialization By the end of the 19th, matzah was mass-produced Adler’s piece is square to accommodate this Adler taught in Hamburg until the Nazis came to power At that time, he was forced to leave because he was a Jew He was deported to Auschwitz in 1942 and disappeared 44
  45. 45. SEDER SET-Ludwig Wolpert, 1930 Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.). (1997) Jewish Art. NY: Harry Abrams Aesthetics of the Bauhaus pervaded much of the 20th c. Their main ideas were that Form follows function Fine design should be mass-produced Ornament banned Wolpert applied these principles to Jewish ceremonial art This set is based on earlier decorated Passover epergnes He combined the visual effect with its essential functions Three circular tiers join vertical ebony and silver mounts They are notched to support the glass shelves the mounts double as handles Horizontal silver bands that separate each tier slide open They reveal a space within which matzah can be placed The Hebrew appears on the glass-lined silver goblet: “I lift the cup of salvation and call upon the name of the Lord” This receptacle holds the wine for the Prophet Elijah Glass dishes in silver bases hold ritual foods Contrasting materials are the basis for this Seder Set This Plate was too complicated for production It was carefully replicated several times 45
  46. 46. SEDER PLATE-Terezin, 1944 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. New York: Hugh Lauter Levin In 1938, there were 122,00 Jews in Czech lands. By 1942-26,000 immigrated to various places Approximately 74,000 occupied Terezin Terezin was established in October 1941 Terezin was a medieval fortress town in Bohemia The Nazis designated it as a site for Jews Privileged, famous, or elderly Jews also were sent there Nazis concealed the extermination of European Jews Terezin was a transfer point to extermination camps An International Red Cross team investigated Terezin This was done in July 1944 German Inscription: “The Jewish Youth Movement to the Jewish council of Elders, Theresienstadt, April 3, 1944” 46
  47. 47. MAKING HAROSET-Toby Fluck, 1975 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. New York: Hugh Lauter Levin, Inc. Toby Fluck was born in Czernica, near Lvov, Poland During WWII: Her family was forced to Brody in the Ukraine 19th c: Jews of Brody were prominent in Haskalah By the late 1930s, there were 10,000 Jews there 1942-Nazis established a ghetto in broody It was the first since 1696 for the Jews of Brody There were shortages of food and fuel Typhoid fever claimed hundreds of lives Nazis deported Jews to the Belzec death camp and Maidanek Toby lost two sisters, a brother, and her father Toby Knobel met her husband, Max Fluck, in a DP camp They immigrated to America, and Toby began to paint This work shows the ingredients tools to prepare Haroset Brass mortar/pestle were normal in Polish kitchens Still life paintings came from Egyptian tombs and Pompeii This genre reached its height in 17th c. Netherlands the subject is a bittersweet memory-literal and symbolic Haroset is a delicious holiday treat Haroset is served only at the Passover Seder It symbolizes the mortar used by the enslaved Israelites This painting recalls the tragic losses during the Nazi era It tells of the sweet life with her family prior to that time 47
  48. 48. SEDER PLATE-Kerry Feldman, 1987 Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art, China: Hugh Lauter Levin Hand-blown colored glass. Diameter: 17 in. (43.2 cm). Hebrew Union College, Skirball Museum, Los Angeles. Museum purchase by Jesse R. and Sylvia M. Gross in honor of their grandchildren A highly stylized modernist Passover Seder Plate It is Made of glass Five ritual foods are visually symbolized in simple images The story from slavery to freedom is told It begins with the four courses of the bricks of slavery To the crossing of the waters To the wandering in the desert A vibrant sunburst may indicate the arrival in Eretz Israel This image leads to new beginnings, as shown by an open egg Four white spheres support the entire plate These four white spheres also repeat the circular motif This Passover Seder Plate reflects late 20th c. aesthetics It highlights the rise of importance of glass 48
  49. 49. SEDER PLATE: FROM SLAVERY TO FREEDOM-Lorelei/Alex Gruss, 1990 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. New York: Hugh Lauter Levin, Inc Lorelei and Alex Gruss are husband and wife team They collaborate on inlaid ceremonial art Lorelei went to Jerusalem from New York Alex went to Jerusalem from Buenos Aires They met and married in Jerusalem E. European craftsman used carved inlaid wood for arks Using carved inlaid wood for Judaica comes from this source Wood inlay also often decorated the staves of the Torah scroll In Sefardic lands, mother-of-pearl ivory decorated the Tik Tiks often had 12-sides symbolic of the 12 tribes of Israel The symbolism of the inlay materials heighten the composition Wood tones proceed from dark to light This parallels the Israelites going from slavery to freedom A sun of 14-karat gold expresses the radiance of the Holy Land Seder Plate’s theme is from a phrase in the Haggadah In the phrase: “in every generation, each man must regard himself as though he, himself, had come out from Egypt” Each panel has One word from this Hebrew phrase inscribed Individuals from various time periods juxtapose with the text Redemption is expressed through these anachronistic elements A Jew in a striped concentration camp uniform enters the land This Jew’s uniform is emblazoned with a yellow star Last scene depicts Jerusalem, relating to the final statement This statement at the Seder is: “Next year in Jerusalem.” Thus, the first and last panels are joined to show continuity This is the cycle of Jewish history and experience 49
  50. 50. PASSOVER GOBLET-Warsaw, 18th c. Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Silver, gilt, embossed, engraved. 7 7/8 x 4 1/8 in. (20 x 10.5 cm) Jewish Museum, Budapest Hallmark: Warsaw (Rosenberg IV, no. 8119) This goblet may have been used as a cup of Elijah Around the rim is written: “These are the 10 plagues with which the Holy One, blessed be He, punished the Egyptians” It may have been Elijah’s cup Because of its size and decoration The upper section has 10 interlocking raised teardrops Each teardrop portrays one plague in high relief repousse The 10 plagues were often shown in illustrated Haggadot This began with the Venice Haggadah of 1609 Jews first came to Warsaw in 1414 and were expelled in 1483 1796: Prussians gained control and Jews flocked to Warsaw Its population grew dramatically in the early 19th century Warsaw became Europe’s largest Jewish community In 1939 there were nearly 400,000 Jews in Warsaw 1/17/1945- city was liberated and there were only 200 survivors 50
  51. 51. CUP OF ELIJAH-Michael Schwartz, 1989 Parnes, S. (1994). The Art of Passover. NY:Hugh Lauter Levin Cup: 9 1/2 X 3 3/4 (24.1 X 9.5 CM). Saucer: 1 X 6 1/2 in. (2.5 X 16.5 CM) Silver and 24K gold. Private collection Hebrew lettering is in the design of this Cup of Elijah The inscription contains more than 700 letters cut by hand It is a zemer dedicated to the prophet Elijah, Eliyahu Ha-Navi. A Zemer is an ancient song of praise The song has eleven stanzas and a refrain The 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet become an acrostic This acrostic came from the first 22 sentences of the song This acrostic comes from the 1st letter of the 2nd word The song refers to Elijah’s zeal in the defense of God’s name The song also foreshadows the coming of the Messiah Acrostic states Elijah brings peace between parents/children Elijah will also settle all scholarly disputes. 1990-presented to Rabbi M. Schneerson for his 88th birthday Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson was the Lubavitcher Rebbe “From the day the Rebbe received this cup…. it never left His presence for a moment, day or night,” said the artist 51
  52. 52. UNTITLED from the “MATZO BOX SERIES” -Adam Rolston, 1993 Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art, China:Hugh Lauter Levin Synthetic polymer paint on canvas.72 x 72 in.(182.9 x 182.9 cm) Private Collection. Courtesy of the Fawbush Gallery 1962: The artist, Adam Rolston, was born in Los Angeles He is a graduate of Syracuse University Rolston participated in many different exhibitions What could be more familiar than this box of matzo? It is much like the Campbell’s soup cans of Andy Warhol It is similar to images of the Pop Art movement of the 1960s However, post-modernist art adds irony to the image At first glance, this looks like a normal, everyday matzo box This is like the matzo box from the supermarket Closer inspection shows that it’s larger than life Long looking reveals that paint drips in various places It is definitely not the mock-up for silk-screening the boxes It is rather a painting of an icon familiar to American Jews In reality, It’s so large it dwarfs most humans The differences may at first seem slight Consider the scale of a human to this overwhelming size The differences are oh-so-dramatically different 52
  53. 53. THE MAXWELL HOUSE HAGGADOT And so the Passover Seder ends with these words…. and then there is nothing more to say, except: 53
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  56. 56. So, I hope I’ve made the 56
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