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Sukkot hc2010

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Sukkot hc2010

  1. 1. THIS MATERIAL IS FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY
  2. 2. THE ART OF SUKKOT Tishri 15-22, 5771 September 23-29, 2010 Simchat Torah is the 7 th day of Sukkot Shemini Atzeret is the 8 th day of Sukkot Myrna Teck, Ph. D. Independent Scholar
  3. 3. TORAH SCROLL Sukkot is described in the Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses It is one of three pilgrim or harvest festivals Those holidays are: Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot Sukkot commemorates the Israelites wanderings in the wilderness These wanderings followed the Exodus from Egypt
  4. 4. Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times a year--on the feast of unleavened bread, and on the feast of weeks, and on the feast of Booths-- all your males shall appear before the Lord thy God in the place which He shall choose: … Lieber, D. (Ed.) (2001). Etz Hayim . NY: JPS SUKKOT is Hebrew for “TABERNACLES” or “BOOTHS” It is one of three PILGRIM or HARVEST festivals It is a 7 day festival beginning on the 15th of Tishri It is the happiest of biblical festivals It celebrates God’s bounty in nature and God’s protection
  5. 5. THE FOUR SPECIES the palm, etrog, willow, and myrtle The Lulav (palm branch) has fruit etrog is both fruit and odor The Myrtle is perfumed The willow has no fruit or odor They symbolize hope
  6. 6. <ul><li>Rothschild Miscellany are Hebrew </li></ul><ul><li>illuminated manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Moses ben Yekuthiel Hakohen commissioned </li></ul><ul><li>Them in 1479 </li></ul><ul><li>It includes religious and secular works </li></ul><ul><li>There also are 816 illuminations </li></ul><ul><li>They disappeared from Paris </li></ul><ul><li>during WWII and resurfaced in NYC </li></ul><ul><li>This detail is from the </li></ul><ul><li>HOSHANA (Please save) prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Vellum, ink, tempera, gold leaf </li></ul><ul><li>21 x 16 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Man wears a tallit, holds an etrog, </li></ul><ul><li>palm frond and myrtle branch </li></ul><ul><li>They are three of the Four Species </li></ul><ul><li>used during the festival </li></ul><ul><li>Hoshana Rabba is the 7th day of Sukkot </li></ul><ul><li>It is “the great day of the call for help” </li></ul><ul><li>Hoshana means “Save I pray!” </li></ul><ul><li>It is considered the last day for </li></ul><ul><li>atonement and forgiveness from God </li></ul><ul><li>After Rosh Hashonah and Yom Kippur </li></ul><ul><li>The synagogue is circumambulated </li></ul><ul><li>The prayer implores God’s salvation </li></ul><ul><li>It is said during the 7 days of Sukkot </li></ul><ul><li>It is said in its entirety on the 7 th day </li></ul><ul><li>On this day, the divine judgment </li></ul><ul><li>of humans is concluded </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone’s fate for the next year is decided </li></ul><ul><li>It is like a mini-Yom Kippur </li></ul>HOSHANA RABBA (detail) - Rothschild Miscellany, No. Italy, 1475 Snyder, J. (2005). The Israel Museum. Jerusalem, Israel: Harry Abrams
  7. 7. MAN WITH HEADLESS SHADOW Kosofsky, S. M. (2004). Book of Customs. San Francisco: Harper Collins There is a Jewish folk belief that seeing a headless shadow is bad It means that one will not survive until the next New Year festival A headless shadow was a sign that the person would die that year
  8. 8. Leviticus 23: 40 On the first day you shall take the product of Hadar trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of leafy trees, and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before the LORD your GOD seven days. Lieber, D. (Ed.) (2001). Etz Hayim . NY: JPS
  9. 9. THE LULAV -Minhogimbukh, Venice 1593 Kosofsky, S. M. (2004). Book of Customs. San Francisco: Harper Collins. Four species represent the agricultural world They are the palm, etrog, willow, and myrtle The Lulav (palm branch) has fruit etrog is both fruit and perfumed The Myrtle is perfumed The willow has no fruit or perfume lulav and the Etrog are symbols on ancient Mosaic floors They symbolize hope for redemption They are also Jewish emblems
  10. 10. THE SUKKAH -Minhogimbukh, 1723 Kaniel, M. (1989). A Guide to Jewish Art . New York: Allied Books The word “SUKKAH” is Hebrew for “TABERNACLE” The Sukkah (booth) is a symbol of fragility People eat in the Sukkah Some Jews sleep there, too The Sukkah is a reminder that God protected the Israelites That was during their wanderings in the desert
  11. 11. Leviticus 23: 41-42 You shall observe it as a festival of the LORD for seven days in the year; you shall observe it in the seventh month as a law for all time, throughout the ages. You shall live in booths seven days; all citizens in Israel shall live in booths Lieber, d. (Ed.) (2001). Etz Hayim . NY: JPS
  12. 12. THE SUKKAH Wigoder, G. (1972). Jewish Art & Civilization , Fribourg, Switz: Chartwell This is a Linoleum cut Each evening 7 biblical characters are invited to the Sukkah They are spiritual guests and are called “USHPIZIN” Their presence is a reminder to host others for the festival
  13. 13. EATING IN THE SUKKAH- Picart, B., Amsterdam, 1723 Korn, I. (1996). A Celebration of Judaism in Art . New York: Todtri This is a Copperplate engraving It is by Bernard Picart It is From Ceremonies & Costumes of Religions of peoples of World This image is in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam This Sukkah is so heavily decorated that it looks permanent In the background is a less ornate Sukkah
  14. 14. HAKKAFOT- Picart, B. Amsterdam, 1723 Snyder, J. (2004). the Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry N. Abrams Hakkafot is the custom of circumambulating the bima 7 times All the Torah Scrolls are taken out of the Ark Various piyyutim (religious songs) are sung One explanation for the ritual is the 7 times Joshua circled Jericho This is an etching on paper The citation above the print is puzzling In the English edition of Picart’s book, the citation is from John 7:37 It ends the reading of the Torah Simchat Torah (REJOICING OF THE LAW) begins the reading of Genesis It begins on 23 Tishri and is celebrated for 2 days Shemini Atzeret is the last day
  15. 15. SUKKOT POT- Gomez family, 18 th c . Grunberger, M. (Ed.) (2004). From Haven to Home . Wash, D.C. Library of Congress The Gomez family transformed this mustard pot They made it into an Etrog holder It is made of Silver It is in the collection of the American Jewish Historical Society
  16. 16. CORNER OF PAINTED SUKKAH- Late 19 th c. Keller, S. (Ed.) (1992). The Jews . NY: Hugh Lauter Levin Assoc., Inc This painted Sukkah was put together by numbered panels An emphasis is placed on the abundance of fruits and flowers There is also a REAL window in this Sukkah That may have been where the women handed in the food to the men The anonymous painter included columns and an arch He/She also painted a panel of the 10 Commandments
  17. 17. <ul><li>CORNER OF PAINTED SUKKAH- Southern Germany, ca. 1837 </li></ul><ul><li>Snyder, J. (2005). The Israel Museum. Jerusalem, Israel: Harry Abrams </li></ul><ul><li>2 x 2.9 x 2.9 mm. Wood, oil paint </li></ul><ul><li>Gift of the Deller Family with the help of Dr. H. Feuchtwanger, 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>The Deller Sukkah was discovered in 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>It was in the village of Fishach near Augsburg </li></ul><ul><li>The artist used motifs from traditional German folk art </li></ul><ul><li>On the walls are a genre home scene and a view of the village It includes the Deller Family house and the synagogue </li></ul><ul><li>Five vignettes relating to major Jewish festivals are also depicted </li></ul><ul><li>These may have been modeled on a Holiday Prayer book (MAHZOR) </li></ul><ul><li>It was printed in 1826 in Salzbach </li></ul><ul><li>A view of the holy sites of Jerusalem was copied from a 19 th c. print </li></ul><ul><li>The Jerusalem artist Yehoseph Schwarz made it </li></ul><ul><li>It appears on the wall opposite the entrance </li></ul><ul><li>The painted wooden boards were numbered for easy annual assembled </li></ul><ul><li>It was used until 1910, when it was too unstable for use </li></ul><ul><li>In 1938-secretly loaded onto a truck In parts and sent to Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Family donated it to the Bezalel Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Now on permanent exhibition in The Israel Museum </li></ul>
  18. 18. PAINTED SUKKA (Detail)-Germany, e. 19 th c. Snyder, J. (2005). The Israel Museum. Jerusalem, Israel: Harry Abrams. Collection of the Israel Museum This is a detail from the previous image It is of Painted wood The painted detail depicts hakafot (circuits) in the synagogue It is done with lulav and etrog
  19. 19. SUKKAH DECORATION- 18 th , c. Barnavi, E. (Ed.) (1992). Historical Atlas of the Jewish People. NY: Knopf A man carries the symbols of the Festival of Tabernacles He is on his way to the synagogue This image is from Bischwiller (Haut-Rhin) He looks like a colonial American in his flat-top hat
  20. 20. SUKKAH DECORATION -Moravia, 18 th c. Snyder, J. (2005). The Israel Museum. Jerusalem, Israel: Harry Abrams Parchment cutout, painted . 31 x 21.2 cm. (17 3/4”) A large oval is in the center of this intricate and delicate papercut Note Moses holding the Tablets of the Law on the left The tablets show Roman numerals, a Christian influence That is, instead of Hebrew alphabetical number It has the inscription: “This is the table that is before the Lord” It is from Ezekiel 41: 22 A scene illustrated the central biblical commandment relating to the holiday: “ You shall sit in the Sukkah seven days, all the people of Israel shall sit in Sukkot (Leviticus 23: 42)
  21. 21. MENORAH SUKKAH DECORATION- Szeged, Hungary, l. 19 th / e. 20 th c Snyder, J. (2004). the Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry N. Abrams Oil on canvas Collection of Israel Museum This SUKKAH panel is part of a set They decorated the SUKKAH of Rabbi Loew Immanuel (1854-1945) He was from Szeged, Hungary He was the head of the neological community Neologians were a mainstream Hungarian group It loosely resembled Reform Judaism
  22. 22. ASTROLABE SUKKAH DECORATION- Israel David Luzzatto, c. 1775 Korn, I. (1996). A Celebration of Judaism in Art . NY: Todtri Productions Ink and watercolor on paper. 20 x 15 1/2 in. (50.8 x 39.4 cm H. Ephraim and mordecai Benguit Family Collection Jewish Museum, New York Micrography of the text of Ecclesiastes is shaped as an astrolabe That was an instrument used to measure the sun’s altitude Ecclesiastes is the traditional text read in synagogue on Sukkot This is due to the references to the sun and its movement
  23. 23. FESTIVAL OF SUKKOT- New Synagogue, London, 1850. Burman, R. etc (2006). Treasures of Jewish Heritage, London This is an interior view of the New Synagogue in London It shows the celebration of the festival of Sukkot The image is in paper-mache It is on a round-topped table 813 x 588 mm 1851-Images of Windsor and Winchester castle were exhibited
  24. 24. <ul><li>BUKHARAN SUKKAH- Central Asia, 19/20 th c. </li></ul><ul><li>Snyder, J. (2005). The Israel Museum. Jerusalem, Israel: Harry Abrams </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ikat panels of dyed silk, Suzani embroideries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Jewish communities of Uzbekistan were known as Bukharan Jewry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were much involved in the textile trade there </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of ten as silk and dye merchants and silk weavers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The floor was covered with rugs on which the family sat to dine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A wide variety of fruit, mint, and basil decorated the Sukkah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large melons hung across the front </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. SUKKAHS IN MEA SHEARIM This is a photograph of sukkahs in Mea Shearim It is the most orthodox Jewish neighborhood in jerusalem
  26. 26. <ul><li>ETROG CONTAINER- Augsburg, 1670-80 </li></ul><ul><li>Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art , China: Hugh Lauter Levin </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silver, gilt, hammered and chased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7 1/2 x 9 in. (19.1 x 22.9 cm) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of The Jewish Museum, New York </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gift of Dr. Harry G. Friedman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The shape of the fruit is echoed in this container </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boxes were used to protect the etrog (citron) during the festival </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The etrog was carried between home and synagogue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>SILVER ETROG CONTAINER- Germany or Austria, date unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Burman, R. etc (2006). Treasures of Jewish Heritage: Jewish Museum London </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>277 MM long </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Box formed as a citron with applied foliage and tendrils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stand formed as a leaf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of Jewish Museum in London </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>ETROG CONTAINER- Russia, e. 19 th c. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of The Israel Museum </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Length-7 1/2 inches, 19 CM. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notice the similarity and slight variations from the previous one </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. ETROG CONTAINER- Ottoman Empire, 19 th c. Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art , China: Hugh Lauter Levin Assoc., Inc. Silver Collection of The Israel Museum This duck form is quite unusual
  30. 30. <ul><li>BEADED ETROG BOX- Germany, 1878 </li></ul><ul><li>Snyder, J. (2004). the Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc </li></ul><ul><li>Glass beads on cardboard </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8.3 x 8.8 x 13.9 cm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gift of the E. Burstein Collection, Lugano </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Hebrew inscription included the biblical verse from Lev. 23:40 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is in the collection of the Israel Museum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The box is also inscribed: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ in honor of my forefather on behalf of Gershon Pieta.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>ETROG BOX- United States, 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Snyder, J. (2004). the Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry Abrams </li></ul><ul><li>Carved and painted wood </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plated copper and Brass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12.6 x 10.8 x 18.1 cm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of The Israel Museum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This ETROG container has a Hebrew dedication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It indicates that the box was given as a wedding gift </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The sides have scenes connected to Sukkot and to marriage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was made in the U.S. and sent to Slovakia in 1918 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It eventually returned to the U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The groom, Rabbi Gelbman and his family came to NYC on 11/30/1937 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>ETROG CONTAINER -Lorelei and Alex Gruss, New York, 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ebony, purpleheart, silver, shell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 x 8 in. (15.2 x 20.3 cm) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtesy of the artists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The artists have worked in the U.S. since 1987 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lorelei was born in New York and raised in Jerusalem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alex was born in Argentina. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They use forest woods chosen for their texture and color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The inlays are original compositions of precious materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ivory, abalone, mother-of-pearl, precious stones and metals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each scene is an original composition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The artists are concerned with Halacha and functionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This etrog container depicts images of the seven ushpizin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are the ancestral guests who come to visit on Sukkot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each one is identified by name in Hebrew </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>ETROG BOX- Greibel, Mila Tanya-London, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burman, R. etc (2006). Treasures of Jewish Heritage: The Jewish Museum, London </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>200 x 100 mm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Box in a double-cone shape with cut-out letters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of Jewish Museum, London </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>ETROG CONTAINER- Meizei, Rabbi D., 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Morton, K. (1999). Judaic Artisans Today. Gaithersburg, Md: Flower </li></ul><ul><li> Valley Press. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sterling silver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 1/2 x 7 x 4 1/2 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is inscribed: “Fruit of the splendorous tree” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The back of the container is hinged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The top tilts open easily giving access to the fruit lying within </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>SUKKOT PLATE- England and U.S., 1910 </li></ul><ul><li>Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art , China: Hugh Lauter Levin Assoc </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Porcelain, hand-painted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diameter 9 in. (22.9 cm) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Museum of American History, Smithsonian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The plate was manufactured in England by John Brother </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The special Sukkot motif was designed by Katherine M. Cohen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Tatler Decorating company of Trenton, New Jersey added it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The plate was made to use for communal meals served in the Sukkah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This took place at congregation Mikve Israel in Philadelphia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES on Mount of Olives- Frazer, J.c. 1050 </li></ul><ul><li>Barnavi, E.(Ed.)(1992). Historical Atlas of the Jewish People. NY: Knopf </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Painting on Glass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On the right are the seven members of the Sanhedrin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are proclaiming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. the dates of festivals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. announcing new nominations to the Sanhedrin, and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. reiterating the excommunication of the Karaites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Karaites were required to attend and stand on the far left </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are behind Muslim soldier who interposes between the enemies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is a painting on glass based on literary sources </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>SUKKAH PEEPSHOW- Place of origin unknown, 18 th c. </li></ul><ul><li>Burman, R. etc (2006). Treasures of Jewish Heritage: The Jewish Museum, London </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paper and wood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>236 mm x 297 mm deep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scene in a Sukkah with five movable frames </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>PROCESSION OF THE LAW- Hart, Solomon, RA. England, 1845-50 </li></ul><ul><li>Burman, R. etc (2006). Treasures of Jewish Heritage: Jewish Museum, London </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil on canvas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.06 x .94 cm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Painting shows a synagogue scene at the festival of SIMCHAT TORAH. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simchat Torah (Happiness in the Torah) is the 7 th day of Sukkot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is thought to be set in the Livorno synagogue, Italy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of the Jewish Museum, London </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. THE FOUR SPECIES- I. Kauffmann Unterman, A. (1991). Dictionary of JEWISH Lore & Legend . London: Thames and Hudson. Depicts a young Hasidic Jewish boy holding the four species
  40. 40. PAINTING OF RABBI AND CONGREGANTS ON SUKKOT- 19 TH /E. 20 TH C. The Jewish Museum. Oil on canvas. 42 1/2 x 53 in. Gift of Mr. And Mrs. Oscar Gruss. JM 89-56 This painting may have belonged to Isser and Freidl Reiffer They fled their home in Vienna in 1938
  41. 41. <ul><li>THE RABBI WITH THE ETROG -Chagall, 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Korn, I. (1996). A Celebration of Judaism in Art . NY: Todtri Prod </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of Kunstaamlung Nordhausen-Westphalen, Dusseldorf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is clear that the festival of Sukkot is being observed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The figure on the top of the rabbi’s head is open to interpretation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some say it is his soul from which he separated and turned away </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>FEAST OF THE TABERNACLES, Chagall,1916 </li></ul><ul><li>Compton, S. (1985). Chagall. Philadelphia Museum of Art. </li></ul><ul><li>Gouache. 13 x 16 1/8 in/33 x 41 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Private Collection; courtesy of Galerie Rosengart, Lucerne </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This theme comes from a 1917 commission Chagall received </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was for murals in a school attached to the Petrograd synagogue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bella beautifully described the harvest thanksgiving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A lean-to was built behind the house </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A cart loaded with pine branches drove into the yard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The walls were solid, but the roof was open to the sky </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Her brothers climbed up ladders and stood on chairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They passed the branches to one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were piled so think no star could shine through </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A long table with benches was placed in the middle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The floor was bare earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Her father and brothers ate a ceremonial meal inside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No women could join in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The woman passing the meal in is stylized </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>SCHOOLCHILDREN WITH PALM FRONDS- Ben-Dov, Yaacov , Israel, 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Snyder, J. (2004). the Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry N. Abrams </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gelatin Silver print </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of The Israel Museum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photograph shows a group of children standing outside a building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They appear to be in the blinding son </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They hold palm fronds and are participating in a ceremony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They hold fronds in preparation for placing them on a Sukkah roof </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photographer was Yaacov Ben-Dov </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>FEAST OF TABERNACLES- Chaim Gross, 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Soltes, A., Abrams, J. & Blecher, A. (1968 ). The Jewish Holidays, Customs, and Traditions by Chaim Gross . NY: Associated American Artists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chaim Gross incorporates many different vignettes of the holiday </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>MENORAH, LULOV, AND ESROG- Menorah Park Jewish Home for Aged, </li></ul><ul><li>Beachwood, Ohio, 1968 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laminated Stained Glass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9’ X 20’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executed by the Willet Stained Glass Studios, Philadelphia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>SUKKOT- Vicksburg, Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Aron, B. (2002). Shalom Y’all. Chapel Hill: Algonquin books </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This Sukkah is in the Mississippi Delta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is decorated with newly harvested cotton, soybeans & corn stalks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All are indigenous to that area </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>SUKKAH- Arie Aroch, 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Snyder, J. (2004). the Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil on canvas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>63.5 x 79 cm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arie Aroch frequently depicts Jewish motifs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here he flattens the Sukkah features into two dimensions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The feeling is that the objects are hovering and not secure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The composition creates a floating, temporary atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The simple and naïve format reminds us of children’s drawings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They often decorate family Sukkahs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aroch was born in Russia in 1908 and died in Israel in 1974 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>INDOOR SUKKAH- Alan Wexler, 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Kleeblatt, N. (1995). Too Jewish? Challenging Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Identities , The Jewish Museum, NY </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can anyone say about this? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s such a creative response to the subject </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It just boggles the imagination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s appropriate where it’s too cold for an outdoor Sukkah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That might be in New York city </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. PHOTOGRAPH AT THE WESTERN WALL ON SUKKOT
  50. 50. <ul><li>POEM FOR SIMHAT TORAH- Rome, 1766 </li></ul><ul><li>Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art. China: Hugh Lauter Levin Assoc </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gouache and ink on parchment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>23 1/2 x 18 in. (59.7 x 45.7 cm) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rabbi Abraham ben Jacob Anav (ANAU) wrote this poem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This poem is an original cantata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was written in honor of Isaac Berakyah Baraffael </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He was the son of Mordecai Baraffael </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was written on the occasion of Simhat Torah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the register above the text of the poem is a historical note </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It praises the student Isaac’s family and the study of Torah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isaac was from a wealthy family of spice importers and merchants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They came from Ancona to Rome at the beginning of the 18 th c. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The text is written for three singers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They represent Wealth, Honor, and life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three allegorical figures symbolize these themes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>SIMHAT TORAH SWEETS- Minhogimbukh, Venice, 1593 </li></ul><ul><li>Kosofsky, S. M. (2004). The Book of Customs. San Francisco: Harper </li></ul><ul><li> Collins </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An early image from a Book of customs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The images were used as patterns for later books </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note that this is a woodcut </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>SIMCHAT TORAH SWEETS- Minhogimbukh, Amsterdam, 1713. </li></ul><ul><li>Snyder, J. (2004). the Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry Abrams, Inc </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20.2 x 15.5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of The Israel Museum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Ages to the 19 th c., books described customs and holidays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were intended as illustrated guides to Jewish practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They reflect Jewish life in different places in Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This woodcut shows sweets traditionally given to children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This was on the Simchat Torah holiday </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>THE FEAST OF THE REJOICING OF THE LAW AT THE SYNAGOGUE </li></ul><ul><li>IN LEGHORN, ITALY </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon Alexander Hart, R.A. 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Korn, I. (1996). A Celebration of Judaism in Art . NY: Todtri Productions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil on canvas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>55 5/8 x 68 3/4 in. (141.3 x 174. 6 cm) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gift of Mr. And Mrs. Oscar Gruss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of The Jewish Museum, New York </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This painting celebrates SIMHAT TORAH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is also known as THE REJOICING OVER THE TORAH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is thought of as the last, or 8 th , day of Sukkot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shemini Atzeret is actually a minor biblical holiday </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is observed one day in Israel, two days in the Diaspora </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>YIZKOR (Prayer for the Dead) is recited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is considered the conclusion of Succot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solomon Hart was the 1st Jew in the British Royal Academy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He visited many Italian sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Painting shows the lavish decoration of the Livorno synagogue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It also shows the varied cultural dress of Livornese Jews </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>TORAH CROWN FOR SIMHAT TORAH- Alsace, mid. 19 th c. </li></ul><ul><li>Korn, I. (1996). A Celebration of Judaism in Art . NY: Todtri Productions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paper Mache, silk ribbons, cardboard, paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 1/4 x 7 1/4 in. (21 x 18.5 cm). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judisches Museum der Schweiz, Basel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some congregations highlight the importance of Simhat Torah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The yearly reading of the 5 Books of Moses finishes and begins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special Torah decorations were used </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>CROWN FOR SIMHAT TORAH- Langensoultzbach, 19 th c. </li></ul><ul><li>Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art , China: Hugh Lauter Levin Assoc., Inc </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paper, tissue, wood, metal wire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 1/4 x 7 1/4 in. (21 x 18.4 cm) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Les Musees de la Ville de Strasbourg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection Societe d’histoire des Israelites d’Alsace et de Lorraine, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alsatian Jews made elaborate flower-embellished crowns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These were for the Torah scrolls for Simhat Torah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were made of very fragile materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is one of the very few remaining crowns of this type </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. THE RABBIS AND THE TORAHS- STEINHARDT, Jakob, woodcut Kolb, L. (Ed). (1962) The Woodcuts of Jakob Steinhardt . Phila: JPS Steinhardt was the leading printmaker of the mid-20 th century Here the Rabbis carry the Torah Scrolls It is not clear where they are going Perhaps it is a celebration of the Torah on Simchat Torah
  57. 57. CELEBRATION ON SIMCHAT TORAH -Moshe Ryenicki Backlight creates silhouettes of the rabbi carrying the Torah The paint is applied in a painterly manner, a modernist approach
  58. 58. SIMCHAT TORAH (REJOICING OF THE LAW)- Chaim Gross, 1967 Soltes, A., Abrams, J. & Blecher, A. (1968 ). The Jewish Holidays , Customs and Traditions by Chaim Gross . NY: Assoc. American Artists
  59. 59. <ul><li>SAMARITANS ON MT. GERIZIM During Sukkot </li></ul><ul><li>Barnavi, E. (Ed.) (1992). Historical Atlas of the Jewish People. NY: Knopf </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The priest holds a bible manuscript </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>It is said that: </li></ul><ul><li>ART CANNOT BE TAUGHT… </li></ul><ul><li>IT CAN ONLY BE CAUGHT! </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I hope this book has made </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THE ART OF SUKKOT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONTAGIOUS FOR YOU TODAY! </li></ul></ul></ul>Myrna Teck, Ph.D. Independent Scholar

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