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Evaluation of Cleaners for Government Issued Headstones<br />Mary F. Striegel, Ph.D. and Jason Church<br />National Park S...
NCA Maintains 3 million+ gravesites.<br />NCA preserves historic headstones which are 50 years or older.<br />Today’s mark...
NCPTT, a leader in advancing preservation technology, and  NCA partnered to evaluate cleaners for marble headstones based ...
Headstone Soiling<br />Dirt<br />Air Pollution<br />Biological Organisms<br />Bird Droppings<br />Plant or Tree Sap<br />D...
Micro-organisms<br /><ul><li>Bacteria: can slowly cause stone loss
Fungi: Can change visual appearance
Algaes: provides the most visual changes</li></ul>Fungi sample found on marker in San Francisco.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, C...
The StudyPhase I  (2004-2005)<br />Define Goals<br />Choose Cleaning Criteria<br />Recommendations must meet NCA National ...
 San Francisco National Cemetery<br /><ul><li>     San Francisco, CA</li></ul>Bath National Cemetery<br /><ul><li>     Bat...
Definitions<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote<br />
Selection of Cleaners:<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
Implement Field Studies<br />5 cleaners + water<br />1,440 test patches <br />240 stones<br />5 National Cemeteries<br />D...
Phase II (2005-2007)<br />Monitor regrowthin the field for 18 months at Alexandria, Jefferson Barracks, San Francisco, and...
Phase II Laboratory Tests<br />Accelerated Weathering	<br />Microscopy<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
Phase III (2008-2011)<br />Plan long-term monitoring at two of the four sites<br />Alexandria, San Francisco, and Jefferso...
Phase III Bio Lab Study<br />Samples of Colorado Yule and Georgia White Marble <br />Innoculated with A fungus, Aspergillu...
Results<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
Study Findings: Field Results<br />Field studies showed:<br />Daybreak, D2, and WEG Marble Cleaner performed well<br />Kod...
ClimaticDifferences<br />Semi Arid Steppe: Santa Fe<br />Mediterranean: <br />	San Francisco<br />Humid Continental: <br /...
Location Differences<br /><ul><li>Sunny areas:</li></ul>Biocidal effects last much longer. <br /><ul><li>Shady areas:</li>...
Study Findings: Lab Results<br />Lab studies looked for chemical and physical changes on the stone.<br />Lab studies showe...
Study Findings: Biological Lab Results<br />Further accelerated biological studies, after 188 days showed:<br />Fungi regr...
Issues to Consider<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
Other Threats to Headstones<br />Salt Damage<br />Freeze Thaw Cycles<br />Improper Cleaning<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, ...
Preservation Practices<br />Use the gentlest least invasive method<br />Consider long-term effects<br />Minimize cleaning ...
Cleaning known to damage stone<br />Bleach and Bleach like products<br />Strong acids or bases<br />Power tools<br />Press...
Cleaner Factors to Consider<br />Manufacturer’s Recommendations <br />Dilution ratio<br />Dwell time<br />Biocidal Cleaner...
Recommended Actions<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
Cleaning Recommendations<br />Use D2 Biological Solution or similar biocidal cleaner, following manufacturer’s directions....
Cleaning Frequency Factors<br />Research offers observations, but frequency of cleaning will depend on location and climat...
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3 evaluation of cleaners for government issued headstones

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3 evaluation of cleaners for government issued headstones

  1. 1. Evaluation of Cleaners for Government Issued Headstones<br />Mary F. Striegel, Ph.D. and Jason Church<br />National Park Service<br />National Center for Preservation Technology and Training<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  2. 2. NCA Maintains 3 million+ gravesites.<br />NCA preserves historic headstones which are 50 years or older.<br />Today’s marker is tomorrow’s historic headstone.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  3. 3. NCPTT, a leader in advancing preservation technology, and NCA partnered to evaluate cleaners for marble headstones based on soiling and biogrowth.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  4. 4. Headstone Soiling<br />Dirt<br />Air Pollution<br />Biological Organisms<br />Bird Droppings<br />Plant or Tree Sap<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  5. 5. Micro-organisms<br /><ul><li>Bacteria: can slowly cause stone loss
  6. 6. Fungi: Can change visual appearance
  7. 7. Algaes: provides the most visual changes</li></ul>Fungi sample found on marker in San Francisco.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  8. 8. The StudyPhase I (2004-2005)<br />Define Goals<br />Choose Cleaning Criteria<br />Recommendations must meet NCA National Shrine Standards.<br />Evaluate commercially available cleaners based on:<br />Appearance<br />Biological Re-growth<br />Physical and Chemical Changes<br />Ease of Use<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  9. 9. San Francisco National Cemetery<br /><ul><li> San Francisco, CA</li></ul>Bath National Cemetery<br /><ul><li> Bath, NY</li></ul>Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery<br /><ul><li> St. Louis, MO</li></ul>Santa Fe National Cemetery<br /><ul><li> Santa Fe, NM</li></ul>Alexandria National Cemetery<br /><ul><li> Pineville, LA</li></ul>Field Test Sites<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote<br />
  10. 10. Definitions<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote<br />
  11. 11. Selection of Cleaners:<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  12. 12. Implement Field Studies<br />5 cleaners + water<br />1,440 test patches <br />240 stones<br />5 National Cemeteries<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  13. 13. Phase II (2005-2007)<br />Monitor regrowthin the field for 18 months at Alexandria, Jefferson Barracks, San Francisco, and Santa Fe.<br />Evaluate cleaning effects on test stone in the lab<br />Elimination: H2Orange Cleaner and Kodak PhotoFloand Bath National Cemetery<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  14. 14. Phase II Laboratory Tests<br />Accelerated Weathering <br />Microscopy<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  15. 15. Phase III (2008-2011)<br />Plan long-term monitoring at two of the four sites<br />Alexandria, San Francisco, and Jefferson Barracks cleaned the study headstones since phase II<br />Alternate laboratory study was devised at Harvard University<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  16. 16. Phase III Bio Lab Study<br />Samples of Colorado Yule and Georgia White Marble <br />Innoculated with A fungus, Aspergillusniger<br />After 7 weeks, samples were cleaned<br />Evaluated microbial growth at Day 1, Day 34, Day 41, Day 90, Day 127 and Day 188. <br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  17. 17. Results<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  18. 18. Study Findings: Field Results<br />Field studies showed:<br />Daybreak, D2, and WEG Marble Cleaner performed well<br />Kodak Photo-Flo was the first cleaner to fail in the field (greatest biological regrowth)<br />H2Orange Safe Cleaner failed after six months at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery (killed bacteria but left green fungi)<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  19. 19. ClimaticDifferences<br />Semi Arid Steppe: Santa Fe<br />Mediterranean: <br /> San Francisco<br />Humid Continental: <br /> Bath <br /> Jefferson Barracks <br />Humid Subtropical: Alexandria<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  20. 20. Location Differences<br /><ul><li>Sunny areas:</li></ul>Biocidal effects last much longer. <br /><ul><li>Shady areas:</li></ul>Fungal growth is more likely to return.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  21. 21. Study Findings: Lab Results<br />Lab studies looked for chemical and physical changes on the stone.<br />Lab studies showed:<br />Daybreak left significant salt deposits on stone<br />D2 initially left small amounts of salts on stone: later D2 was reformulated, no salts found on repeat testing.<br />WEG Marble and Granite Cleaner left no salts.<br />Daybreak<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  22. 22. Study Findings: Biological Lab Results<br />Further accelerated biological studies, after 188 days showed:<br />Fungi regrowth on WEG samples<br />No regrowthon D2 and Daybreak.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  23. 23. Issues to Consider<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  24. 24. Other Threats to Headstones<br />Salt Damage<br />Freeze Thaw Cycles<br />Improper Cleaning<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  25. 25. Preservation Practices<br />Use the gentlest least invasive method<br />Consider long-term effects<br />Minimize cleaning impacts<br />Don’t remove original surface<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  26. 26. Cleaning known to damage stone<br />Bleach and Bleach like products<br />Strong acids or bases<br />Power tools<br />Pressure washing<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  27. 27. Cleaner Factors to Consider<br />Manufacturer’s Recommendations <br />Dilution ratio<br />Dwell time<br />Biocidal Cleaners<br />Lightening with time<br />Temporary non-permanent color changes during cleaning<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote<br />
  28. 28. Recommended Actions<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  29. 29. Cleaning Recommendations<br />Use D2 Biological Solution or similar biocidal cleaner, following manufacturer’s directions. Do not dilute.<br />Apply to WET stone surface using a sprayer.<br />Gently agitate with a soft bristle brush.<br />RINSE thoroughly with water.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote<br />
  30. 30. Cleaning Frequency Factors<br />Research offers observations, but frequency of cleaning will depend on location and climate of individual cemeteries.<br />Different locations will need different cleaning schedules.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  31. 31. Spot Cleaning<br />Minimize the frequency of cleaning the entire cemetery by scheduling spot cleaning on those headstones located in shady areas that exhibit more biological growth and soiling.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote <br />
  32. 32. Summary<br />Of the five cleaners tested, D2 Biological solution was most effective and left no harmful residues.<br />Daybreak is a bleach solution.<br />Continued use of Daybreak will result in long term damage to headstones.<br />Use of high pressure power washers can erode the surface and deteriorate headstone.<br />Use of chemical cleaners can be successfully accomplished by a three-person team.<br />Draft: Do Not Use, Cite, or Quote<br />

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