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Students with Language Disorders

Katie, Simona, Kara, Sheree and John

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  • These have a MAJOR impact on a childs reading and writing skills – their development in literacy. expressive language disorder can present in two forms, delayed or disordered language. Delayed – is when a child is slow to develop language but the usual sequence, or pattern of development, is normal. Disordered – is when language is slow to develop and the sequence of development and pattern of grammatical errors is different to that normally expected.
  • All sympotoms vary, problems with language comprehension usually begin before the age of four years.
  • Seminar Presentation

    1. 1. Students with Language Disorders Katie, Simona, Kara, Sheree and John
    2. 2. What is a Language Disorder? <ul><li>A language disorder is a communication disorder characterised by an impaired ability to understand and/or use words in their proper context, whether verbal or nonverbal. (Kristine Krapp. Gale Cengage, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>One in seven children suffer with a communication disorder, which form part of the regular classroom population. (Harasrty and Reed 1994 –chap 9) </li></ul><ul><li>Language disorders belong to a broad category of disorders. A student may suffer with the disability solely or it may accompany other disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental – </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired - </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety, dyslexia, dyspraxia, hearing loss, visual impairment, cultural influence, physical impairment,down syndrome, cerebral palsy, stroke, tumor, autism, aspergers, ADHD. </li></ul>
    3. 3. In your classroom: <ul><li>Board Of Studies: Mathematics k-6 Support document: Case study four: </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew has limited expressive language and speaks in four- to five-word utterances . He can effectively express his needs and wants, but experiences difficulties with descriptive language and making requests using appropriate language. </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew has difficulty taking turns in group situations . He enjoys playing handball and soccer with his peers . </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew can read simple stories accurately, with little comprehension. He writes using large script and has underdeveloped spacing skills. He is beginning to use a computer for games, reading activities and story writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew experiences difficulty making connections between previous and new learning . He does not use new strategies unless prompted and guided, preferring to use strategies that he has relied on from early learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew relies on prompting from the teacher or his peers to start work and to remain on task. He relies on assistance from the teacher and his peers to undertake tasks, though he can complete them independently. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher simplifies instructions for Andrew to assist his understanding . If asked if he understands instructions or new learning, Andrew always indicates ‘yes’. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher receives additional support for Andrew in the classroom </li></ul>
    4. 4. Expressive Language Disorder <ul><li>They way a student expresses themselves. It involves their speaking skills – the way they produce words and sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Features MAY include: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of word/sentence endings </li></ul><ul><li>Limited vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct pattern of topic change </li></ul><ul><li>Making grammatical mistakes, leaving off words (such as helper verbs) and using poor sentence structure </li></ul><ul><li>Poor sentence structure </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to start or hold a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to ‘come to the point’ or talking in circles </li></ul><ul><li>Have difficulties recalling or retelling information. </li></ul><ul><li> Expressive Language Disorder - Sariah age 10 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Receptive Language Disorder: <ul><li>A difficulty of understanding language in the context of meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>In most cases a child with receptive language also has an expressive language disorder as you need to understand language before one can use it effectively. (Better Health 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Receptive language disorder can be understood by the “tip of the tongue” example. </li></ul><ul><li>Features MAY include: </li></ul><ul><li>Over use words such as thing, there, that, you, know. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses too many words when only a few are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Word searching behaviors are made obvious </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration/anxiety when attempting to communicate </li></ul><ul><li> Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Delay </li></ul>
    6. 6. Misconceptions <ul><li>There is one particular strategy to assist students with language disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>If a student has a language disorder they must have a intellectual disability. </li></ul><ul><li>If the students doesn’t have visible signs of a disability, there is nothing is wrong with them. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher knows what is best for the student. </li></ul><ul><li>The student must be unmotivated . </li></ul><ul><li>The student must have a behavioural problem. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Prevention <ul><li>The Disability standards for Education 2005- </li></ul><ul><li>It recognises and supports language disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Vital document that aims at elevating the above misconceptions regarding not only language disorder but all disabilities whilst also outlining the rights, of students with disabilities in relation to education and training. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows educators to understand their responsibilities to the students; covering the following five areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enrolment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>participation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curriculum development, accreditation and delivery; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>student support services; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elimination of harassment and victimisation. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Educational Implications <ul><li>Communication disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its essential to find appropriate timely intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speech language pathologist or audiologist </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text-based communication devices (TTY devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helpful educational implications </li></ul>
    10. 10. Linking To The Disability Discrimination Act (1992) <ul><li>It is unlawful for an educational authority to discriminate against a person on the ground of the person's disability </li></ul><ul><li>These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refusing or failing to accept the person's application for admission as a student </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>in the terms or conditions on which it is prepared to admit the person as a student. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>denying the student access, or limiting the student's access, to any benefit provided by the educational authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expelling the student </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><ul><li>by subjecting the student to any other detriment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curricula or training courses having a content that will either exclude the person from participation, or subject the person to any other detriment </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Students Needs and Strategies <ul><li>To re-iterate, there are two different types of language disorder: </li></ul><ul><li>Receptive: Difficulty with listening to and understanding language, and </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive: Difficulty with speaking or speech (the way they produce words and sounds) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Students Needs and Strategies <ul><li>Being able to communicate is vital for all human beings. Students with a language disorder (LD) need to be actively included in the classroom as they can be negatively affected by their disorder, leading to various learning difficulties especially in the areas of reading and writing. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Students Needs and Strategies <ul><li>To effectively make adjustments for students needs, the teacher first needs to identify what type of communication disorder the student has. From here the curriculum, and classroom management strategies can be adjusted accordingly to meet the students’ specific needs. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Need: Extra time to answer questions <ul><li>Strategy: Before students are to answer the questions, the teacher needs to tell them to have a minute to think about their answer and that they must put their hand up before they speak. This allows the LD child time to think and choose the words they want. It is then important for the teacher to choose the LD child to show that their answer is valid and appreciated. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Need: Explicit instruction <ul><li>Strategy: Teacher should use shorter sentences when giving instructions and directions. Also, using simpler words to increase understandability, as most LD children don’t have a complex vocabulary. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Need: Relaxed and organised classroom environment <ul><li>Strategy: Ensure the classroom is relaxed and organised so that LD children do not become frustrated and overwhelmed by the environment. A set routine provides smooth transitions throughout the day. Having their work books and belongings organised and easily accessible also contributes to a relaxed environment, which leads to better, more effective communication. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Need: A variety of tools provided to assist the child’s communication <ul><li>Strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide them with visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a set of word cards for common words that they can copy or refer to </li></ul><ul><li>Allow them to draw pictures to express their thoughts and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Allow them to use physical movements to express themselves </li></ul>
    20. 20. Need: More one on one time <ul><li>Strategy: To develop their language skills, ensure there are opportunities to spend one on one time with the child to assist them in expanding their language skills. This needs to be done in a relaxed manner, where the child does not feel pressured. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Need: Peer assistance <ul><li>Strategy: Group children with language disorders with others in the class so that they can receive support and guidance when needed. Also, they can pick up on others language skills and learn from the interactions. </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Strategy: This is where the teacher uses actions, phrases or visual stimuli to help the child remember. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: For b and d, i.e. b e d </li></ul><ul><li>bed </li></ul>Need: Mnemonic devices
    23. 23. Need: Visual aids and prompts <ul><li>Strategy: Have a photo of each work book the children use and stick it up on the board when giving instructions, providing visual support to the verbal instructions. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Need: Set routines <ul><li>Strategy: Provide the child with a visual representation of the routine for the day. Mayer-Johnson Picture Communi-cation Symbols (PCS), which consist of representative symbols underneath a one or two word label, are widely used for pictorial routines. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Need: Help with initiating and participating in conversation <ul><li>Strategy: Provide the children with opportunities to socially engage in conversation by forming smaller groups during certain group time activities. This will allow them to feel more comfortable and allow them to gain confidence to participate in conversations. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Need: Shorter activities <ul><li>Strategy: This will benefit LD children as they will stay focused on the task and will be able to finish the activity. Create the activity to cater for the child with the disorder and then provide extension tasks for those who are more able. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Need: To feel supported and included, and feel safe from teasing and bullying <ul><li>Strategy: To prevent bullying it is important to teach the children to accept everybody’s differences. This can be done by talking about different disorders, reading books, and the teacher acting as a role model for student behaviour. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Activity <ul><li>In pairs read your strategy card </li></ul><ul><li>Write a classroom scenario in which this strategy could be used (3 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>Write an explanation of your scenario that shows how you catered for the language disorder child (3 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Share as a whole group (2 minutes) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Example <ul><li>Strategy: The teacher uses shorter sentences when giving instructions/directions. They also use simpler words that the LD children can understand, as they don’t generally have a complex vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario: Alfred, a year 2 students has a receptive language disorder. The children have just come in from lunch and are sitting down waiting for instructions for what they are going to do next. To cater for Alfred the classroom teacher explains the next task in these words: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Now we will be creating art. Go to your tubs and get your art book. Then come back to the floor.” </li></ul><ul><li> The teacher will give these instructions to the class step by step. Once the children return to the floor the teacher will continue with further instructions… </li></ul>
    30. 30. Example <ul><li>Explanation: Here, the teacher is using short sentences and providing precise instructions for the children. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is also breaking the instructions down into segments, allowing children to complete the first set of instructions before moving onto the next. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Curriculum support for students with special needs <ul><li>With the exception of Science and Technology and Creative Arts, all NSW syllabuses are accompanied by a support document for students with special needs. The Creative Arts syllabus does, however, provide for adjustment according to the resources available to the school, its policies and priorities, and to the needs of its students. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Links to KLA Support Documents English Maths HSIE PDHPE Creative Arts
    33. 33. Example Adjustments to Curriculum and Assessment <ul><li>The Literacy support document for the English syllabus outlines steps which teachers should go through to deter-mine the special needs of their students and provides specific information to help choose programme content in line with the content strands outlined in the syllabus (i.e. Reading, Writing, and Talking and Listening) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Adjustments to Curriculum and Assessment <ul><li>A Communication support document also accompanies the English syllabus. The content has been organised into outcomes focussing on four key areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requesting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejecting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing information & making comment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in social routines and interactions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Planning Adjustment to Curriculum and Assessment <ul><li>Chapter four of ‘Inclusion in Action’ addresses the planning process to adapt the curriculum, teaching and learning strategies. As a catalyst for planning to adapt, it is best to start by defining the content you wish to teach as either Must know, Should know and Could know. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Planning Pyramid/Target <ul><li>Pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Could </li></ul><ul><li>Should </li></ul><ul><li>Must </li></ul><ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><li>Could </li></ul><ul><li>Should </li></ul><ul><li>Must </li></ul>The definition process is best illus-trated by the concept of a target.
    37. 37. References <ul><li>&quot;Language Disorders.&quot; Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health . Ed. Kristine Krapp. Gale Cengage, 2002. . 2006. 17 Oct, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>< language-disorders> </li></ul><ul><li>Disability standards </li></ul><ul><li> Special Education. (2009). Speech and or Language Disorder. Retrieved October 16th, 2009, from </li></ul>
    38. 38. References <ul><li>Bridges4Kids. (2009). Education and Classroom Accommodations. Retrieved October 16th, 2009, from </li></ul><ul><li>Commonwealth Consolidated Acts. (1992). Disability Discrimination Act 1992 - Sect 22: Education. Retrieved October 16th, 2009, from </li></ul><ul><li>KSDE. (n.d.). Speech/Language Impairment. Retrieved October 16th, from 25&forcedownload=true </li></ul><ul><li>National Information Centre for Children and Youth with Disabilities. (2002). Speech and Language Disorders. Retrieved October 16th, 2009, from </li></ul>