The Many Faces of Israel


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The Many Faces of Israel

  1. 1. The Many Faces of Israel
  2. 2. The Many Faces of IsraelCurriculum Writers: Marlynn Dorff and Ardyth SokolerA project of The Jewish Federation of Greater Los AngelesIn cooperation with The Archdiocese of Los Angeles
  3. 3. AcknowledgementsThis project would not have been possible without the involvement and dedication of theHoly Land Democracy Task Force.Dr. Daniel Lieber, ChairElaine Albert, DirectorDr. David Ackerman, Educational ConsultantDr. Parviz AfshaniMarc L. BenezraStuart BernsteinProf. Gerald BubisSusie ChodakiewitzAvi DavisAbner GoldstineStanley KandelDeborah Kattler KupetzLeslie KesslerErnest Z. KleinPaul KujawskyLinda MaymanJo Ann OsterDr. Irwin ReichFaith SchamesNathan WirtschafterSome materials and lessons come from and/or have been adapted from the One People ManyFaces curriculum that is available through the Boston Bureau of Jewish Education.The maps and many of the history and fact pages come from and/or have been adapted fromcurricular materials prepared by the San Francisco JCRC.All rights reserved.© 2004 The Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSWelcome Introduction i Goals ii The Many Faces of Israel iiiFAcTS AND FIGUReS Introduction 1 The Middle East Today in Maps 3 Emblem and Anthem 5 Fact Summary 6DemocRAcY Democracy in Action 9 Israel: Declaration of Independence (May 14, 1948) 11 U.S.: Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) 15 U.S.: Preamble to Constitution 18 Party History 19 16th Knesset 20 17th Knesset Elections 21HISToRY Jewish History Overview 22 Christianity 25 Islam 26 The Jewish Diaspora 27 The Middle East before WWI 28 Balfour Declaration 29 The Middle East between World Wars 1 and 2 30 The Holocaust 31 U.N. Resolution 181 32 U.N. Partition Plan 33 Creation of the State of Israel 34
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTSHISToRY (continued) Difficult Issues – Refugees 35 Jews Who Fled From Arab Lands 36 Palestinian Arab Refugees 37 Restrictions on Jews in Muslim Countries 38 Ethiopian Jews 39 Immigration to Israel 40 Israel Map (1949-1967) 44 Developing Concepts 45 Israel Map (Today) 46 The Middle East Map (Today) 47 Anti-Zionism 48 Personal Stories 49 Culture Trees 65cURReNT eVeNTS The News 68 Media Web Sites 69 World Briefs 70 Israel Defense Force Guidelines 72 In the Press 75PeoPle Introduction 82 Distant Friends Video Transcript 83 Israeli Food Fair 90 Recipes 91BIBlIoGRAPHY I
  6. 6. When you hear about Israel in the news, chances are you have heard about Welcome towar and terrorism in Israel and little else.There is much more to the Holy Land than the limited snap-shots you seeon the evening news. People marry, babies are born, children go to school,teens listen to rock music and are crazy about their soccer or basketballteams and complain about too much homework, film stars make movies,doctors perform miracles, farmers make crops grow where there used tobe desert, archaeologists discover new secrets from the past, people climbmountains or hang out at the beach or the disco, people on the run graba falafel or pizza or schwarma, politicians argue.This unit includes five short lessons about the modern State of Israel. Wehope you will learn a little about Israel’s people, geography, democracy, his-tory, teen-age culture, and food. We hope this experience will help youunderstand things just a little better, or at least help you ask better questions.We hope you will come visit some day and see for yourself! i
  7. 7. At the end of the unit students will be able to: 1. Identify Israel’s government as a democracy; 2. Explain that all kinds of people live in Israel, including all kinds of Jews; Goals 3. Give at least one reason why people consider Israel the Jewish homeland; 4. Give at least one reason why Jews need a homeland; 5. Give at least one reason why Jews come to Israel to live; 6. Give at least one reason why Jews who do not live in Israel think it is important to have the Jewish State of Israel; 7. Identify at least one area of conflict in Israel between Jews and Arabs; 8. Give at least one reason why the peace process in Israel is still a challenge; 9. Give at least one example of how Israelis and Arabs handle the conflict differently;10. Give at least one example of how an Israeli teenager’s life is similar to and different from an American teenager’s life. ii
  8. 8. TheMany Faces of Israel iii
  9. 9. The Many Faces of iv
  10. 10. Israel v
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  12. 12. Facts & Figures
  13. 13. Israel is the only Jewish state in the world and the most democratic country Facts &among its Arab neighbors. FiguresIsrael’s citizens come from all over the world and practice many differentreligions, just like in the United States. All of these people, Jewish andChristian, Islamic and Secular, have the right to free expression, to vote, to Introductionown property, to have a trial if charged with a crime, just about all the rightsthat Americans have.The ancient Jewish state in the Land of Israel was destroyed by the Romansin 70 CE and later renamed Palestine. Some Jews always lived in places suchas Jerusalem, Safed, Hebron, Jaffa, and the Galilee, but over the centuriesthe Land was ruled by others, including Romans, Arabs and Turks. Themajority of Jews were scattered among the nations, where they were oftenpersecuted, a defenseless minority. Most of the Jewish families in Israel todayare descended from immigrants, while some are descended from those whoalways maintained residency in the land.At times, Jews found homes in all these countries, but their experiences werenot always happy ones. Each country is a unique story about why Jews wereexpelled or wanted to leave. This is one of the reasons it is important forIsrael to exist as a permanent haven for Jews who are threatened.In 1897, Theodor Herzl founded modern Zionism, the belief that Jewsshould return to Israel to build their own land. After that, many Jews beganto come. They bought land, much of which was either desert or swamps,and made the country bloom. For the next 50 years, Zionism grew as aninternational movement and waves of settlers came to Israel.In 1933 Adolph Hitler stirred up violent anti-Semitism in Germany, so manyGerman Jews escaped to Israel. Other large sources of Jewish immigrants tothe Land of Israel include:– survivors from the Holocaust who had no place else to go after 1945;– Jews from Arab countries, many of whom fled or were expelled because they were Jews;– Russian Jews who finally received permission to leave the USSR;– Ethiopian Jews - Israel had to make special arrangements to get them out; and– North Americans, Europeans, South Africans, South Americans, etc.When the United Nations voted to establish a Jewish State in Palestine in1947, many Jews wept for joy. Finally, they could officially claim the land thatmany believed God had given them and be a nation like any other. Their fatewould be in their own hands and they could make their own decisionsabout how to live and how to worship. This is another reason Jews believethat they need their homeland. 1
  14. 14. Under the Ottoman Empire the area we call Palestine had been separate Facts &provinces, not a united political entity. When Turkey lost World War I, this Figuresbecame a British Mandate. The United Nations voted to give only a smallportion of this land to Israel. A large portion became Transjordan. IntroductionIn 1948, when Israel declared independence, the entire Arab world rejectedthe existence of a Jewish state and five Arab armies invaded, intending tocrush the new state. Despite overwhelming odds, Israel won the war.If you look at a map, you will have a hard time finding Israel. It is a verysmall country whose entire size is just smaller than Los Angeles plusRiverside Counties.You can also see on the map that Israel is surrounded on the north, eastand south by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt, all Arab countries. Nearbyyou can see Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Yemen, Libya, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.All of them form an organization called the Arab League. The land mass ofthese 21 countries equals the entire United States.One reason that the peace process is so complicated is that Israel has todefend all her borders. 2
  15. 15. 3 8 1 11 7 L______ 10 14 I______ 2 9 4 12 5 Mauritania 6 13 Somalia Figures Facts & East Today The Middle3
  16. 16. Facts & Figures The Middle East Today SomaliaMauritania 4
  17. 17. Facts & Figures Emblem and AnthemThe emblem of the State of IsraelThe official emblem of the State, which was adopted in 1949, is composedof two symbols. One is the menorah, or candelabrum, of the temple inJerusalem, the ancient symbol of the Jewish people as seen in relief on theArch of Titus in Rome. The menorah is surrounded by two olive branches,linked at the bottom by the inscription “Israel” in Hebrew. The olive branchitself has been synonymous with peace since the dove sent to find dry landbrought one back to Noah’s Ark (Genesis 8:11). Hatikvah (The Hope) Israel’s National Anthem As long as in the heart The Jewish spirit yearns With eyes turned eastward Looking towards Zion, then our hope, The hope of two thousand years, Is not lost: To be a free nation in our own land, The land of Zion and Jerusalem. 5
  18. 18. Size of Israel: Facts &10,840 sq. miles (Following the June 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Israel gained the FiguresWest Bank and the Gaza Strip from Jordan and the Golan Heights fromSyria. These territories have been and will continue to be the subject ofnegotiations between Israel and her Arab negotiating partners. As a resultof the Israeli-Palestinian negotiations, Israel has redeployed from 99% of Fact Summarythe Gaza Strip and almost 40% of the West Bank. Today these areas, whichinclude 99% of the Palestinian population, are under the jurisdiction of thePalestinian Authority.)Topography:Coastal Plain – fertile, humid and densely populated along the Mediterranean SeaCentral Highlands – Hills of Galilee in the north and the Judean Hills in the southNegev Desert – about 1/2 of Israel’s areaJordan Valley – includes lowest point (approximately 1,300 feet below sea level) at the Dead SeaGeography:Size of the state of New Jersey290 miles from north to southWidth at widest point, 85 milesWidth at narrowest point, 6.2 milesBorder:North – LebanonNortheast – SyriaEast & South – JordanSouthwest – EgyptWest – Mediterranean Seaofficial Name:State of Israelcapital:JerusalemNatural Features:Mountain Ranges – Mountains of Galilee; Hills of Judea and SamariaHighest Peak – Meron, 3,963 feet (1,208 meters)Major River – Jordan, 322 kilometer longLargest Lakes – Dead Sea, Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret)People:1990’s – 6,203,300 (91.4% urban, 8.6% rural) 6
  19. 19. life expectancy: Facts &75.9 for males, 80.1 for females Figuresmajor Religions:Judaism, Islam and Christianity Fact Summarymajor languages:Hebrew, Arabic (both official), English and Russian widely spoken andtaught in state schoolsliteracy:92%leading Universities:Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Institute of Technology andTel Aviv UniversityForm of Government :Republic and Parliamentary Democracychief of State:PresidentHead of Government:Prime Ministerlegislature:The Knesset, parliament of 120 members elected by popular vote fora four-year termVoting Qualifications:age 18Political Divisions:Six districts which consist of Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern,and Tel Avivconstitution:No comprehensive written Constitution, but 9 Basic Laws enactedby Knesset 7
  20. 20. Politics: Facts &Multiparty system Figures Main categories: 1. Left of center 2. Right of center 3. Religious Fact Summary 4. Arab partiescrops:Apples, bananas, cotton, grapefruit, grapes, melons, olives, onion, oranges,potatoes, tomatoes, and wheatlivestock:Cattle, chicken, goats and sheepchief mined Products:Bromine, magnesium, phosphate rock, potash, and saltchief manufactured Products:Industry electronics, biotechnology, diamond cutting and polishing, energy,chemicals, rubber, plastics, clothing, textiles and defensechief exports:Electronics, machinery, metals, beer and wine, citrus fruits and vegetables,diamonds, fertilizers, flowers, iron and steel, organic and inorganic chemicalsand textileschief Imports:Defense, materials for processing, boilers, machinery and parts, cereals,chemicals, commercial and passenger vehicles, electrical machinery, fuel, ironand steel, petroleum, rough diamonds and textilesmonetary Unit:1 New Shekel = 100 AgorotApproximately 4.4 New shekels = 1 American dollarReferences: The Library of Congress/Country Studies( & Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs ( 8
  21. 21. The People: Israeli citizens can vote from the age of 18, regardless ofreligion, race, or sex. The electorate is approximately 82.5% Jewish, 16%Arab (13.5% Moslem, 2.5% Christian) and 1.5% Druze and other.The President: Israel’s head of state is elected every seven years by Democracyvote of the Knesset. The President holds formal powers but has only limitedgovernmental authority (e.g., signing treaties and laws, receiving the In Actioncredentials of foreign ambassadors).The Knesset: Israel’s parliament takes its name and size (120 members)from the Knesset Hagedolah convened in Jerusalem following the returnfrom the Babylonian exile about 500 years before Jesus. The modernKnesset holds absolute legislative power, unrestricted by veto. Knessetmembers are elected every four years, but the Knesset can dissolve itselfand call for new elections sooner. Elections are proportional: Israelis votefor one party and its platform; seats are assigned to each party in proportionto its percentage of the total vote. This system ensures a wide spectrumof political views in the Knesset, including the major centrist parties, Likudand Labor Alignment, small parties ranging from the left to the right, anda number of religious parties.The Prime minister: Following each election, the President calls on onemember of the Knesset to form a government and serve as Prime Minister.This is usually the leader of the party that holds the most seats, since thegovernment must have the support of the Knesset to function. No party inIsrael’s history, however, has ever had the minimum 61 seats needed to forma government by itself. All Israeli governments have been based on coalitionsbetween two or more parties, under the Prime Minister’s leadership. ThePrime Minister and the ministers who make up the Cabinet have executivepower in the state and broad policy-making powers as well, subject alwaysto the Knesset’s support.The Judiciary: Israel’s courts are a wholly independent branch withinthe political system. Judges are appointed by the President and serve forlife, with retirement mandatory at age 70. State courts have jurisdictionin matters of marriage and divorce, with separate Jewish, Christian, Moslemand Druze courts enforcing their own religious laws. Israel’s Supreme Courtcan call attention to the desirability of changes in Knesset legislation anddoes determine whether laws properly conform with the Basic Laws thatmake up Israel’s constitutional framework.The constitution: Although Israel does not have a formal, writtenconstitution, the Knesset has created the constitutional framework for thestate through “Basic Laws” on the Presidency, the Knesset, the Government,the Judicature, the State Comptroller, the Army, State Lands, the Economyand Jerusalem. A “bill of rights” to complete Israel’s constitution is nowunder consideration in a Knesset committee. Individual rights are alsoguaranteed by the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israeland by long-standing precedent. Among these rights are freedom of religion,freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly and equalprotection under the law. 9
  22. 22. Self-Defense: At age 18, every Israeli must serve in the Israel DefenseForces (IDF). Men serve for three years, women for two. Israeli Arabs are notrequired to serve but may volunteer. At the request of their communities,Druze and Circassian men have been drafted into the IDF since 1957. Aftercompleting their active service, men and unmarried women are assigned to Democracyreserve units, in which they serve about 30 days each year. Men can becalled for reserve duty up to age 55, women up to age 24. Because all In Actioncitizens serve in the IDF, it is truly a citizens’ army. The IDF has also becomean important agent for social integration, encouraging an egalitarian spiritin the nation at large. At the same time, military life and the constant needfor military readiness have a direct impact on every Israeli, including on theroutines of civilian life. 10
  23. 23. Israel is the most democratic state among its Arab neighbors today.Israel’s Declaration of Independence has many similarities to that ofthe United States. Both countries were founded by people seeking freedom Democracyand safety after suffering persecution and discrimination. The signers ofboth documents had great hopes for the future. State of Israel: Declaration ofIsrael’s President serves one 7-year term and has mostly ceremonial power, Independencesimilar to those of the Queen of England. The Prime minister is the May 14, 1948head of the government. He or she (a woman named Golda Meir, whomoved to Israel from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was Prime Minister) comesfrom the political party that forms a majority in the Knesset, the Israeliparliament. When you look at the list of Israel’s political parties, you willsee that it is very long. It is not always easy to form a coalition in orderto create a majority. The two largest parties are Likud and Labor. Today,there are 4 Arab parties.Politics in Israel can be very lively! People tend to be very outspoken abouttheir views. 11
  24. 24. THe DeclARATIoN oF THe eSTABlISHmeNT oF THe STATe oF ISRAel may 14, 1948On May 14, 1948, on the day in which the British Mandate over a Palestine Democracyexpired, the Jewish Peoples Council gathered at the Tel Aviv Museum, and State of Israel:approved the following proclamation, declaring the establishment of the State of Declaration ofIsrael. The new state was recognized that night by the United States and three Independencedays later by the USSR. May 14, 1948ERETZ-ISRAEL [(Hebrew) – the Land of Israel, Palestine] was the birthplace ofthe Jewish people. Here their spiritual, religious and political identity wasshaped. Here they first attained to statehood, created cultural values of nation-al and universal significance and gave to the world the eternal Book of Books.After being forcibly exiled from their land, the people kept faith with itthroughout their Dispersion and never ceased to pray and hope for theirreturn to it and for the restoration in it of their political freedom.Impelled by this historic and traditional attachment, Jews strove in everysuccessive generation to re-establish themselves in their ancient homeland.In recent decades they returned in their masses. Pioneers, mapilim[(Hebrew) – immigrants coming to Eretz-Israel in defiance of restrictivelegislation] and defenders, they made deserts bloom, revived the Hebrewlanguage, built villages and towns, and created a thriving communitycontrolling its own economy and culture, loving peace but knowing howto defend itself, bringing the blessings of progress to all the countrysinhabitants, and aspiring towards independent nationhood.In the year 5657 (1897), at the summons of the spiritual father of the JewishState, Theodore Herzl, the First Zionist Congress convened and proclaimedthe right of the Jewish people to national rebirth in its own country.This right was recognized in the Balfour Declaration of the 2nd November, eretz: land1917, and re-affirmed in the Mandate of the League of Nations which, inparticular, gave international sanction to the historic connection betweenthe Jewish people and Eretz-Israel and to the right of the Jewish people torebuild its National Home.The catastrophe which recently befell the Jewish people – the massacreof millions of Jews in Europe – was another clear demonstration of theurgency of solving the problem of its homelessness by re-establishing inEretz-Israel the Jewish State, which would open the gates of the homelandwide to every Jew and confer upon the Jewish people the status of a fullyprivileged member of the comity of nations.Survivors of the Nazi holocaust in Europe, as well as Jews from other partsof the world, continued to migrate to Eretz-Israel, undaunted by difficulties,restrictions and dangers, and never ceased to assert their right to a life ofdignity, freedom and honest toil in their national homeland. 12
  25. 25. In the Second World War, the Jewish community of this country contributedits full share to the struggle of the freedom- and peace-loving nationsagainst the forces of Nazi wickedness and, by the blood of its soldiers andits war effort, gained the right to be reckoned among the peoples who Democracyfounded the United Nations. State of Israel:On the 29th November, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly passed Declaration ofa resolution calling for the establishment of a Jewish State in Eretz-Israel; the IndependenceGeneral Assembly required the inhabitants of Eretz-Israel to take such steps May 14, 1948as were necessary on their part for the implementation of that resolution.This recognition by the United Nations of the right of the Jewish people toestablish their State is irrevocable.This right is the natural right of the Jewish people to be masters of theirown fate, like all other nations, in their own sovereign State.ACCORDINGLY WE, MEMBERS OF THE PEOPLES COUNCIL,REPRESENTATIVES OF THE JEWISH COMMUNITY OF ERETZ-ISRAELAND OF THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT, ARE HERE ASSEMBLED ON THEDAY OF THE TERMINATION OF THE BRITISH MANDATE OVERERETZ-ISRAEL AND, BY VIRTUE OF OUR NATURAL AND HISTORICRIGHT AND ON THE STRENGTH OF THE RESOLUTION OF THE UNITEDNATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, HEREBY DECLARE THE ESTABLISHMENTOF A JEWISH STATE IN ERETZ-ISRAEL, TO BE KNOWN AS THE STATEOF ISRAEL.WE DECLARE that, with effect from the moment of the termination of theMandate being tonight, the eve of Sabbath, the 6th Iyar, 5708 (15th May,1948), until the establishment of the elected, regular authorities of the Statein accordance with the Constitution which shall be adopted by the ElectedConstituent Assembly not later than the 1st October 1948, the PeoplesCouncil shall act as a Provisional Council of State, and its executive organ,the Peoples Administration, shall be the Provisional Government of theJewish State, to be called "Israel."THE STATE OF ISRAEL will be open for Jewish immigration and for theIngathering of the Exiles; it will foster the development of the country forthe benefit of all its inhabitants; it will be based on freedom, justice andpeace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel; it will ensure complete equalityof social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, raceor sex; it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, educationand culture; it will safeguard the Holy Places of all religions; and it will befaithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations.THE STATE OF ISRAEL is prepared to cooperate with the agencies andrepresentatives of the United Nations in implementing the resolution of theGeneral Assembly of the 29th November, 1947, and will take steps to bringabout the economic union of the whole of Eretz-Israel. 13
  26. 26. WE APPEAL to the United Nations to assist the Jewish people in thebuilding-up of its State and to receive the State of Israel into the comityof nations.WE APPEAL – in the very midst of the onslaught launched against us now Democracyfor months – to the Arab inhabitants of the State of Israel to preservepeace and participate in the upbuilding of the State on the basis of full and State of Israel:equal citizenship and due representation in all its provisional and permanent Declaration ofinstitutions. Independence May 14, 1948WE EXTEND our hand to all neighbouring states and their peoples in anoffer of peace and good neighbourliness, and appeal to them to establishbonds of cooperation and mutual help with the sovereign Jewish peoplesettled in its own land. The State of Israel is prepared to do its share in acommon effort for the advancement of the entire Middle East.WE APPEAL to the Jewish people throughout the Diaspora to rally roundthe Jews of Eretz-Israel in the tasks of immigration and upbuilding and tostand by them in the great struggle for the realization of the age-old dream- the redemption of Israel.PLACING OUR TRUST IN THE "ROCK OF ISRAEL", WE AFFIX OURSIGNATURES TO THIS PROCLAMATION AT THIS SESSION OF THEPROVISIONAL COUNCIL OF STATE, ON THE SOIL OF THE HOMELAND,IN THE CITY OF TEL-AVIV, ON THIS SABBATH EVE, THE 5TH DAY OFIYAR, 5708 (14TH MAY,1948). David Ben-GurionDaniel Auster Golda MyersonMordekhai Bentov Nachum NirYitzchak Ben Zvi Zvi SegalEliyahu Berligne Rabbi Yehuda Leib HacohenFritz Bernstein FishmanRabbi Wolf Gold David Zvi PinkasMeir Grabovsky Aharon ZislingYitzchak Gruenbaum Moshe KolodnyDr. Abraham Granovsky Eliezer KaplanEliyahu Dobkin Abraham KatznelsonMeir Wilner-Kovner Felix RosenbluethZerach Wahrhaftig David RemezHerzl Vardi Berl RepeturRachel Cohen Mordekhai ShattnerRabbi Kalman Kahana Ben Zion SternbergSaadia Kobashi Bekhor ShitreetRabbi Yitzchak Meir Levin Moshe ShapiraMeir David Loewenstein Moshe ShertokZvi Luria* Published in the Official Gazette, No. 1 of the 5th, Iyar, 5708 (14th May, 1948). 14
  27. 27. When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one peopleto dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, andto assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station towhich the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent Democracyrespect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare thecauses which impel them to the separation. The Declaration of IndependenceWe hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that in Congressthey are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that July 4, 1776among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. –That to securethese rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just The Unanimouspowers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Declaration of theGovernment becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the Thirteen UnitedPeople to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its States of Americafoundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as tothem shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence,indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not bechanged for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hathshown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable,than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they areaccustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuinginvariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absoluteDespotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government,and to provide new Guards for their future security. –Such has been thepatient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity whichconstrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The historyof the present King of Great Britain [George III] is a history of repeatedinjuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of anabsolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted toa candid world.He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary forthe public good.He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressingimportance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent shouldbe obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attendto them.He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districtsof people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representationin the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. 15
  28. 28. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable,and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the solepurpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. DemocracyHe has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manlyfirmness his invasions on the rights of the people. The Declaration of IndependenceHe has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to in Congressbe elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have July 4, 1776returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining inthe mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and The Unanimousconvulsions within. Declaration of the Thirteen UnitedHe has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that States of Americapurpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing topass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditionsof new Appropriations of Lands.He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent toLaws for establishing Judiciary powers.He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of theiroffices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms ofOfficers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without theconsent of our legislatures.He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to theCivil power.He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to ourconstitution and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Actsof pretended Legislation: For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us; For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States; For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world; For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent; For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury; For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses; For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring; 16
  29. 29. Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies; For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and Democracy altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments; For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves The Declaration invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever; of Independence He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his in Congress Protection and waging War against us. July 4, 1776He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and The Unanimousdestroyed the lives of our people. Declaration of the Thirteen UnitedHe is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to States of Americacompleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun withcircumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the mostbarbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seasto bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of theirfriends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored tobring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whoseknown rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexesand conditions.In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in themost humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only byrepeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every actwhich may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We havewarned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extendan unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of thecircumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealedto their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by theties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, wouldinevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too havebeen deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore,acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them,as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. 17
  30. 30. We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, inGeneral Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the worldfor the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by the Authority ofthe good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these DemocracyUnited Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States;that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all The Constitutionpolitical connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and of the Unitedought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they States ofhave full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish AmericaCommerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent Statesmay of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm relianceon the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each otherour Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfectUnion, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the commondefense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty toourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution forthe United States of America. 18
  31. 31. major Israeli Political Parties (current and Historic) andapproximate political classification NON SOCIALIST - LIBERAL - RIGHT ORTHODOX OR ZIONIST CENTER ANTI-ZIONIST DemocracyAhdut Haavoda Center Party Gahal Agudath Arab Democratic Party Party History YisraelAm Ehad Democratic Movement Herut Degel Balad for Change HatorahLabor General Zionists Likud Mizrachi HadashLabor Alignment Independent Liberal Moledet NRP Haolam HazehMapai Liberal Party National Union Shas MakiMAPAM Progressive Tehiya Rakah (Rakah)- CommunistMeretz Ratz-Citizens Rights Tzomet SheliPoalei Tziyon Shinui Yisrael United Arab BeiteynuRafi KadimaReshima Mamlachtit 19
  32. 32. major political parties, number of mKs in the 16th Knesset(the one that ended in march 2006) and a summary of theirpolitical orientations NAME ORIENTATION PERSONALITIES MANDATES Democracy 16TH KN. 16th KnessetMeretz (Yahad or Yaad) Leftist, Secular Zionist Yossi Beilin, Yosssi Sarid, Ran Cohen 6Labor Center-Left,Zionist Amir Peretz, Shimon Peres, Ehud Barak, Benjamin Eliezer 21Shinui Center, Zionist, Capitalist Tommy Lapid, Avraham Poraz, Eliezer Zandberg 15+Kadima Center-Right, Zionist, Populist Ariel Sharon *Noy Center Right? David Tal 1#Likud Right, Zionist, Capitalist, Benjamin Nethanyahu, Zionist Shaul Mofaz 40National Union Extreme Right, Zionist Avigdor Lieberman, Benny Eilon 7Yisrael Beiteynu Extreme Right, Zionist Avigdor Lieberman **NRP Extreme Right, Zevulun Orlev(National Religious Party) Religious Zionist Nissan Slomiansky Shaul Yahalom 6 ***Shas Ultra-Orthodox Nissim Dahan;Yair Peretz; Center-Right, non-Zionist Shlomo Ben-Izri 11Agudath Yisrael**** Ultra Orthodox, Right, non-Zionist Yakov Litzman, Meir Porush 3Degel Hatorah**** Ultra Orthodox, non-Zionist, Dovish Moshe Gafni Avraham Ravitz 2Hadash Communist Party of Israel, Muhamed Barakeh, Anti-Zionist ("Arab" party) Ahmad Tibi 3National Democratic Anti-Zionist ("Arab"Assembly (Balad) party), progressive Azmi Bishara 3United Arab List Anti Zionist ("Arab" party) Abdulmalik Dehamshe includes Islamists Talab El-Sana 2* Kadima party was formed in November 2005 and has no current representation in the Knesseth. 14 Likud members including Ariel Sharon joined the party.** Yisrael Beiteynu merged with National Union party*** NRP currently has 4 members, as Effie Eitam and Yitzhak Levy left to form the more extreme right Renewed National Zionism Faction.**** Joined together frequently as "United Torah Judaism = "Yahadut Hatorah"+ Shinui currently has 14 members. Joseph Paritzky was ejected from the party for ethical violations and formed the Zionism Liberalism Equality list# David Tal broke away from the Shas party to join Amir Peretzs Am Ehad, then left Am Ehad when that party merged with Labor. 20
  33. 33. National election Results for the 17th Knesset*elections of march 28, 2006Total Ballots: 3,186,739 Valid Ballots: 3,137,064 Defective Ballots: 49,675 Democracy Elections to theParty Name Number of Votes Mandates 17th KnessetBrit Olam 2011 March 28, 2006Da-am - Workers` Party 3692Gil 185759 7Green Leaf 40353Greens (Hayerukim) 47595Hadash 86092 3Herut 2387Hetz 10113Ichud Leumi - Mafdal 224083 9Kadima 690901 29Labor-Meimad 472366 19Lechem 1381Leeder 580Lev 1765Likud 281996 12Meretz 118302 5National Arab Party 738National Democratic Assembly 72066 3National Jewish Front 24824New Zionism 1278One Future 14005Party for the Struggle With the Banks 2163Shas 299054 12Shinui 4675Strength to the Poor 1214Tafnit 18753Torah and Shabbat Judaism 147091 6Tzedek Lakol 3819Tzomet 1342United Arab List - Arab Renewal 94786 4Yisrael Beitenu 281880 11The qualifying threshold (2%) from all valid votes is 62,742 votes.The number of votes per mandate is 24,619. 21
  34. 34. 1800 BCE Abraham brings family to Canaan from Ur I assign the land you live in to you and your offspring to come, all the land of Canaan, as an everlasting holding. Genesis 17:81290 BCE Exodus from Egypt When the Lord your God enlarges your History territory, as He swore to your fathers, & gives you all the land that He prom- ised to give your fathers… Jewish History Deuteronomy 19:8 Overview1250 BCE Jews settle in Israel Let them, however, regard themselves as guests in the Diaspora, their hearts 722 BCE Fall of the Northern Kingdom by Assyria; directed towards Israel…Talmud (Jewish Ten Lost Tribes law book completed around 500) 586 BCE Southern Kingdom and Temple destroyed By the rivers of Babylon we sat and by Babylonia; Jews exiled, move and return wept, as we thought of Zion. Psalm 70 years later and rebuild Temple 137:1 165 BCE Maccabees fight Greeks – Hanukkah story Last Jewish kings 70 CE Romans destroy Second Temple; exile 711-1492 Golden Age in Spain; Inquisition; Expulsion My heart is in the East…It would be from Spain. Expulsions and violence against easy for me to leave behind all the good Jews in Europe things of Spain; it would be glorious to see the ruins (of Israel) Y. HaLevy, poet1096-1291 Crusades1211-1880 Many Rabbis and scholars move to what Living in Israel is equal to the weight of would become Israel all the other commandments. Bible commentary called Sifrei Re’eh 12:29 1806- Napoleon makes Jews citizens; can vote, attend university… 1871- Period of intensive pogroms in Eastern Return in mercy to the city Jerusalem Europe; many Jews leave for Israel or USA and dwell in it as thou has promised; rebuild it soon, in our days…Jewish prayer book 1882 Many Yemenite Jews come to Palestine Sound the shofar (ram’s horn), lift up the banner to bring our exiles 1894 Dreyfus Affair – Jewish officer in French together & assemble us from the army falsely accused of treason; great four comers of the earth…Jewish scandal about anti-Semitism prayer book 1897 Theodor Herzl & first Zionist Congress propose a Jewish State (Herzl traveled to many heads of European states to get support) 1903 “First Aliyah” – large immigration to Israel In your land (Israel) you can sit in from Europe safety, but you cannot live in safety in a strange land. Commentary on Bible called Sifra 22
  35. 35. 1904-1914 Second Aliyah – youth from Russia; more communities built 1917 Balfour Declaration: British back Jewish Next year in Jerusalem! Last line of homeland idea Passover seder History 1918 British Mandate: take over Israel from Next year in Jerusalem! Last line of Ottoman Empire service on Yom Kippur Jewish History 1919-35 Third Aliyah, Fourth Aliyah; Jews buying Overview more land1920,1929, Arab riots against Jewish inhabitants 1936 Other countries won’t accept them 1935-39 Fifth Aliyah – German Jews trying to escape Nazis “A Jewish soldier in the Jewish Brigade (Palestinian Jews in the 1939 White Paper: Britain limits Jewish immigra- British Army during World War II), tion to Palestine was standing outside the barbed wire fence that circled the camp on 1939-45 6,000,000 Jews slaughtered in Holocaust; Cyprus. A very thin little boy was refugees caught trying to get to Israel staring at him. The boy pointed to returned to Europe or put in camps his torn, dirty shirt, to the Jewish Star that the Nazis required Jews to wear 1947 UN votes to create Jewish & Arab states as a sign of shame. The boy then pointed to the Jewish Star insignia 1948 Jewish refugees from Europe, Syria, Yemen, on the soldier’s uniform that identified all over world him as a proud member of the Jewish Brigade. He grinned from ear to ear. 1948 Israel declares Independence; Arab nations He understood the difference invade Israel; Jordan expels Jews from between the two symbols that only Jerusalem looked the same.” 1956 Suez War Israel, England, France, force Egypt to open Suez Canal 1961 Trial of Adolf Eichmann – Nazi leader sentenced to death 1967 Six Day War – Israel defeats Arab forces; Jews can visit holy places again Jerusalem liberated; Sinai and Golan captured 1972 11 Israeli athletes massacred at Munich Olympics by PLO 1973 Yom Kippur War; Invading Arab armies defeated 1976 Entebbe – Israel rescues hostages hijacked to Uganda 1978 Peace treaty with Egypt; Sadat flies to Jerusalem 1979-85 Mass aliyah of Jews from Ethiopia 1981-82 PLO terror campaign against Israel 1982 Israel invades Lebanon to stop PLO terror 23
  36. 36. 1987-92 Intifada1987-92 Large numbers of Soviet Jews allowed to come 1993 Oslo Agreement between Arafat (PLO) and Rabin Not fulfilled by Arafat History 1994 Peace treaty with Jordan Palestinian Authority created Jewish History P.A. given authority over West Bank and Jericho Overview 1997 90% of Gaza and West Bank Arabs under Palestinian Authority 2000 Arafat leaves negotiations at Camp David; launches terror campaign (EL AQSA intifada) 2004 Death of Yasir Arafat 2005 Election of Mahmoud Abbas 2005 Sharon and Abbas renew peace process 2005 Israel withdraws from Gaza 2005 Ariel Sharon creates new political party: Kadima 2006 Ariel Sharon suffers massive stroke 2006 Hamas wins upset victory in Palestinian Legislative council elections 2006 Ehud Olmert elected prime minister of Israel, heading Kadima Party 2006 Hamas kidnaps soldier from inside Israel. Hezbollah kidnaps 2 soldiers and sends 4,000 rockets into northern Israel during one month war Israel responds by targeting Hezbollah rocket sites in Lebanon Many casualties on both sides. 24
  37. 37. HistoryChristianity 25
  38. 38. HistoryIslam 26
  39. 39. HistoryThe JewishDiaspora 27
  40. 40. HistoryThe MiddleEast JustBefore WorldWar One 28
  41. 41. HistoryThe BalfourDeclaration 29
  42. 42. HistoryThe MiddleEast BetweenWorld WarsOne & Two 30
  43. 43. HistoryThe Holocaust 31
  44. 44. HistoryUnited NationsResolution 181 32
  45. 45. HistoryUnited NationsPartition PlanFor Palestine1947(Resolution 181) 33
  46. 46. HistoryCreation of theState of Israel 34
  47. 47. The issue of what will happen to Palestinians who fled from Israel in 1948,and since, is very sensitive. As a result of the implementation of the OsloAgreements, the Palestinian Authority’s control of the territories wasgradually phased in. Now 90%+ of the Palestinians in the territories live Historyin areas governed and administered by the Palestinian Authority. However,because of the violence against Israeli civilians resulting from the second Difficult IssuesIntifada that erupted in 2000, Israel has sent its army back into various RefugeesPalestinian towns which are centers for recruiting and equippingsuicide bombers.The future of Palestinian refugees now living in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, otherArab countries and elsewhere is a problematic issue to be solved throughnegotiations. These refugees now living in other countries and their childrenand grandchildren want the right to live in a future Palestinian state. Theybelieve that their leadership has promised that they will obtain theircitizenship and that is why they have not been able to become citizensand integrate into the countries where they live. (See map and chartshowing the destinations of the Arab refugees.)Israelis say the Palestinian Arab refugees are not the only Middle Easternrefugees created as a result of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Of the nearly860,000 Jews who lived in Arab countries until 1948, only a few thousandremain. Some 720,000 Jews from Arab lands were expelled.Israelis say that if Arab countries had provided for Arab refugees from theArab-Israeli conflicts in the same way Israel provided for Jewish refugees,they would now be well settled among their Arab brethren. Instead, Israelisargue, the Arab countries decided to reject settling the refugees in theircountries in order to create impoverished refugee camps, supported byfunding from the United Nations, where feelings of hopelessness wouldinsure that rejection of the Jewish state would be passed from generationto generation. Israelis further point out that if the descendants of all thePalestinians who fled after the creation of the State of Israel were to return,Israel would no longer be a Jewish state.Some Palestinians and Israelis have suggested that the problem might beaddressed by recognizing the plight of the Palestinian refugees and givingthem some form of monetary compensation in recognition of their claims. 35
  48. 48. HistoryDifficult IssuesRefugees:Jews Who Fledfrom Arab Lands:Movement to Israel1948-72 36
  49. 49. HistoryDifficult IssuesRefugees:The PalestinianArab Refugees1948 37
  50. 50. Restrictions On Jews in Moslem Countries History Restrictions on Jews in Muslim Countries 1948 38
  51. 51. HistoryEthiopianJews 39
  52. 52. HistoryImmigrationto Israel 40
  53. 53. HistoryImmigrationto Israel 41
  54. 54. HistoryImmigrationto Israel 42
  55. 55. HistoryImmigrationto Israel 43
  56. 56. HistoryIsrael1949 - 1967 44
  57. 57. –Attrition Battles Between Wars, 1967-70–The October War, 1973–The Lebanese Invasion, 1982–The First Intifada 1987-1993 History–The Second Intifada 2000-present Developing coNFlIcT DATe PARTIcIPANTS oUTcome Concepts War of 1948 Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, & Israel gained 20% more land than Historical Context Independence Iraq attacked Israel U.N. partition allotted. Egypt retained the Gaza strip, Jordan captured the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Six Day War 1967 Egypt, Jordan, Syria, & Iraq Israel captured the West Bank, massed forces against Israel. East Jerusalem, the Golan Heights Israel launched preemptive strike the Gaza Strip, and all of the Sinai Desert Attrition Battles 1967-70 Jordanians, Egyptians, Palestinian Beginning of Israeli settlements in terrorists West Bank & Gaza The October 1973 Egypt and Syria attacked Israel Israel retained the territories War,or Yom on its holiest day captured in 1967 Kippur War Lebanon – 1981-82 PLO, Syria, Israel Israel withdrew in 1985, but Israeli response maintained a military force to terrorism in southern Lebanon as a buffer zone to prevent terrorist incursions 1987-93 Palestinians from the territories Conflict ended with the Oslo Agreement between Israel and The First Intifada the PLO. PLO to govern Palestinians in the territories. 2000- 2000 Camp David Peace PLO govern Palestinians in present process ended as PLO launched the territories The Second a terror campaign Intifada 45
  58. 58. HistoryIsrael Today 46
  59. 59. HistoryThe MiddleEast Today 47
  60. 60. RELIGIOUS AND ETHNIC LEADERS CONDEMN ANTI-ZIONISM AS A FORM OF ANTI-SEMITISM HistoryOver the years many religious and ethnic leaders have condemned the ideathat anti-Zionism is different than anti-Semitism. In fact, many religious and Anti-Zionismethnic leaders have come out strongly for the proposition that anti-Zionismis a form of anti-Semitism. The 18th International catholic-Jewish liaison committee Joint Declaration (2004)“As we approach the 40th anniversary of Nostra Aetate – the ground-breakingdeclaration of the Second Vatican Council, the consequence of which repudiatedthe deicide charge against Jews, reaffirmed the Jewish roots of Christianityand rejected anti-Semitism – we take note of the many positive changeswithin the Catholic Church with respect to her relationship with the JewishPeople. These past forty years of our fraternal dialogue stand in stark contrastto almost two millennia of a “teaching of contempt” and all itspainful consequences. We draw encouragement from the fruits of ourcollective strivings which include the recognition of the unique and unbrokencovenantal relationship between God and the Jewish People and the totalrejection of anti-Semitism in all its forms, including anti-Zionism as a morerecent manifestation of anti-Semitism.”“We oppose anti-Semitism in any way and form, including anti-Zionism thathas become of late a manifestation of anti-Semitism.” Statement from martin luther King, Jr.“When people criticize Zionists, they mean Jews.You are talking anti-Semitism.” –From “The Socialism of Fools: The Left, the Jews and Israel” by Seymour Martin Lipset, Encounter Magazine, December, 1969, p. 24 48
  61. 61. The stories in this lesson all illustrate something about Jewish life.chana Bracha was the mother of Marilyn Dorff, one of the creators ofthis curriculum. She was born in the Soviet Union in 1922, but things were Historynot good for Jews and she and her parents escaped in 1923, using a forgedvisa. They hid in Poland for several years while waiting for a visa to Israel. Personal StoriesDifferent Jewish families housed them for months at a time. They rarely Chana Brachawent outside because they were terrified that the Polish police would findthem and send them back. Chana Bracha’s father had a son from a previousmarriage, but Mikhail was not allowed to leave with them. The familyemigrated to the United States in 1927, hoping to earn enough money topay bribes to get him out. But this never happened. They never saw him again.Most of the Jews in the Mediterranean countries settled there when theywere expelled from Spain in 1492. The Jews in Syria and morocco(Tangiers), like those in other Muslim countries such as Iraq and Iran,sometimes lived well and sometimes suffered, depending on who was rulingand how he felt about Jews. On page 3.36 you will find a list of some rulesthat applied to Jews, limiting what they could do.The tragedy of the Holocaust is an important part of Israel’s culture.Many of the survivors came to Israel, and their children and grandchildrenkeep their history alive. Others feel that if there had been a Jewishhomeland, 6,000,000 Jews would not have been massacred. In Denmarkand in some other places where people stood up to the Nazis and protectedthe Jews, Jews escaped or survived the war. There are many stories ofRighteous Gentiles, non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews. TheHolocaust Museum in Jerusalem has a beautiful garden where these heroesare honored. Gay Block and Malka Drucker researched many of thesespecial people, thinking that they would find a pattern, something to helpus understand why these particular people saved lives. But they found none.The Righteous Gentiles were all unique individuals, rich, poor, educated, notso educated, religious, not so religious…we will read the story of one suchwoman who saved children.John Philips is a photographer who is not Jewish. He was in Israel in 1948when the Jordanians forced Jews to leave the Old City of Jerusalem, wheremany of them had lived for generations. He took photographs. In 1967,after the Six Day War when Israel took back the entire city of Jerusalem,the mayor, Teddy Kollek, invited him to come back and find the people hehad photographed. I hope you will read the first page of his introductionto his book, A Will to Survive. 49
  62. 62. My mother, Chana Bracha, was born in a little town outside Kiev, five yearsafter the Russian Revolution. There was a short period of time when theSoviet government allowed people to return to the place of their birth. Mygrandfather had his papers forged to say he was born in Poland, so he, my Historygrandmother, and their infant daughter escaped to Warsaw. They lived therefor a number of years, staying with one Jewish family and then with another, Personal Storiesbecause they had no money and because they were afraid someone would Chana Brachacheck their papers. Finally, Great Britain granted them a visa permittingthem to enter Palestine.Chana Bracha was only 4 1/2 when she started kindergarten in Tel Aviv. Hermother usually picked her up after school, but one day she was late. Tel Avivhad more sand dunes than people in the 1920’s and many children walkedto school by themselves. When Ruthie invited her home that day, ChanaBracha saw no reason not to go. She followed Ruthie up one street anddown another until they came to a house with a fence around it. Ruthiewent inside and promptly closed the door. Chana Bracha knocked andknocked, but no one came to let her in. She decided she should go home.Chana Bracha wandered through the streets and empty fields until she wascompletely confused. A Jewish policeman saw her and asked if she neededhelp. Hundreds of years of experience trying to survive in Europe hadtaught the Jews to keep their distance from the police. Chana Bracha hadlearned this lesson well, so she looked down at the ground and did not saya word. He took her to the police station and changed out of his uniform,but she knew this was a trick and still would not say a word. He offered hera chocolate bar. Chana Bracha’s family had very little money and candy wasa rare treat. She was hungry and she loved chocolate, but she picked up anail from the floor and poked holes all over the candy bar. Fortunately, ateacher from the school passed by, saw Chana Bracha and took her home.Chana Bracha had not been in Palestine long enough to know that therewas such a thing as a Jewish policeman. She only knew that police, soldiers,people in authority, could be dangerous to Jews.This story had a happy ending. But even today, not all Jews live in placeswhere they are safe.Throughout history, there have been Jews who kept gold coins or diamondshandy in case they suddenly had to leave a country, even though Jews mighthave lived there for a thousand years. One of the things that having a Jewishstate means to us is that Jewish children grow up in their own countrywhere Jewish police and Jewish soldiers and Jewish citizens protect the landand all its people. And the Jews of Israel do not need gold coins or diamondsto feel safe. 50
  63. 63. HistoryPersonal StoriesA Will To Survive 51
  64. 64. The pictures I took in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem on May 28, 1948,during the Israeli War of Independence, have given rise to some questionsI would like to answer. HistoryPeople have expressed amazement that a Jew was able to photograph theplight of the Israelis in the aftermath of their surrender to the Arab Legion. Personal StoriesWhat amazes me is that anyone would assume I must be Jewish to have A Will To Survivetaken “such compassionate pictures.” No Jewish photographer could haveshot the pictures I did. The rampaging Arabs would have killed him. Beinga White Anglo-Saxon Protestant was no help either. Conditions were suchthat anyone with a camera was considered a Jewish spy and promptly setupon. I managed to get the pictures that illustrate this book only becauseI was in the uniform of the Arab Legion. Mistaking me for a British officer,the Arab populace left me alone – at first.Aware that the sack of the Jewish Quarter would shock the western world,Arab authorities across the Middle East tried to prevent the news fromleaking out. Jerusalem could not be mentioned under any circumstance.A dutiful Cairo censor even wanted to blue-pencil every reference toJerusalem in the Bible of a departing tourist. I knew my pictures on theagony of the Jewish Quarter would end up in a censor’s wastepaper basket.I did not want this to happen and decided to smuggle them out of theMiddle East. There was some risk, but I took the chance. The record of whatreally happened in Old Jerusalem on May 28, 1948, was saved for posterity,should posterity care. Why would a gentile become embroiled in such aconflict? I’d be lying if I sanctimoniously claimed that I was merely doing myjob as a representative of the free press. Through happenstance I had spentmost of my adult life recording violence, and editors were in the habit ofassigning me to violent stories. I was particularly interested in this conflictbecause I was born in Algeria, grew up among Arabs and Jews, and have anaffinity for both.My Algerian upbringing taught me what it feels like to belong to a minoritygroup. At the Petit Lycee Mustapha Superieur in Algiers I found out whatit meant to be called “a dirt Englishman,” how lonely and desperate you feelwhen surrounded by a hostile crowd. I was held personally responsible forJoan of Arc going to the stake. “You burned our saint!” a wild-eyed Frenchclassmate screamed, kicking me in the face after I was down. The result wasa broken nose and a life long sympathy for minorities.In Algiers I learned how Arab hostility for the Jews was encouraged byFrench colonials. Politically Algeria was French territory; in fact it was ascolonial as Palestine, where I had a chance to observe “the PalestineProblem” in 1943. In truth, the problem was a tragedy of promises madeto two peoples that were never kept. 52
  65. 65. HistoryPersonal StoriesA Will To Survive 53
  66. 66. HistoryPersonal StoriesA Will To Survive 54
  67. 67. HistoryPersonal StoriesA Will To Survive 55
  68. 68. HistoryPersonal StoriesTheChildrenfromHalebShaliach: GuideShabbat: Sabbath 56
  69. 69. HistoryPersonal StoriesTheChildrenfromHaleb 57
  70. 70. HistoryPersonal StoriesThe Saintly Sulekafrom Tangiers 58
  71. 71. HistoryPersonal StoriesThe Saintly Sulekafrom Tangiers 59
  72. 72. HistoryPersonal StoriesRescuers 60
  73. 73. HistoryPersonal StoriesRescuersMarie Taquet 61
  74. 74. HistoryPersonal StoriesRescuersMarie Taquetlower-left hand photo 62
  75. 75. HistoryPersonal StoriesRescuersMarie Taquetlower-left hand photo 63
  76. 76. HistoryPersonal StoriesRescuersMarie Taquettop photo 64
  77. 77. Name______________________Use the culture Tree below to chart the main character from the storythat you just read. Write appropriate descriptions on the leaves, trunk, and Historyroots of the tree. Look at the example provided to help you. You may alsocreate a Culture Tree about yourself. Culture TreeThe leaves of the tree represent the cultural groups to which someonebelongs, such as gender, religion, age, and nationality. Examples includewoman, Catholic, teenager, married, African American, and Latino American.The trunk of the tree represents cultural characteristics that are visibleto others such as physical traits and activities. Examples include speakingEnglish or Spanish, celebrating Thanksgiving, having curly hair, enjoying rapmusic or sports.The roots of the tree represent beliefs and values. Examples includeeducation, religion, family, independence, friendship, freedom, and trust. 65
  78. 78. HistorySampleCulture Tree 66
  79. 79. HistoryMy CultureTree 67
  80. 80. Since 1948, much of the news from the Middle East has been about warand terrorism. Israel fought in 1948, 1967, 1973. In 1978, after negotiationsat Camp David, Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat, made peace with Israel. In1981, an Islamic terrorist assassinated Sadat. Egypt was also expelled from Currentthe Arab League. Jordan made peace with Israel in 1994. To this day, no other EventsArab states have made peace and the Intifada continues. The NewsIn the 1960’s, the Arab League created the Plo, the Palestine LiberationOrganization, to destabilize Israel by targeting civilians. In 1994, Israel agreedto create a mini-state called the Palestinian Authority, and the PLO, whichwas to rule this area, agreed to renounce terror attacks and crack downon terrorism. The PLO has not done so.Israeli responses to terrorism have been criticized by the world community,especially in Europe. For example, Israel demolishes the homes of suicidebombers to deter other attackers. Israel fires missiles from helicopters tokill terrorists and sometimes bystanders also become casualties. Israel usescheckpoints to restrict movement, even though innocent people are oftendelayed. These techniques, which are all used by the U.S. Army in Iraq, havedeterred some suicide bombers and helped capture others, but still havehad limited success.Jews place great value on peace and on the sanctity of life. They don’tunderstand a culture that encourages and idolizes suicide bombers, thatapplauds the murder of children on school buses, teenagers at a disco, familiescelebrating a Passover feast, young people eating at a pizza restaurant. Israeliswant to end terror and create Palestinian and Israeli states with clear bordersand real peace. They are divided on how best to accomplish these goals.Despite the terror, life goes on in Israel and many wonderful things happen.Tel-Aviv was recently named one of the top 10 hi-tech cities in the world.If you have AOL and use ICQ, you are using an Israeli-designed product. AnIsraeli company patented the first vaccine against Alzheimer’s. An Israelihospital recently performed open-heart surgery on an Iraqi baby. The Israeliinvention of drip-irrigation for desert farming has changed agriculturethroughout the world. Israel invented a way to make ice cream out ofcamel’s milk, a method that was quietly adopted in Arab countries. Israelislove basketball and soccer, music and movies. Find articles about thesethings too, and not just about terrorism!Remember that unlike its Arab neighbors, Israel has a free press becauseshe is a democracy. Other countries in the area are not as fortunate. Evena free press that tries to be fair and to present only facts can be biased(more sympathetic to one side than the other) and not present all the factsthe same way. This happens even in the USA. It is important to learn howto recognize propaganda, prejudice and erroneous reporting. It isimportant to be exposed to different opinions, to do lots of reading andask lots of questions. It is important to judge things for yourself. 68
  81. 81. Resources for Information About IsraelAIPAC: The American Israel Public Affairs Committee Current EventsAmerican Jewish Committee Media Web SitesBitter Lemonshttp://www.bitterlemons.orgHa’Aretz Newshttp://www.haaretz.comThe Israel Projecthttp://www.theisraelproject.orgIsrael Policy Forumhttp://www.israelpolicyforum.orgIsrael 21Chttp://www.israel21c.orgThe Israeli Consulate of Los Angeleshttp://www.israeliconsulatela.orgJerusalem Center for Public Affairshttp://www.jcpa.orgThe Jewish Agency for Israelhttp://www.jewishagency.orgThe Jewish Federation’s Jewish Community Relations Committee (JCRC) Jewish Journalhttp://www.jewishjournal.comJTA:Global News Service of the Jewish Peoplehttp://www.jta.orgMemrihttp://www.memri.orghttp://www.memri/videos.orgStand With Ushttp://www.standwithus.comWashington Center for Near East Policyhttp://www.washingtoninstitute.orgYnetNews.comhttp://www.Ynetnews.comYou may find other English language magazines and newspapers here inLos Angeles directed to the Jewish or Arab communities that live here.Please note that many of these sources are produced in democraticcountries with a free press, either the USA or Israel.The two memri websites monitor reports in the Arab world. 69
  82. 82. ‘Iran 11’ Go PublicThe families of 11 missing Iranian Jews are publicizing their plight and asking the United Nationsto help. The Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations and the IranianAmerican Jewish Federation submitted a letter Tuesday to the U.N. secretary-general, asking him Current Eventsto help discover the missing Jews’ condition and whereabouts. The Jews went missing up to nine World Briefsyears ago after trying illegally to leave Iran, which has strict emigration laws for Jews. Until now, from thetheir families preferred backroom dealings. Malcolm Hoenlein, executive vice chairman of the Jewish JournalConference of Presidents, said they decided to go public because "there’s been no movement 12.05.03all these years, so they really have nothing to lose."Annan Blasts FenceKofi Annan says Israel’s security barrier could damage prospects for peace. The U.N. SecretaryGeneral was reporting on Israel’s compliance with a General Assembly resolution thatdemanded the barrier be dismantled. Routing the wall through parts of the West Bank, insteadof alongside it, "could damage the longer-term prospects for peace," Annan said in the reportreleased last Friday.Jewish extremists GuiltyTwo Israeli Jewish extremists pleaded guilty to weapons-related crimes as part of a pleabargain. Yitzhak Pass, whose infant daughter was killed in 2001 by Palestinian terrorists, andhis brother-in-law, Matityahu Shvu, will not face charges that they planned to use explosivesfound in their car for a terrorist attack. Israeli officials believe the two were part of a cellof Jewish terrorists based in the West Bank settlement of Bat Ayin. The plea bargain wasannounced Tuesday.An online Guide to RestitutionThe Claims Conference published an online guide to Holocaust restitution programs. The group’sCompensation and Restitution at a Glance Chart now is available at the Claims Conference’shomepage at The guide provides a country-by-country breakdown ofcurrent compensation and restitution programs and appropriate contact information. Informationon art and insurance policies relating to the Holocaust era and the Swiss banks settlement alsois included. "This online publication will aid Holocaust survivors and people working in agenciesthat assist survivors in navigating the sometimes complex process of applying for compensationand restitution," said Gideon Taylor, executive vice president of the Claims Conference.Bush, let my People In!U.S. Jewish groups are pressing President Bush to allow all 70,000 refugees slots to be filled thisyear. The 22 groups from across the political spectrum said that fewer than 30,000 of the 70,000slots have been filled during the past two years. "Our concern over the current status of theU.S. Refugee Program is based on our core values as Americans and Jews," said a letter fromthe groups dated Monday.Arrest in Turkey Shul BombingsTurkey arrested a man believed to have given the orders in one of the Turkish synagogue bombings. 70
  83. 83. The suspect, whose name was not released, is believed to be behind the attack on the BethIsrael synagogue, one of two deadly attacks on Nov. 15. He was charged Saturday with treason,which is punishable by life in prison. Current Eventslondon Synagogue Attacked World BriefsA London synagogue had its windows broken in what police are describing as a hate crime.The Orthodox Edgware Synagogue was attacked with bricks after congregants left at the endof Shabbat on Saturday. It is the second time this year the shul has been targeted.Briefs courtesy Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 71
  84. 84. To defend the existence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of the state of Israel.To protect the inhabitants of Israel and to combat all forms of terrorism whichthreaten the daily life. Current EventsBasic Points: Israel– Israel cannot afford to lose a single war. Defense– Defensive on the strategic level, no territorial ambitions. Forces– Desire to avoid war by political means and a credible deterrent posture. Guidelines– Preventing escalation.– Determine the outcome of war quickly and decisively.– Combating terrorism.– Very low casualty ratio.The operational level:Defensive Strategy – Offensive Tactics:Prepare for Defense – A small standing army with an early warning capability, regular air force and navy. – An efficient reserve mobilization and transportation system.Move to Counter-Attack – Multi-arm coordination. – Transferring the battle to enemy’s territory quickly. – Quick attainment of war objectives.The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) are the state of Israel’s military force. TheIDF is subordinate to the directions of the democratic civilian authoritiesand the laws of the state. The goal of the IDF is to protect the existence ofthe State of Israel and her independence, and to thwart all enemy efforts todisrupt the normal way of life in Israel.IDF soldiers are obligated to fight, to dedicate all their strength and evensacrifice their lives in order to protect the State of Israel, her citizens andresidents, IDF soldiers will operate according to the IDF values and orders,while adhering to the laws of the state and norms of human dignity, andhonoring the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state.Spirit of the IDF-Definition and originsThe Spirit of the IDF is the identity card of the IDF values, whichshould stand as the foundation of all of the activities of every IDF soldier,on regular or reserve duty.The Spirit of the IDF and the guidelines of operation resulting from itare the ethical code of the IDF. The Spirit of the IDF will be applied by the 72
  85. 85. IDF, its soldiers, its officers, its units and corps to shape their mode of action.They will behave, educate and evaluate themselves and others according tothe Spirit of the IDF. Current EventsThe Spirit of the IDF draws on four sources: Israel1st. The tradition of the IDF and its military heritage as the Israel Defense Defense Forces. Forces2nd. The tradition of the State of Israel, its democratic principles, laws Guidelines and institutions.3rd. The tradition of the Jewish People throughout their history.4th. Universal moral values based on the value and dignity of human life.Basic Values:Defense of the State, its citizens and its residents – The IDF’sgoal is to defend the existence of the State of Israel, its independence andthe security of the citizens and residents of the of the Homeland and loyalty to the country – Atthe core of service in the IDF stand the love of the homeland and thecommitment and devotion to the State of Israel – a democratic state thatserves as a national home for the Jewish People – its citizens and residents.Human Dignity – The IDF and its soldiers are obligated to protecthuman dignity. Every human being is of value regardless of his or her origin,religion, nationality, gender, status, or position.The Values:Tenacity of Purpose in Performing Missions and Drive toVictory – The IDF servicemen and women will fight and conduct themselveswith courage in the face of all dangers and obstacles; They will persevere intheir missions resolutely and thoughtfully even to the point of endangeringtheir lives.Responsibility – The IDF serviceman or woman will see themselves asactive participants in the defense of the state, its citizens and residents. Theywill carry out their duties at all times with initiative,involvement and diligencewith common sense and within the framework of their authority, whileprepared to bear responsibility for their conduct.Credibility – The IDF servicemen and women shall present thingsobjectively, completely and precisely, in planning, performing and reporting.They will act in such a manner that their peers and commanders can relyupon them in performing their tasks. 73