Green Antifouling Alternatives

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  • Green Antifouling Alternatives

    1. 1. BIOFOULING : THE SEARCH FOR GREEN ANTIFOULING ALTERNATIVES Elisheba Muturi December 1’06
    2. 2. Biofouling defined <ul><li>Biological fouling (Biofouling) is the undesirable attachment of microorganisms, plants and animals to artificial surfaces submerged under water </li></ul><ul><li>Microfoulers: tiny organisms such as bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Macrofoulers: barnacles, zebra mussels </li></ul>
    3. 3. Biofouling effects <ul><li>Affects shipping, offshore, oil and gas, water treatment, fishing industries </li></ul><ul><li>Ship hulls: reduce efficiency, corrode, cause drag (50% of marine transport costs) </li></ul><ul><li>Ship heating and cooling systems </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing equipment, mesh cages (80% of pearl industry costs) </li></ul>
    4. 6. Zebra mussels infestations in pipes
    5. 7. Antifouling technologies <ul><li>Antifouling technologies refer to the means of combating biofouling: </li></ul><ul><li>Hull cleaning with harsh chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical removal </li></ul><ul><li>Application of anti-fouling coatings to submerged surfaces </li></ul>
    6. 8. Environmental impact <ul><li>The most effective anti-fouling coatings are organotins: contain tin eg. tributyltin (TBT). </li></ul><ul><li>TBT is very effective but toxic to non-target organisms: imposex in whelks </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds persist and could enter the food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical removal results in transfer of invasive species </li></ul>
    7. 9. In November 1999, IMO adopted … International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships … a global prohibition on the application of organotin compounds which act as biocides in anti-fouling systems on ships by 1 January 2003, and a complete prohibition by 1 January 2008 .
    8. 10. The search for green alternatives <ul><li>Research into natural products antifoulants and non-toxic alternatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foul release coatings; non-stick surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological control methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marine bioactive compounds from sponges etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical or electrochemical deterrents: pulse power devices, cathodic, vibration </li></ul></ul>
    9. 12. Cross-disciplinary <ul><li>Marine and fresh water biology </li></ul><ul><li>Oceanography </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture </li></ul>
    10. 13. Key databases <ul><li>Environmental Sciences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASFA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceanic Abstracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EnviroNetBase E-book collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosis Previews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoological Record </li></ul></ul>
    11. 14. Databases… <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Abstracts SciFinder Scholar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web of Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GrayLit </li></ul></ul>
    12. 15. Lay sources <ul><li>Clare, Anthony Natural ways to barnish barnacles, New Scientist , 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Stanczak, Marianne Biofouling : It's Not Just Barnacles Anymore (CSA Discovery Guide) </li></ul>
    13. 16. Scientific journals
    14. 17. CSA controlled vocabulary
    15. 18. CSA controlled vocabulary
    16. 19. CSA Search strategy <ul><li>((natural or non?toxic or &quot;non toxic&quot; or alternative? or biocide?free or &quot;biocide free&quot; or ((Tributyltin or TBT) NEAR alternative*) or (environment* (sound or friend* or benign)) or DE= ((biological control) or (pollution prevention) or (water pollution prevention) or (water pollution control)))) and ((DE= ((antifouling substances) or (fouling control) or (antifoulants)))) </li></ul>
    17. 20. Web of Science articles
    18. 21. Web of Science subject areas
    19. 22. Key authors
    20. 23. Key researchers <ul><li>Research Groups affiliated to Academic Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biofouling Research Group, Russian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual researchers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada Centre for Marine Biofouling and Bio-Innovation, U of Calgary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of New South Wales Centre for Marine Biofouling and Bio-Innovation </li></ul></ul>
    21. 24. Impact of alternatives <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research into more efficient antifoulants for industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced transfer of alien species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much better for the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-stick surfaces not effective in slow vessels: increase in fouling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uneven regulation may lead to black market </li></ul></ul>
    22. 25. Barriers to alternatives <ul><li>No alternative with global approval; no commercial applications available </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term toxicity of alternatives unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Higher costs of foul-release coatings </li></ul><ul><li>Poor disposal of toxic coatings </li></ul>
    23. 26. Stakeholders <ul><li>Government agencies at national and international level </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation authorities: International Maritime Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental agencies such as World Wide fund, UNEP </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping companies, aquaculture industry </li></ul><ul><li>Paint manufacturers </li></ul>

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