The first time you see a child having an asthma attack, it can be very frightening as you watch the child struggle to breathe. Deaths from Asthma among children are rare. Less than 200 children per year die from asthma - but, it is a possibility. Asthma deaths in adults are more commong - about 4,000 adult Americans die from asthma each year.
There are many other types of seizures - a person may fall to the ground as if having fainted. He or she may repeatedly do some action, such as pulling at his shirt. All seizures involved a temporary loss of control over one’s muscles or attention.
Low incidence disabilities
Based on: Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction,by Rosenberg, Westling, and McLeskey (second edition)
What are the definitions of various types of low- incidence disabilities? What are some of the characteristics of children with these kinds of disabilities? What service delivery options are typical for children with low-incidence disabilities? What accommodations or teaching strategies are helpful for students with various types of low-incidence disabilities?
Less than 1% of the school-aged population: Deaf / Hearing Impaired Blind/Low Vision Deaf-Blind Complex Health Issues Severe Physical and Multiple DisabilitiesAll students with low-incidence disabilities experience one commonality: they are difficult to serve because most schools have little knowledge of how to best educate them, of what technologies are available to assist them, and of how to obtain appropriate support services from outside agencies.
Hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, adversely affects a child’s educational performance, but is not included under the definition of deafness. Deafness is hearing impairment so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, and that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Hearing loss ranges from mild to severe can be described by degree, type, and configuration. Rate of literacy development slowed (by 1/3) due to delays in language development. Often graduate with 4th grade reading level. Lack opportunity to develop social skills from incidental learning. Need explicit teaching. Many deaf individuals choose membership in the deaf community and culture.
Early intervention School placement 42% spend most of the day in general ed. class 31% educated in resource class 15% educated in residential school Regular ed. teacher collaborates with teacher of students who are deaf or hearing impaired.
Oral/aural - Use residual hearing to learn and communicate with people verbally. Speech reading - Perceive speech by watching mouth movements, body language, and context cues. Cued speech - Use 8 hand shapes in 4 different placements along with mouth movements to differentiate sounds of spoken language. Manual - Use sign language (ASL). An interpreter may assist in communicating with non-ASL speakers. Total communication - Use a combination of sign language and verbal communication.
Hearing aid Cochlear Implant FM system Sound field system Text telephones (TTY) Closed TV captioning Alerting devices Cochlear Implant Listening Demos
Face the student when speaking Get the student’s attention before speaking Assess student’s background knowledge Check for understanding Use visual aids and experiential learning Provide preferential seating Reduce background noise
Vision impairment including blindness means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes partial sight and blindness. Legally blind: 20/200 with correction in best eye or visual field of 20 degrees or less.
Things appear washed out, like looking at a faded photograph. Trouble differentiating lightness and darkness or things that are almost the same color.
Limited ability to access information Limited range of experiences Limited orientation and mobility Limited interactions with the environment Delayed language development Slightly different motor development sequence Social isolation and/or delayed development of social skills
Early intervention School placement 87% spend at least part of the day in general ed. 13% educated in separate facilities Resource classroom and residential setting not common. Regular ed. teacher collaborates with teacher of students who are blind or visually impaired. Annas World
Tactile aids and manipulatives Enlarged print Low glare materials Back lighting Magnification devices Braille Optical character recognition Screen reading software Descriptive video service
Provide opportunities for tactile exploration Use concrete objects and manipulatives Give verbal descriptions of visual information Adjust lighting, colors, etc. as needed to increase visibility of materials Provide preferred seating Adapt environment for mobility and specialized equipment
Concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness. Many have some functional use of hearing and/or vision. They may be able to: Move around independently Read enlarged print Recognize familiar faces/voices See sign language at close distances Understand and develop some speech
About 63% have other disabilities Cognitive disabilities are common Slow pace of learning Enjoy movement Methodical Need for sameness Problems with: Isolation Communication Mobility
Early intervention Services similar to those for students with severe intellectual and multiple disabilities. 15% educated in regular class or resources room 39% educated in separate special ed. classroom 46% educated in separate day or residential school, hospital, home or other setting. In Texas, each service center has a deaf-blind specialist. Multidisciplinary team approach
Visual or tactile sign language Voice and sign Voice only (with amplification) Tactile symbols Communication devices
Multi-sensory teaching Link movement to language Coactive movement Physical guidance Brailling
Injury to the brain caused by external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas: cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem-solving, sensory, perceptual, and motor disabilities; psychosocial behavior, physical functions, information processing and speech. Does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital, degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.
Characteristics depend upon the severity andlocation of the injury, as well as the age and generalhealth of the individual. TBI can cause changes in: thinking and reasoning understanding words remembering things paying attention solving problems talking behaving physical activities seeing and/or hearing learning
Multiple disabilities are concomitant impairments (e.g., mental retardation/blindness, mental retardation- orthopedic impairment), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. Also defined by TASH in terms of necessary support: “individuals who require extensive ongoing support in more than one major life activity… such as mobility, communication, self-care, and learning...” Usually have severe intellectual disability as well as at least one other disability. Intellect may be higher than estimated, as determining intelligence may be difficult.
Require a long time to learn Have difficulty with: Learning complex skills Generalizing and discrimination Observational/incidental learning Attention Memory Skill synthesis Self-regulation Communication Inappropriate behaviors Medical problems
Early intervention, with family support Served primarily in separate special ed. classes, either in general ed. or separate schools. Emphasis on a functional curriculum, developing skills for independence and community participation Only 12% spend most of their time in general ed. Inclusion requires collaboration between regular and special ed teachers, and usually paraprofessional help. Reverse mainstreaming may be used to promote social interaction with non-disabled peers.
Adaptive behavior scales, ecological inventories, and curriculum guides used to determine what to teach. Teach skills as integrated clusters within functional routines and contexts. Partial participation when learning a complete skill independently is not possible. Systematic instruction (time delay, system of least prompts) and data collection.
A severe orthopedic impairment thatadversely affects educationalperformance. Includes impairmentscaused by congenital anomalies (e.g.,club foot, absence of some member),impairments caused by disease (e.g.,polio, bone TB), and impairmentsfrom other causes (cerebral palsy,amputations, fractures or burns thatcause contractures).
Neurological disorder caused by brain damage before, during or after birth that affects movement and posture. Non-progressive (brain damage does not worsen) May be hypertonic (tense), hypotonic (floppy), athetoid (involuntary movement), ataxic (lack of balance and coordination) or mixed. Affects different parts of the body (hemiplegic, diplegic, quadriplegic) Can be mild, moderate, or severe May have other disabilities; 50-60% have intellectual disabilities
Inherited muscle disorder in which muscle tissue degenerates over time. 9 different types, vary by age of onset, muscles affected, rate of degeneration, life expectancy, etc. Duchenne is most common type (and is the one described in the textbook): Onset between 2-6 years Occurs only in boys Eventually affects all voluntary, heart, and breathing muscles Usually die by age 30 Some types of MD have higher than average risk for intellectual or learning disabilities Fatigue affects school performance
An incomplete closure in the spinal column: Occulta: opening in one or more vertebrae without damage to spinal cord (40% of population) Meningocele: protective covering of spinal cord pushed out through opening in vertebrae Myelomeningocele: spinal cord protrudes through the back May involve muscle weakness or paralysis, loss of sensation, loss of bowel and bladder control below place where incomplete closure occurs. Fluid my build up in brain (hydrocephalus), which may be controlled through a shunt. If so, there may be problems with attention, language, and academics. May need multiple surgeries.
Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment. Due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, ADHD, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia tuberculosis, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia. Adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
The most common OHI. Signs include difficult breathing, wheezing, coughing, excess mucus, sweating, and chest constriction. Can be triggered by allergies, cold, dry air, or exercise. Loss of instructional time and fewer opportunities for social and recreational activities. Use inhaler to help with breathing when an asthma attack occurs.
Epilepsy is a neurological condition that makes people prone to seizures (abnormal electrical discharges in the brain). The two most common types of seizure are: Tonic-clonic seizures Absence seizures Antiepileptic drugs can be use to control seizures.
Conditions diagnosed by physician and educational impact determined by educational personnel. Most children with OI and OHI are served in general ed. classrooms. Students may receive related services (e.g., PT, OT). School nurse develops “individual health care plan” that includes information about ongoing needs and emergency medical treatment.
Curriculum modifications such as changes in content, outcomes, or levels of complexity Adaptations to the physical structure of the classroom Accommodations (e.g., sending work home, tutoring) to help students make up missed work Pair students with limited stamina with another student, give shorter assignments, more time to finish Special considerations for physical and health care needs (e.g., asthma triggers, universal precautions) Facilitate acceptance to prevent teasing Assistive technology devices Collaboration with OT, PT, ST, nurse, parents, etc.