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  1. 1. Syafiq Aliff Azizi Helmi Fadhil
  2. 2.  They’re individuals who require special education & related services if they are realize their full human potential.  They may have problems in thinking, seeing, hearing, speaking, socializing, or moving.  Mental Retardation  Learning Disabilities  Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  Emotional or Behavior Disorders  Communication Disorders  Deaf and Hard of Hearing  Blindness or Hard of Hearing  Blindness or Low Vision  Autism Spectrum Disorders What is the Exceptional Learner?
  3. 3. What Is Special Education? “Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability.” -Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) What Is Inclusion? Commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend.
  4. 4. Adapting for Students with Special Needs • Size • Time • Level of support • Input • Difficulty • Output • Participation • Alternate options • Substitute curriculum
  5. 5. Characteristics of Science Barriers  Memory recall  Visual processing  Auditory processing  Motor skills  Organizational Deficits  Attention Deficits  Generalization  Negative Attitudes  Social skills  Language Disorders (Steele, 2004)
  6. 6. 1. Reading text or graphics 2. Seeing materials on blackboard or overhead 3. Reading output from equipment 4. Hearing multimedia and videotaped presentations 1. Materials in large text or Braille, on tape or via computer and enlarge illustrations 2. Provide binoculars, verbalize content 3. Interface lab equipment with computer and provide large print and speech output 4. Provide printed materials, have an interpreter present, face student for lip reading Science Intervention Difficulty Accommodation (Burgstahler 2003)
  7. 7. 5. Participating in class discussions due to hearing or speech impairment 6 Understanding concepts due to a specific learning disability 7. Reading because of specific learning disability 8. Taking notes in class because of mobility or visual impairment 5. Portable computer with speech output 6. Use visual, aural and tactile demonstrations incorporated into instruction 7. Give extra time and access to materials via computer equipped with speech and large print output 8. Provide in-class access to a computer with adaptive technology AccommodationDifficulty Science Intervention (Burgstahler 2003)
  8. 8. 9. Operating lab equipment and conducting lab experiments due to mobility impairment 10. Completing an assignment or lab because of a health impairment 11. Doing research 9. Have an accessible facility, adjustable-height tables, model lab partner, modified scientific equipment 10. Allow flexibility in schedule arrangements 11. Have information accessible on computer with adaptive technology Difficulty Accommodation Science Intervention (Burgstahler 2003)
  9. 9. Example of Science Strategies
  10. 10. Accommodations in Delivery of Instruction  Discussion & instruction  Materials presented in a variety of ways  Projects & themes  Breakdown the lesson  Limit the amount of knowledge to be mastered  Incorporating movement  Use technology  Assessments
  11. 11. Modifying the Classroom  Desk location  Limit the amount of visual stimuli to prevent distraction  Use a token economy system Use an organizational check list system Use mailbox bins (Carbone 2001)
  12. 12. Classroom Model for Structural Intervention Blackboard (removed of potential distracters) Teacher’s Desk Child w/ ADHD Child w/ ADHD Reduced Stimuli Area Serves as an isolation area. Help Seat Peer Model Peer Model Peer Model Peer Model Bookcase Bookcase Classroom mailboxes & Supplies Peer Model Peer Model door X X X X X X X X X X X Pencil sharpener window Free seat (Carbone 2001)