SPANISH LITERATURESharmaine ManuelSheila SembranoAdelyn GayondatoGerald BagarinaoAva Mae AndradePart Two of Don Quixote is often regarded as the birth of modern literature, as it explores the concept of a character understanding that he is being written abou
INTRODUCTIONSpain was a sovereign state and member of EuropeanUnion Located at South western Europe on IberianPeninsula has about 1000 Spanish literature - spanish includes number of works written byspanish citezen living outside of spain during cil war
TROUBADOURS people sang for the people in the villagesquare and nobility in castle and royal courts entertained pilgrim medieval lyric poet composing and singing inProvencal in the 11th to 13thcenturies, especially on the theme of courtlylove.
TROUBADOURS wrote and sang long poems, called epicsabout Christian heroes The epics were composed mainly in a poeticstyle known as mester de juglaria (craft ofthe troubadour).
EL CANTAR DEL MIO CID (The Poem of the Cid) is the oldest Spanishepic poem preserved based on the true story of Rodrigo Díaz deVivar, known as El Cid capeador(the Lordchampion) narrative work of the Spanish literaturewritten in a Romance language, and it wascomposed around 1200.
CANTAR DEL MIO CID • revolves around the topic of the restoration of losthonor. division of the Cantar in three parts: • In the first part, Cid is banished from Castile andleaves his daughters and wife at home to begin hismilitary campaign to restore his honor. • In the second part, Cid conquers Valencia and hisdaughters are wed to the Infants of Carrión, even thoughCid doesnt trust them. • In the third and last part, the Infants of Carrión leaveCids daughters beaten in the middle of the country. Heasks the King for a trial against the Infants and he wins.His daughters are promised then to the Infants of Navarreand Aragón.
WORKS OF CHIVALRY AND ROMANCE Chivalric novels are all about the knight-errant adventured in order todemonstrate their chivalry. These works were immensely popular and mixed the themes of epicheroism with figures from the reconquest. One of the best works in 14th-century written down by Garci Rodriguezde Montalvo in 1508 is Amadis de Gaula (Amadis of Gaul).
PASTORAL POETRY It is about a depicted man and woman who retired to the country andsearch for a simple life. Spanish pastoral poets imitated the sonnet, tercet and other verse formsoften used in Italian pastoral works by Juan Boscan Almogaver andGarcilaso de la Vega.
RELIGIOUS POETRY Religious poetry gained intensity near the middle of the 16thcentury, partly as a consequence of the Counter Reformation. This writing expressed attitudes of spiritual devotion, the state of thesoul, and the desire to withdraw from the world. Three Writters: - Augustinian monk Luis Ponce de León - Carmelite monk Juan de Yepes y lvarez - Carmelite mystic Saint Teresa of Avila
LUIS PONCE DE LEON, O.E.S.A (Order of St. Augustine)JUAN DE LA CRUZ (JOHN OF THE CROSS)Teresa of Ávila
LUIS PONCE DE LEO,O.E.S.A(ORDER OF ST.AUGUSTINE)(BELMONTE, CUENCA, 1527 – MADRIGAL DE LASALTAS, CASTILE,SPAIN- 23 AUGUST 1591)
IMPRISONMENTIN 1571 DOMINICAN PROFESSORS BARTOLOME DEMEDINA AND CASTRO PUT FORTH SEVENTEENPROPOSITIONS TO THE INQUISITION DOCUMENTING FRAYLUIS’ALLEGEDLY HERETICAL OPINIONS.AT THE END OF 1576, THE TABLES TURNED, AND FRAYLUIS WAS CLEARED OF ALL CHARGES AND RELEASED FROMPRISON WITH AN ADMONISHMENT TO BE MORE CAREFULAND RESERVED IN HIS PUBLICATIONS AND SPEECH.
AS A WRITERBETWEEN 1583 AND 1585 HE PUBLISHED THE THREE BOOKS OF HISCELEBRATED TREATISE, THE NAMES OF CHRIST, WHICH HE HAD WRITTEN INPRISON. IN 1583 ALSO APPEARED THE MOST POPULAR OF HIS PROSEWORKS, THE PERFECT WIFE.FRAY LUIS STOPPED FROM PUBLISHING HIS POEMS, WHICH WERE NOTEDITED TILL 1631, WHEN QUEVEDO PRINTED THEM. THE CANON OF FRAY LUISSPOETRY, AS FIXED BY HISPANISTS, CONSISTS OF TWENTY-NINE POEMS. APARTFROM THOSE, HE WROTE MAINLY PROSE, MOST NOTABLY, THE NAMES OF CHRISTAND THE PERFECT WIFE. HE ALSO TRANSLATED HORACES ODES INTO SPANISH.MAJOR WORKSLA PERFECTA CASADA (THE PERFECT WIFE)IT ADVISES ALL YOUNG WOMEN ON THE PROPER BEHAVIOR ANDDUTIES OF A MARRIED WOMAN, BOTH IN REGARD TO HER HUSBAND AND HERCHILDREN.
DE LOS NOMBRES DE CRISTO (THE NAMES OF CHRIST)IT IS WRITTEN IN DIALOGUE FORM ABOUT THREE FRIENDS WHO DISCUSSFOURTEEN OF THE SCRIPTURAL NAMES OF CHRIST.CANTAR DE LOS CANTARES (TRANSLATION OF SONG OF SONGS)IN 1561, HE BEGAN TRANSLATING THE SONG OF SONGS, A BOOK OF THE OLDTESTAMENT, INTO SPANISH FOR HIS COUSIN, ISABEL OSORIO, A NUN WHO COULDNOT READ THE LATIN TEXT, AND WROTE AN ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY.EXPOSICIÓN DEL LIBRO DE JOB (COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF JOB)THE STORY TELLS OF JOBS PATIENCE AND SUFFERING, AND ALSO SERVES AS ACORRECTIONAL GUIDE TO MANS BEHAVIOR. IT IS WRITTEN IN BOTH VERSE ANDDIALOGUE, TO MAKE IT BOTH ENJOYABLE AND INFORMATIVE.
TWO OF HIS MOST WELL-KNOWN EXAMPLES: THE LIFE REMOVED AND ODE TOSALINAS.THE LIFE REMOVEDIN THE POEM THE LIFE REMOVED, FRAY LUIS, FOLLOWING THE BEATUS ILLETHEME INTRODUCED BY HORACE, EXPOUNDS UPON THE NOTION OF CHOICE ANDITS CONSEQUENCES.ODE TO SALINASTHEY FREQUENTLY SPOKE ABOUT ART AND POETRY, AND LISTENED TO MUSICTOGETHER. SALINAS WAS AN ORGANIST AND COMPOSER, WHO SHARED FRAYLUISS BELIEF THAT MUSIC CAN MAKE ONE MORE RELIGIOUS, AND THAT ITINSPIRES MAN TO CONTEMPLATE SPIRITUAL MATTERS.
JUAN DE LA CRUZ (JOHN OF THE CROSS)(24 JUNE 1542 — 14 DECEMBER 1591), BORN JUAN DE YEPES ALVAREZ, WAS AMAJOR FIGURE OF THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION, A SPANISH MYSTIC, ANDCARMELITE FRIAR AND PRIEST.
ACHIEVEMENTHE WAS A REFORMER OF THE CARMELITE ORDER AND ISCONSIDERED, ALONG WITH SAINT TERESA OF ÁVILA, AS A FOUNDER OF THEDISCALCED CARMELITES. HE IS ALSO KNOWN FOR HIS WRITINGS. BOTH HISPOETRY AND HIS STUDIES ON THE GROWTH OF THE SOUL ARE CONSIDERED THESUMMIT OF MYSTICAL SPANISH LITERATURE AND ONE OF THE PEAKS OF ALLSPANISH LITERATURE. HE WAS CANONIZED AS A SAINT IN 1726 BY POPEBENEDICT XIII. HE IS ONE OF THE THIRTY-THREE DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH.THE SPIRITUAL CANTICLE AND DARK NIGHT OF THE SOUL ARE WIDELYCONSIDERED TO BE AMONG THE BEST POEMS EVER WRITTEN IN SPANISH, BOTHFOR THEIR FORMAL STYLISTIC POINT OF VIEW AND THEIR RICH SYMBOLISM ANDIMAGERY.THE THIRD WORK, ASCENT OF MOUNT CARMEL IS A MORE SYSTEMATIC STUDY OFTHE ASCETICAL ENDEAVOUR OF A SOUL LOOKING FOR PERFECTUNION, GOD, AND THE MYSTICAL EVENTS HAPPENING ALONG THE WAY.
JOINING THE REFORM OF TERESA OF JESUSJOHN WAS ORDAINED A PRIEST IN 1567, AND THEN INDICATED HISINTENT TO JOIN THE STRICT CARTHUSIAN ORDER, WHICH APPEALED TO HIMBECAUSE OF ITS ENCOURAGEMENT OF SOLITARY AND SILENT CONTEMPLATION. AJOURNEY FROM SALAMANCA TO MEDINA DEL CAMPO, PROBABLY IN SEPTEMBER1567.28 NOVEMBER 1568, THE MONASTERY, WAS ESTABLISHED, AND ONTHAT SAME DAY JOHN CHANGED HIS NAME TO JOHN OF THE CROSS.ONE DAY (1574 AND 1577), JOHN HAD A VISION OF THE CRUCIFIEDCHRIST, WHICH LED HIM TO CREATE HIS FAMOUS DRAWING OF CHRIST "FROMABOVE." . THIS DRAWING INSPIRED THE ARTIST SALVADOR DALIS 1951WORK, CHRIST OF SAINT JOHN OF THE CROSS.
IMPRISONMENT, WRITINGS, TORTURE, DEATH AND RECOGNITIONON THE NIGHT OF 2 DECEMBER 1577, A GROUP OF CARMELITESOPPOSED TO REFORM BROKE INTO JOHN’S DWELLING IN AVILA, AND TOOK HIMPRISONER. JOHN WAS ACCUSED OF DISOBEYING THE ORDINANCES OFPIACENZA. DESPITE JOHNS ARGUMENT THAT HE HAD NOT DISOBEYED THEORDINANCES, HE RECEIVED A PUNISHMENT OF IMPRISONMENT.THEY DECIDED TO DEMAND FROM THE POPE THEIR FORMALSEPARATION FROM THE REST OF THE CARMELITE ORDER. JOHN WAS APPOINTEDSUPERIOR OF EL CALVARIO, AN ISOLATED MONASTERY OF AROUND THIRTYFRIARS IN THE MOUNTAINS ABOUT 6 MILES AWAY.ON 22 JUNE 1580 POPE GREGORY XIII SIGNED A DECREE, TITLED PIACONSIDERATIONE, WHICH AUTHORISED A SEPARATION BETWEEN THE CALCEDAND DISCALCED CARMELITES.
DURING THIS IMPRISONMENT, HE COMPOSED A GREAT PART OF HISMOST FAMOUS POEM SPIRITUAL CANTICLE, AS WELL AS A FEW SHORTER POEMSWHILE AT EL CALVARIO HE COMPOSED HIS FIRST VERSION OF HIS COMMENTARYON HIS POEM, THE SPIRITUAL CANTICLE, PERHAPS AT THE REQUEST OF THENUNS IN BEAS.JOHN WAS REMOVED FROM HIS POST IN SEGOVIA, AND SENT BY DORIAIN JUNE 1591 TO AN ISOLATED MONASTERY IN ANDALUSIA CALLED LA PEÑUELA.THERE HE FELL ILL, AND TRAVELED TO THE MONASTERY AT ÚBEDA FORTREATMENT. HIS CONDITION WORSENED, HOWEVER, AND HE DIED THERE ON 14DECEMBER 1591, OF ERYSIPELAS.
VENERATIONHE WAS INITIALLY BURIED AT ÚBEDA, BUT, AT THE REQUEST OF THEMONASTERY IN SEGOVIA, HIS BODY WAS SECRETLY MOVED THERE IN 1593.THE SUPERIORS OF THE DISCALCED CARMELITES DECIDED THAT THEMONASTERY AT ÚBEDA WOULD RECEIVE ONE LEG AND ONE ARM OF THE CORPSEFROMA HAND AND A LEG REMAIN VISIBLE IN A RELIQUARY AT THE ORATORYOF SAN JUAN DE LA CRUZ IN ÚBEDA, A MONASTERY BUILT IN 1627 THOUGHCONNECTED TO THE ORIGINAL DISCALCED MONASTERY IN THE TOWN FOUNDEDIN 1587.THE HEAD AND TORSO WAS RETAINED BY THE MONASTERY AT SEGOVIA.THERE, THEY WERE VENERATED UNTIL 1647.PROCEEDINGS TO BEATIFY JOHN BEGAN WITH THE GATHERING OFINFORMATION ON HIS LIFE BETWEEN 1614 AND 1616, ALTHOUGH HE WAS ONLYBEATIFIED IN 1675 BY POPE CLEMENT X, AND WAS CANONIZED BY BENEDICT XIIIIN 1726.
EDITIONS OF HIS WORKSTHE SPIRITUAL CANTICLE AND THE DARK NIGHT OF THE SOUL AREWIDELY CONSIDERED MASTERPIECES OF SPANISH POETRY, BOTH FOR THEIRFORMAL STYLISTIC POINT OF VIEW AND THEIR RICH SYMBOLISM AND IMAGERY..THE POEM THE SPIRITUAL CANTICLE, IS AN ECLOGUE IN WHICH THEBRIDE (REPRESENTING THE SOUL) SEARCHES FOR THE BRIDEGROOM(REPRESENTING JESUS CHRIST), AND IS ANXIOUS AT HAVING LOST HIM; BOTHARE FILLED WITH JOY UPON REUNITING.THE DARK NIGHT (FROM WHICH THE SPIRITUAL TERM TAKES ITS NAME)NARRATES THE JOURNEY OF THE SOUL FROM HER BODILY HOME TO HER UNIONWITH GOD.THE ASCENT OF MOUNT CARMEL IS A MORE SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THEASCETICAL ENDEAVOUR OF A SOUL LOOKING FOR PERFECT UNION, GOD, ANDTHE MYSTICAL EVENTS HAPPENING ALONG THE WAY.
TERESA OF ÁVILASAINT TERESA OF JESUS, BAPTIZED AS TERESA SÁNCHEZ DE CEPEDA YAHUMADA, (MARCH 28, 1515 – OCTOBER 4, 1582)
HONORED IN ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH , LUTHERAN CHURCH , ANGLICANCOMMUNIONBEATIFIED : APRIL 24, 1614, ROME BY POPE PAUL VCANONIZED : MARCH 12, 1622, ROME BY POPE GREGORY XVMAJOR SHRINE : CONVENT OF THE ANNUNCIATION, ALBA DE TORMES, SPAINFEAST : OCTOBER 15ATTRIBUTES : HABIT OF THE DISCALCED CARMELITES, BOOK AND QUILL, ARROW-PIERCED HEARTPATRONAGE : BODILY ILLS; HEADACHES; CHESS; LACEMAKERS; LACEWORKERS;LOSS OF PARENTS; PEOPLE IN NEED OF GRACE; PEOPLE IN RELIGIOUS ORDERS;PEOPLE RIDICULED FOR THEIR PIETY; POZEGA, CROATIA; SICK PEOPLE;SICKNESS; SPAIN
ACTIVITIES AS REFORMERAFTER SEVERAL YEARS HER PLEADINGS BY LETTER WITH KING PHILIP IIOF SPAIN SECURED RELIEF. AS A RESULT, IN 1579, THE PROCESSES BEFORE THEINQUISITION AGAINST HER, GRACIAN, AND OTHERS WERE DROPPED, WHICHALLOWED THE REFORM TO CONTINUE.(3 YRS OF HER LIFE), TERESA FOUNDED CONVENTS AT VILLANUEVA DELA JARA IN NORTHERN ANDALUSIA (1580), PALENCIA (1580), SORIA(1581), BURGOS, AND GRANADA (1582). IN TOTAL SEVENTEEN CONVENTS, ALLBUT ONE FOUNDED BY HER, AND AS MANY MENS CLOISTERS WERE DUE TO HERREFORM ACTIVITY OF TWENTY YEARS.SHE WROTE THE "AUTOBIOGRAPHY", "EL CAMINO DE PERFECCIÓN ", ―ELCASTILLO INTERIOR","RELACIONES", ―CONCEPTOS DEL AMOR" ("CONCEPTS OF LOVE") AND"EXCLAMACIONES"THE KERNEL OF TERESAS MYSTICAL THOUGHT THROUGHOUT ALL HER WRITINGSIS THE ASCENT OF THE SOUL IN FOUR STAGES: MENTAL PRAYER, PRAYER OFQUIET, DEVOTION OF UNION , DEVOTION OF ECSTASY OR RAPTURE.
DON QUIXOTE DE LA MANCHAFully entitled as The IngeniousGentleman Don Quixote of LaManchaOriginally titled as El Ingeniosohidalgo don Quijote de la ManchaA novel written by Miguel deCervantes Saavedra (1547-1616)
Part I published in 1605Part II published in 1615Translated to English in 1885by John Ormsby (1829-1895)Illustrated by Gustave Dore(1832-1883)
It isnt just a story about a lunaticwho thinks a windmill is a giant.Socialproblems, history, mores, andpolitics are interwoven into thestory. It is a perfect time capsuleof a period of time in Spainshistory.
Theme of the idealistic, insaneknight and the devoted, down toearth squire to portray manycomplex themes through aplethora of unforgettableincidents, tragic and comic, in ablend of great variety and colour.
Cited as the first classic model ofthe modern romance or novel, andit has served as the prototype of thecomic novel.Considered the most influentialwork of literature from the SpanishGolden Age and the entire Spanishliterary canon.
In a 2002 list of the bestbooks of all time, DonQuixote was cited as the"best literary work everwritten".
Setting:On the plains of LaMancha, specificallythe comarca of Campo deMontiel.
CHARACTERS: Alonso Quijano – a fifty yearold gentleman who goes insaneand decides to become a knight.Sancho Panza– Don Quixote’sneighbour and squire.Rocinante – Don Quixote’s horse
CHARACTERS: Dulcinea del Toboso – the new nameQuixote gives to a woman he onceloved named Aldonza Lorenzo, whomhe makes his lady love at the beginningof his journey
THE FIRST SALLY Alonso Quijano, the protagonist of thenovel, is a retired country gentleman nearingfifty years of age, living in an unnamedsection of La Mancha with his niece andhousekeeper. While mostly a rational man ofsound reason, his reading of books ofchivalry in excess has had a profound effecton him, leading to the distortion of hisperception and the wavering of his mentalfaculties. In essence, he believes every wordof these books of chivalry to be truethough, for the most part, the content of
books is clearly fiction. Otherwise, his witsare intact. He decides to go out as a knight-errant in search of adventure. He dons an oldsuit of armour, renames himself "DonQuixote de la Mancha," and names hisskinny horse "Rocinante". He designates aneighboring farm girl as his ladylove, renaming her Dulcinea delToboso, while she knows nothing about this.
He sets out in the early morning and ends up at aninn, which he believes to be a castle. He asks theinnkeeper, whom he thinks to be the lord of the castle, todub him a knight. He spends the night holding vigil over hisarmor, where he becomes involved in a fightwith muleteers who try to remove his armor from the horsetrough so that they can water their mules. The innkeeperthen dubs him a knight to be rid of him, and sends him onhis way. Don Quixote next "frees" a young boy who is tied toa tree and beaten by his master by making his master swearon the chivalric code to treat the boy fairly. The boysbeating is continued as soon as Quixote leaves. DonQuixote has a run-in with traders from Toledo, who "insult"the imaginary Dulcinea, one of whom severely beats DonQuixote and leaves him on the side of the road. DonQuixote is found and returned to his home by a neighboringpeasant.
THE SECOND SALLY While Don Quixote is unconscious in his bed, hisniece, the housekeeper, the parish curate, and thelocal barber secretly burn most of the books ofchivalry, and seal up his library pretending that amagician has carried it off. After a short period offeigning health, Don Quixote approaches hisneighbor, Sancho Panza, and asks him to be hissquire, promising him governorship of an island. Theuneducated Sancho agrees, and the pair sneak off inthe early dawn. It is here that their series of famousadventures begin, starting with Don Quixotes attackon windmills that he believes to be ferocious giants.The two next encounter a group of friarsaccompanying a lady in a carriage.
. They are heavily cloaked, as is the lady, toprotect themselves from the hot climate anddust on the road. Don Quixote takes the friars tobe enchanters who hold the lady captive. Heknocks a friar from his horse, and is immediatelychallenged by an armed Basque traveling withthe company. As he has no shield, the Basqueuses a pillow to protect himself, which saveshim when Don Quixote strikes him. The combatends with the lady leaving her carriage anddemanding those traveling with her to"surrender" to Don Quixote.
Sancho and Don Quixote go on, and fall in with agroup of goatherds. Don Quixote tells Sancho andthe goatherds about the "Golden Age" ofman, reminiscent of both Ovidand thelater Rousseau in which property does not exist, andmen live in peace. The goatherds invite the Knightand Sancho to the funeral of Grisóstomo, once astudent who left his studies to become a shepherdafter reading Pastoral novels, seeking theshepherdess Marcela. At the funeral Marcelaappears, delivering a long speech vindicating herselffrom the bitter verses written about her byGrisóstomo, claiming her own autonomy and freedomfrom expectations put on her by Pastoral clichés.
She disappears into the woods, and DonQuixote and Sancho follow. Ultimately givingup, the two stop and dismount by a pond torest. Some Galicians arrive to water theirponies, and Rocinante (Don Quixotes horse)attempts to mate with the ponies. TheGalicians hit Rocinante with clubs todissuade him, which Don Quixote takes as athreat and runs to defend Rocinante. TheGalicians beat Don Quixote and Sancholeaving them in great pain.
After Don Quixote frees a group of galleyslaves, The Knight and Sancho wander intothe Sierra Morena, and there encounter thedejected Cardenio. Cardenio relates the first part ofhis story, in which he falls deeply in love with hischildhood friend Luscinda, and is hired as thecompanion to the Dukes son, leading to hisfriendship with the Dukes younger son, DonFernando. Cardenio confides in Don Fernando hislove for Luscinda and the delays in theirengagement, caused by Cardenios desire to keepwith tradition. After reading Cardenios poemspraising Luscinda, Don Fernando falls in love withher. Don Quixote interrupts when Cardeniosuggests that his beloved may have become
In the course of their travels, the protagonists meetinnkeepers, prostitutes, goatherds, soldiers, priests,escaped convicts, and scorned lovers. Theseencounters are magnified by Don Quixote’simagination into chivalrous quests. Don Quixote’stendency to intervene violently in matters which donot concern him, and his habit of not paying hisdebts, result in many privations, injuries, andhumiliations (with Sancho often getting the worst ofit). Finally, Don Quixote is persuaded to return tohis home village. The author hints that there was athird quest, but says that records of it have beenlost.
THE THIRD SALLY Although the two parts are now published asa single work, Don Quixote, Part Two was asequel published ten years after the originalnovel. While Part One wasmostly farcical, the second half is moreserious and philosophical about the theme ofdeception.
As Part Two begins, it is assumed that theliterate classes of Spain have all read the firstpart of the history of Don Quixote and hissquire. Cervantess meta-fictional device was tomake even the characters in the story familiarwith the publication of Part One, as well as withan actually published fraudulent Part Two. Whenstrangers encounter the duo in person, theyalready know their famous history. A Duke andDuchess, and others, deceive Don Quixote forentertainment, setting forth a string of imaginedadventures resulting in a series of practicaljokes. Some of them are quite sadistic, and theyput Don Quixotes sense of chivalry and hisdevotion to Dulcinea through many tests.
Even Sancho deceives him at one point. Pressuredinto finding Dulcinea, Sancho brings back three dirtyand ragged peasant girls, and tells Don Quixote thatthey are Dulcinea and her ladies-in-waiting. WhenDon Quixote only sees the peasant girls, Sanchopretends that their derelict appearance results froman enchantment. Sancho later gets his comeuppancefor this when, as part of one of the duke andduchesss pranks, the two are led to believe that theonly method to release Dulcinea from her spell is forSancho to give himself a surplus of three thousandlashes. Sancho naturally resists this course of action,leading to friction with his master. Under the dukespatronage, Sancho eventually gets a governorship,though it is false, and proves to be a wise andpractical ruler; though this ends in humiliation as well.
Near the end, Don Quixote reluctantly swaystowards sanity: an inn is just an inn, not acastle. The lengthy untold "history" of Don Quixotesadventures in knight-errantry comes to a closeafter his battle with the Knight of the WhiteMoon, in which we the readers find himconquered. Bound by the rules of chivalry, DonQuixote submits to prearranged terms that thevanquished is to obey the will of theconqueror, which in this case, is that DonQuixote is to lay down his arms and cease hisacts of chivalry for the period of one year (aduration in which he may be cured of hismadness). Defeated and dejected, he and
Part Two of Don Quixote is oftenregarded as the birth of modernliterature, as it explores the conceptof a character understanding thathe is being written about. This is atheme much explored in writings ofthe 20th Century.
Upon returning to his village, Don Quixote announceshis plan to retire to the countryside and live thepastoral existence of shepherd, although hishousekeeper, who has a more realistic view of thehard life of a shepherd, urges him to stay home andtend to his own affairs. Soon after, he retires to hisbed with a deathly illness, possibly brought on bymelancholy over his defeats and humiliations. Oneday, he awakes from a dream having fully recoveredhis sanity. Sancho tries to restore his faith, but AlonsoQuixano, for that is his true name, can only renouncehis previous existence and apologize for the harm hehas caused. He dictates his will, which includes aprovision that his niece will be disinherited if shemarries a man who reads books of chivalry. AfterAlonso Quixano dies, the author emphasizes thatthere are no more adventures to relate, and that anyfurther books about Don Quixote would be spurious.
LOPE DE VEGA Full name: Félix Arturo Lope de Vega yCarpio (1562 –1635) A Spanish playwright and poet One of the greatest Spanish poets of his time Nicknamed as "The Phoenix of Wits" and "Monster ofNature" (because of the sheer volume of his work)by Miguel de Cervantes At least 80 of his plays are considered masterpieces At the age of five he was already reading Spanishand Latin, by his tenth birthday he was translatingLatin verse, and he wrote his first play when he was12.
EXILE He went into exile undaunted, in thecompany of the 16-year-old Isabel deUrbina, the daughter of a prominent advisorat the court of Philip II, whom he wassubsequently forced to marry. A few weeksafter their marriage, however, Lope signedup for another tour of duty with the Spanishnavy: this was the summer of 1588, andthe Armada was about to sailagainst England.
Lopes luck again served him well, and hisship, the San Juan, was one of the few vesselsto make it home to Spanish harbors in theaftermath of that failed expedition. Back inSpain, he settled in the city of Valencia to liveout the remainder of exile and torecommence, as prolifically as ever, his careeras a dramatist. In 1590 he was appointed to serve as thesecretary to the Duke of Alba, which requiredhim to relocate to Toledo.
RETURN In 1595, following Isabels death in childbirth, heleft the Dukes service and – eight years havingpassed – returned to Madrid. There were otherlove affairs and other scandals: Antonia Trillo deArmenta, who earned him another lawsuit, andMicaela de Luján, an illiterate but beautifulactress, who inspired a rich seriesof sonnets and rewarded him with four children.In 1598 he married Juana de Guardo, thedaughter of a wealthy butcher. Nevertheless, histrysts with others – including Micaela –continued.
The 17th century were the years when Lopesliterary output reached its peak. He was alsoemployed as a secretary, but not without variousadditional duties, by the Duke of Sessa. Oncethat decade was over, however, his personalsituation took a turn for the worse. His favoriteson, Carlos Félix (by Juana), died and, in 1612,Juana herself died in childbirth. Micaela alsodisappears from the history around this point.Deeply affected, Lope gathered his survivingchildren from both unions together under oneroof.
His writing in the early 1610s also assumedheavier religious influences and, in 1614, hejoined the priesthood. The taking of holyorders did not, however, impede his romanticdalliances, although it is somewhat unclear whatrole his employeer the duke, fearful of losing hissecretary, played in this by supplying him withvarious female companions. The most notableand lasting of his relationships during this timewas with Marta de Nevares, who would remainwith him until her death in 1632.
Further tragedies followed in 1635 with theloss of Lope, his son by Micaela and aworthy poet in his own right, in a shipwreckoff the coast of Venezuela, and the abductionand subsequent abandonment of his belovedyoungest daughter Antonia. Lope de Vegatook to his bed and died of Scarlet fever, inMadrid, on 27 August of that year.
WORKS Lopes nondramatic works begin with those publishedin Spain under the title Obras Sueltas (Madrid, 21vols., 1776–79). The more important elements of thiscollection include the following: La Arcadia (1598), a pastoral romance; La Dragontea (1598), a fantastic history in verse ofSir Francis Drakes last expedition and death; El Isidro (1599), a narrative of the life of SaintIsidore, patron saint of Madrid, composed inoctosyllabic quintillas; La Hermosura de Angélica (1602), in three books, isa quasi sequel to Ariostos Orlando Furioso.
PLAYS Listed here are some of the better-known of Lopes plays: El maestro de danzar (1594) (The Dancing Master) El acero de Madrid (The Steel of Madrid) El perro del Hortelano (The Gardeners Dog, a variationof The Dog in the Manger fable) La viuda valenciana (The Widow from Valencia) Peribáñez y el comendador de Ocaña Fuenteovejuna El anzuelo de Fenisa (Fenisas Hook) El cordobés valeroso Pedro Carbonero El mejor alcalde, el Rey (The Best Mayor, The King) El Nuevo Mundo descubierto por Cristóbal Colón (The NewWorld Discovered by Christopher Columbus)
El caballero de Olmedo (The Knight of Olmedo) La dama boba (The Stupid Lady; The Lady-Fool) El amor enamorado El castigo sin venganza (Justice Without Revenge) Las bizarrías de Belisa El mayordomo de la duquesa de Amalfi (TheDuchess of Amalfis Steward) Lo Fingido Verdadero (What you Pretend HasBecome Real) El niño inocente de La Guardia (The Innocent Childof La Guardia)
OPERA La selva sin amor (18 December 1627) (TheLovelorn Forest), firstSpanish operetta / zarzuela
POEMS La Dragontea (1598) ("Drake the Pirate") El Isidro (1599) ("Isidro") La hermosura de Angélica (1602) ("The Beautyof Angelica") Rimas (1602) ("Rhymes") Arte nuevo de hacer comedias (1609) Jerusalén conquistada (1609) Rimas sacras (1614) La Filomena (1621)
La Circe (1624) El laurel de Apolo (1630) La Gatomaquia (1634) Rimas humanas y divinas del licenciadoTomé de Burguillos (1634)
PROSE FICTION Arcadia (published 1598) (TheArcadia), pastoral romance inprose, interspersed with verse El peregrino en su patria (published 1604)(The Pilgrim in his Own Country), adaption ofByzantine novels La Dorotea (published 1632)
PEDRO CALDERÓN DE LA BARCA Full name: Pedro Calderón de la Barca yBarreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco yRiaño A dramatist, poet and writer ofthe Spanish Golden Age. Regarded as one of Spains foremost dramatistsand one of the finest playwrights of worldliterature. Recognized as the foremost Spanish dramatistof the age after Lope de Vega’s death A perfectionist who often revisited and reworkedhis plays, even long after they debuted.
Calderón wrote 120 "comedias", 80 "autossacramentales" and 20 short comedic works called"entremeses". Some of the most common themes of his plays wereheavily influenced by his Jesuit education. His themes tended to be complex andphilosophical, and express complicated states ofmind in a manner such as few playwrights havebeen able to do. his plays usually show his vital pessimism, that isonly softened by his rationalism and his faith in God;the anguish and distress usually found his oeuvre isbetter exemplified in one of his most famousplays, Life is a Dream
SELECTED PLAYS Amor, honor y poder (Love, Honor and Power) (1623) El sitio de Breda (The Siege of Breda) (1625) La dama duende (The Phantom Lady) (1629) Casa con dos puertas (The House with Two Doors)(1629) La vida es sueño (Life is a Dream) (1629–1635) El mayor encanto, amor (Love, the GreatestEnchantment) (1635) Los tres mayores prodigios (The Three GreatestWonders) (1636) La devoción de la Cruz (Devotion to the Cross) (1637) El mágico prodigioso (The Mighty Magician) (1637)
El médico de su honra (The Surgeon of hisHonor) (1637) El pintor de su deshonra (The Painter of HisDishonor) (1640s) El alcalde de Zalamea (The Mayor of Zalamea)(1651) Eco y Narciso (Eco and Narcissus) (1661) La estatua de Prometeo (Prometheus Statue) El prodigio de Alemania (The Prodigy ofGermany) (in collaboration with Antonio Coello)
AUTOS SACRAMENTALES (SACRAMENTALPLAYS)La cena del rey Baltazar (TheBanquet of King Balthazar)El Gran Teatro del mundo (The GreatTheater of the World)El Gran Mercado del mundo (TheWorld is a Fair)