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Christian Communion The Koinonia of Gods Grace in Open and Closed Communion

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Christian Communion
The Koinonia of Gods Grace in Open and Closed Communion is an Online School of Prayer Learning Center Student Workbook that is complimentary to Sister Lara's book on Holy Communion "Five Secrets to Communion: Court Room Praying" from Online School of Prayer Campus. This is also a complimentary Book to Sister Lara's Book "Concerts of Communion: The Joy of Receiving and Meditating Upon the Names of God in Community" http://onlineschoolofprayer.webs.com

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Christian Communion The Koinonia of Gods Grace in Open and Closed Communion

  1. 1. Christian Communion The Koinonia of Gods Grace in Open and Closed Communion
  2. 2. Contents 1 Communion (Christian) 1 1.1 Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 New Testament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3.1 Between churches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3.2 Communion of Saints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Open communion 4 2.1 Affirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Supporting belief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3 Practitioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.4 Position of the Roman Catholic Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.5 Position of the Lutheran Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Closed communion 8 3.1 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1.1 Catholic Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1.2 Lutheranism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.3 Eastern Orthodox Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.4 Baptists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.5 Other groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1.6 Latter Day Saints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2 “Close Communion” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3 Supporting belief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4 Fenced table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.5 Communion tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 i
  3. 3. ii CONTENTS 3.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.8.1 Lutheran perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.8.2 Apostolic Christian Church perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.8.3 Eastern Orthodox perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.8.4 Baptist perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.8.5 Anabaptist perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.8.6 Reformed perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.8.7 Roman Catholic perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 Koinonia 13 4.1 New Testament usage of koinonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2 The spiritual meaning of koinonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2.1 Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2.2 Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.3 Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.3 The sacramental meaning of koinonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.4 The problem associated with the etymological meaning of koinonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.10 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.10.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.10.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.10.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
  4. 4. Chapter 1 Communion (Christian) This article is about interpersonal bonds in Christianity. For the Christian rite reenacting the Last Supper, see Eucharist. The bond uniting Christians as individuals and groups with each other and with Jesus Christ, is described as communion. 1.1 Origin The term is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common).[1] The corresponding term in Greek is κοινωνία, which is often translated as "fellowship". In Christianity, the basic meaning of the term communion is an especially close relationship of Christians, as individ- uals or as a church, with God and with other Christians. This basic meaning of the word predates its Christian uses. In Ancient Greek, κοινωνία could apply to a busi- ness partnership, to fellowship of life in marriage, to a spiritual relationship with divinity, to comradely fellow- ship between friends, to a community or society.[2] 1.2 New Testament The Greek term κοινωνία (koinonia) appears in the New Testament, but nowhere in the ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint. As a noun, or in its adjectival or verbal forms, it is found in 43 verses of the New Testament. In addition, the noun is found in some manuscripts (used for producing the En- glish translation known as the King James Version, but not for more recent translations) in Ephesians 3:9. In the New Testament the word is applied, according to the context, to communion, sharing or fellowship with: • the divine nature (2 Peter 1:4), God (1 John 1:6), the Trinity (1 John 1:3), Jesus, Son of God (1 Corinthi- ans 1:9), his sufferings (Philippians 3:10; 1 Peter 4:13), his future glory (1 Peter 5:1), the Holy Spirit (2 Corinthians 13:14; Philippians 2:1) • the blood and the body of Christ (1 Corinthians 10:16), pagan sacrifices and gods (1 Corinthians 10:18-20) • fellow Christians, their sufferings and the faith (Acts 2:42; Galatians 2:9; 1 John 1:3, 1:7; Hebrews 10:33; Revelation 1:9; Philemon 1:6, 1:17) • a source of spiritual favours (Romans 11:17), the gospel (1 Corinthians 9:23), light and darkness (2 Corinthians 6:14) • others’ sufferings and consolation (2 Corinthians 1:7; Philippians 4:14), their evangelizing work (Philippians 1:5), their graces or privileges (Romans 15:27; Philippians 1:7), their material needs, to remedy which assistance is given (Romans 12:13, 15:26-27; 2 Corinthians 8:4, 9:13; Galatians 6:6; Philippians 4:15; 1 Timothy 6:18; Hebrews 13:16) • the evil deeds of others (Matthew 23:30; Ephesians 5:11; 1 Timothy 5:22; 2 John 1:11; Revelation 18:4) • the bodily human nature all have in common (Hebrews 2:14) • a work partnership, secular or religious (Luke 5:10; 2 Corinthians 8:23) Of these usages, Bromiley’s International Standard Bible Encyclopedia selects as especially significant the follow- ing meanings: I. Common life in general (only in Acts 2:42) II. Communion between particular groups, the most remarkable instance of which was that be- tween Jews and Gentiles III. Communion in the Body and Blood of Christ IV. Sharing in divine revelation and with God himself (1 John 1:1-7).[3] 1.3 Aspects 1
  5. 5. 2 CHAPTER 1. COMMUNION (CHRISTIAN) 1.3.1 Between churches By metonymy, the term is used of a group of Christian churches that have this close relationship of communion with each other. An example is the Anglican Commu- nion. If the relationship between the churches is complete, in- volving fullness of “those bonds of communion - faith, sacraments and pastoral governance - that permit the Faithful to receive the life of grace within the Church”, it is called full communion. However, the term “full communion” is frequently used in a broader sense, to re- fer instead to a relationship between Christian churches that are not united, but have only entered into an ar- rangement whereby members of each church have certain rights within the other. If a church recognizes that another church, with which it lacks bonds of pastoral governance, shares with it some of the beliefs and essential practices of Christianity, it may speak of “partial communion” between it and the other church. 1.3.2 Communion of Saints The communion of saints is the relationship that, accord- ing to the belief of Christians, exists between them as people made holy by their link with Christ. That this re- lationship extends not only to those still in earthly life, but also to those who have gone past death to be “away from the body and at home with the Lord” (2 Corinthians 5:8) is a general belief among Christians.[4] Their com- munion is believed to be “a vital fellowship between all the redeemed, on earth and in the next life, that is based on the common possession of the divine life of grace that comes to us through the risen Christ”.[5] Since the word rendered in English as “saints” can mean not only “holy people” but also “holy things”, “commu- nion of saints” also applies to the sharing by members of the church in the holy things of faith, sacraments (espe- cially the Eucharist), and the other spiritual graces and gifts that they have in common. The term “communion” is applied to sharing in the Eu- charist by partaking of the consecrated bread and wine, an action seen as entering into a particularly close rela- tionship with Christ. Sometimes the term is applied not only to this partaking but to the whole of the rite or to the consecrated elements. 1.4 See also • Open communion • Closed communion • Koinonia 1.5 References [1] American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language [2] Robert Porter Lynch & Ninon Prozonic Papanicolas: How the Greeks Created the First Age of Innovation [3] Geoffrey W. Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1995 ISBN 0-8028-3781-6) [4] John Henry Hobart, A Companion for the Festivals and Fasts of the Protestant Episcopal Church (Swords, Stanford & Company, 1840), p. 258 [5] Kenneth Baker, Fundamentals of Catholicism (Ignatius Press 1983 ISBN 978-0-89870027-5), p. 149 1.6 External links • Fellowship as defined in the New Testament • Broken but Never Divided: An Orthodox Perspec- tive • Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some aspects of the Church understood as communion 1.7 Bibliography • NAS Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible with Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Dictionaries. The Lockman Foundation. 1998 [1981]. • Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1979). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Grand Rapids, Michi- gan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. • Robert Porter Lynch; Ninon Prozonic (2006). “How the Greeks created the First Golden Age of Innovation” (Word document). p. 14. Retrieved 2007-04-08.
  6. 6. 1.7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 • Richards, Lawrence O. (1985). Expository Dictio- nary of Bible Words. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zon- dervan Corporation. • Thayer, Joseph H. (1885). Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zon- dervan Publishing House. • Verna Lewis-Elgidely Koinonia in the Three Great Abrahamic Faiths: Acclaiming the Mystery and Di- versity of Faiths Cloverdale Books (2007) ISBN 978-1-929569-37-3
  7. 7. Chapter 2 Open communion “Open table” redirects here. For the Restaurant Reser- vation System, see OpenTable. Open communion is the practice of Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive Holy Communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lord’s Supper). Many but not all churches that prac- tice open communion require that the person receiving communion be a baptized Christian, and other require- ments may apply as well. Open communion is the opposite of closed communion, where the sacrament is reserved for members of the par- ticular church or others with which it is in a relationship of full communion or fellowship, or has otherwise recog- nized for that purpose. Closed communion may refer to either a particular denomination or an individual congre- gation serving Communion only to its own members. In the United Methodist Church, open communion is re- ferred to as the Open Table. 2.1 Affirmation Generally, churches that offer open communion to other Christians do not require an explicit affirmation of Chris- tianity from the communicant before distributing the el- ements; the act of receiving is an implicit affirmation. Some churches make an announcement before commu- nion begins such as “We invite all who have professed a faith in Christ to join us at the table.” Open communion is generally practiced in churches where the elements are passed through the congregation (also called self-communication). However, it is also practiced in some churches that have a communion pro- cession, where the congregation comes forward to receive communion in front of the altar; such is the case in the United Methodist Church, the Episcopal Church, most Anglican churches, and some Lutheran churches. 2.2 Supporting belief Those practising open communion generally believe that the invitation to receive communion is an invitation to Christ’s table, and that it is not the province of human be- ings to interfere between an individual and Christ. Some traditions maintain that there are certain circumstances under which individuals should not present themselves for (and should voluntarily refrain from receiving) com- munion. However, if those individuals were to present themselves for communion, they would not be denied. In other traditions, the concept of being “unfit to receive” is unknown, and the actual refusal to distribute the elements to an individual would be considered scandalous. 2.3 Practitioners Most Protestant Christian churches practice open communion, although many require that the commu- nicant be a baptized Christian. Open communion subject to baptism is an official policy of churches in the Anglican Communion. Other churches allowing open communion (with or without the baptism requirement) include the Church of the Nazarene, the Evangelical Free Church, the Church of God, Community Churches, the Presbyterian Church (USA), the Presbyterian Church in America,[1] the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, the United Church of Canada, United Church of Christ, United Methodist Church, the Free Methodist Church, African Methodist Episcopal Church,[2] Foursquare Gospel Church, Association of Vineyard Churches,[3] Metropolitan Community Church, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Assemblies of God, the Reformed Church in America, Seventh-day Adventists, Seventh Day Baptists,[4] and most churches in the Southern Baptist Convention.[5] All bodies in the Liberal Catholic Movement practice open communion as a matter of policy. The official policy of the Episcopal Church is to only invite baptized persons to receive communion. However, many parishes do not insist on this and practice open communion. Among Gnostic churches, both the Ecclesia Gnostica and the Apostolic Johannite Church practice open communion. The Plymouth Brethren 4
  8. 8. 2.5. POSITION OF THE LUTHERAN CHURCH 5 were founded on the basis of an open communion with any baptized Christian: today, following John Nelson Darby, Exclusive Brethren practise closed communion, and Open Brethren practise open communion on the basis of “receiving to the Lord’s table those whom He has received, time being allowed for confidence to be established in our minds that those who we receive are the Lord’s.”[6] Most churches in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America practice their own form of open communion, offering the Eucharist to adults without receiving catechetical instruction, provided they are baptized and believe in the Real Presence.[7] The Churches of Christ, Christian churches and churches of Christ, and the Calvary Chapel[8] and as well as other nondenominational churches also practice open communion. The Church of England and Church of Sweden are open communion churches. Notable exceptions include the Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church, Reformed Seventh Day Adven- tists, and some Reformed or Calvinist denominations. All these typically practice some form of closed communion. Assemblies of God, Baptist and other churches that prac- tice congregational polity, due to their autonomous na- ture, may (depending on the individual congregation) practice open or closed communion. Other groups that practice open communion are the Moravian Church[9] Wesleyans,[10] and the Christian and Missionary Alliance.[11] Within the Latter Day Saint movement, the Community of Christ practices open com- munion. The LDS Church, on the other hand, views its corresponding ceremony (known as the Sacrament) as having meaning only for church members (though with- out actually forbidding others from participating). In the Anglican Communion, as well as in many other traditional Christian denominations, those who are not baptized may come forward in the communion line with their arms crossed over their chest, in order to receive a blessing from the priest, in lieu of Holy Communion.[12] Within the Nontrinitan groups, the Church of God Gen- eral Conference practices open communion.[13] 2.4 Position of the Roman Catholic Church The Roman Catholic Church does not practise open communion.[14] In general it permits access to its Eu- charistic communion only to baptized Catholics.[15] In lieu of Holy Communion, some parishes permit a non- Catholic to come forward in the line, with his arms crossed over his chest, and receive a blessing from the priest.[16][17] However, Canon 844 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law of the Latin Church and the parallel canon 671 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches also recognizes that in certain circumstances, by way of excep- tion, and under certain conditions, access to these sacra- ments may be permitted, or even commended, for Chris- tians of other Churches and ecclesial Communities. Thus it permits Eastern Christians who are not in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church (Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy and Assyrian Church of the East) to receive Communion from Roman Catholic ministers, if they request it of their own accord and are properly disposed, and it applies the same rule also to some Western Churches that the Holy See judges to be in a situation similar to that of Eastern Christians with regard to the sacraments.[18] For other baptized Christians (Anglicans and Protestants) the conditions are more severe. Only in danger of death or if, in the judgement of the local bishop, there is a grave and pressing need, may members of these Churches who cannot approach a minister of their own Church be ad- mitted to receive the Eucharist, if they spontaneously ask for it, demonstrate that they have the catholic faith in the Eucharist, and are properly disposed.[19] Catholic priests have sometimes violated these rules, giv- ing Holy Communion to non-Catholics,[20] sometimes unknowingly.[21] Notably, Pope John Paul II gave Holy Communion to Brother Roger, a Reformed pastor and founder of the Taizé Community, several times; in addi- tion Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) also gave Brother Roger the Eucharist.[22][23][24] Moreover, after Brother Roger’s death, at the Mass celebrated for him in France, “communion wafers were given to the faithful indiscriminately, regardless of denomination”.[25] The Catholic Church does not allow its own faithful to receive Communion from ministers of another Church, apart from in extreme cases, such as danger of death, and only if it recognizes the validity of the sacraments of that Church. Other conditions are that it be physi- cally or morally impossible for the Catholic to approach a Catholic minister, that it be a case of real need or spiri- tual benefit, and that the danger of error or indifferentism be avoided.[26] 2.5 Position of the Lutheran Church The Lutheran Church has a variety of practices, de- pending on denominational polity. Some branches of Lutheranism, such as the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, do not practice open communion; they exclude non- members and require catechetical instructions for all peo- ple, even members from other Lutheran churches, before receiving the Eucharist.[27] This generally stems from an understanding that sharing communion is a sign of Chris- tian unity; where that unity is not present, neither should
  9. 9. 6 CHAPTER 2. OPEN COMMUNION Eucharistic sharing be present. Other parts of the Lutheran Church, including the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, and many mem- bers of the Lutheran World Federation, practice open communion and welcome all Baptized Christians, regard- less of their denominational affiliation, training, or spe- cific beliefs, to the table. In fact, the ELCA has specific communion sharing agreements with a number of other Christian denominations, encouraging the sharing of the sacrament across belief system boundaries.[28] The un- derstanding that lies behind this practice is that Commu- nion is both a foretaste of eschatological Christian unity as well as an effective means of fostering that unity. The Evangelical Church in Germany, which is a feder- ation of Lutheran and Reformed churches, has an open communion.[29] 2.6 References [1] PCA Report of the Ad Interim Committee on Fencing the Lord’s Table [2] “St. Peter’s AME Church”. Stpetersame.com. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2013. [3] “The Vineyard Church | Houston, Tx”. Houstonvine- yard.org. Retrieved 11 October 2013. [4] Communion | Seventh Day Baptist Church [5] http://www.baptiststandard.com [6] Website of Brook Street Chapel, Tottenham [7] At what age do ELCA congregations allow members their first Communion?. Retrieved 2010-01-17. [8] “Calvary Chapel Fort Lauderdale | Our Beliefs: Statement of Faith”. Calvaryftl.org. Retrieved 11 October 2013. [9] “The Sacrament of Holy Communion”. Moravian.org. Retrieved 11 October 2013. [10] “The Wesleyan View of Communion”. Kenschenck.com. Retrieved 11 October 2013. [11] “FAQs”. Living Rock Church. Retrieved 11 October 2013. [12] The Episcopal Handbook. Church Publishing, Inc. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2012. Pastoral bless- ings are often available for children or adults who are not communing. Simply cross your arms over your chest if you wish to receive a blessing. [13] http://www.cggc.org/about/what-we-believe/ about-the-lords-supper/ [14] Code of Canon Law, canon 842 §1 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 675 §2 [15] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §1 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 671 §1 [16] Flader, John (16 June 2010). Questions and Answers on the Catholic Faith. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 25 June 2012. [17] Mass & Communion Etiquette. Holy Family Catholic Church. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012. [18] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §3 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 671 §3 [19] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §4 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 671 §4 [20] Packman, Andrew. “Table Manners: Unexpected Grace at Communion”. The Christian Century. Retrieved 25 June 2012. [21] Can a non-Catholic receive Communion? [22] Ivereigh, Austen (26 August 2008). “Brother Roger of Taize -- Catholic, Protestant, what?". America Magazine. Retrieved 24 July 2015. Brother Roger also received com- munion several times from the hands of Pope John Paul II, who had become friends with him from the days of the Second Vatican Council and who was well acquainted with his personal journey with respect to the Catholic Church. In this sense, there was nothing secret or hidden in the attitude of the Catholic Church, neither at Taizé or in Rome. During the funeral of Pope John Paul II, Car- dinal Ratzinger only repeated what had already been done before him in Saint Peter’s Basilica, at the time of the late Pope. [23] The Catholic World Report, Volume 15. Ignatius Press. 2005. During the funeral for Pope John Paul II, Brother Roger himself received Communion directly from then- Cardinal Ratzinger. [24] John L. Allen Jr. (11 August 2010). “Another tribute for Taizé from the Vatican”. National Catholic Reporter. Re- trieved 24 July 2015. Brother Roger received communion several times from the hands of Pope John Paul II, who had become friends with him from the days of the Second Vatican Council, and who was well acquainted with his personal journey with respect to the Catholic Church. [25] Tagliabue, John (24 August 2005). “At His Funeral, Brother Roger Has an Ecumenical Dream Fulfilled”. The New York Times. Retrieved 24 July 2015. [26] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §2 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 671 §2 [27] http://www.lcms.org/faqs/doctrine#partake [28] http://www.elca.org/Who-We-Are/ Our-Three-Expressions/Churchwide-Organization/ Office-of-the-Presiding-Bishop/ Ecumenical-and-Inter-Religious-Relations/ Full-Communion-Partners.aspx [29] "Übertritt in die Evangelische Kirche” [Going over to the Evangelical Church]. Evangelical Church in Germany. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  10. 10. 2.7. SEE ALSO 7 2.7 See also • Eucharist • Closed communion • Excommunication
  11. 11. Chapter 3 Closed communion Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of Holy Communion (also called Eucharist, The Lord’s Supper) to those who are mem- bers in good standing of a particular church, denomina- tion, sect, or congregation. Though the meaning of the term varies slightly in different Christian theological tra- ditions, it generally means that a church or denomina- tion limits participation either to members of their own church, members of their own denomination, or mem- bers of some specific class (e.g., baptized members of evangelical churches). See also intercommunion. A closed-communion church is one that (perhaps with exceptions in unusual circumstances) excludes non- members from receiving communion. This is the prac- tice of all churches dating from before the Protestant Reformation and also of some Protestant church such as Lutherans and Baptists. Lutherans require catecheti- cal instruction for all people, even members from other Lutheran Churches, before receiving the Eucharist while some Baptist churches require part membership while others even require full membership before participating in the communion service. Churches which practice open communion allow all Christians to partake in the Lord’s Supper, with mem- bership in a particular Christian community not required to receive bread and wine, in contrast to pre-Reformation churches, which hold that what is received in their cele- brations ceases to be bread and wine. 3.1 Practice 3.1.1 Catholic Church The Catholic Church (including all its component particular Churches, whether Latin or Eastern) practices closed communion. However, provided that “necessity requires it or true spiritual advantage suggests it” and that the danger of error or indifferentism is avoided, canon 844 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law of the Latin Church and the parallel canon 671 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches allow, in particular exceptional cir- cumstances that are regulated by the diocesan bishop or conference of bishops, members who cannot approach a Catholic minister to receive the Eucharist from minis- ters of churches that have a valid Eucharist.[1] It also per- mits properly disposed members of the Eastern churches and of churches judged to be in the same situation with regard to the sacraments to receive the Eucharist from Catholic ministers, if they seek it of their own accord.[2] The Directory for the Application of Principles and Norms on Ecumenism warns that “due consideration should be given to the discipline of the Eastern Churches for their own faithful and any suggestion of proselytism should be avoided.”[3] Western Christians who do not share the Catholic theology of the Eucharist (such as those who follow Reformed Protestant teaching on the matter) are absolutely excluded. Those who do personally share Catholic belief in the Eucharist (as the body and blood of the risen Christ, accompanied by his soul and divinity, under the appearances of bread and wine) are permitted to receive the sacrament when there is danger of death or, in the judgement of the diocesan bishop or of the episco- pal conference, some other grave necessity urges it and on condition that “the person be unable to have recourse for the sacrament to a minister of his or her own Church or ecclesial Community, ask for the sacrament of his or her own initiative, manifest Catholic faith in the sacrament and be properly disposed”.[4][5] The Catholic Church does not practise open communion, holding that reception of Holy Communion is reserved for those who are baptized.[6] In general it permits ac- cess to its Eucharistic communion only to those who share its oneness in faith, worship and ecclesial life.[7] For the same reasons, it also recognizes that in certain circum- stances, by way of exception, and under certain condi- tions, access to these sacraments may be permitted for Christians of other Churches and ecclesial Communities. Thus it permits Eastern Christians who are not in full communion with the Catholic Church (Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy and Assyrian Church of the East) to receive Communion from Catholic ministers, if they request it of their own accord and are properly dis- posed, and it applies the same rule also to some Western Churches that the Holy See judges to be in a situation similar to that of Eastern Christians with regard to the sacraments.[8] For other baptized Christians (Anglicans, Lutherans, and other Protestants) the conditions are more severe. Only in danger of death or if, in the judgement 8
  12. 12. 3.1. PRACTICE 9 of the local bishop, there is a grave and pressing need, may members of these Churches who cannot approach a minister of their own Church be admitted to receive the Eucharist, if they spontaneously ask for it, demonstrate that they have the catholic faith in the Eucharist, and are properly disposed.[9] The Catholic Church allows its own faithful to receive Communion from ministers of another Church, only if it recognizes the validity of the sacraments of that Church, and so it never allows reception of Communion as ad- ministered in Protestant churches, the validity of whose orders it denies. Other conditions are that it is physically or morally impossible to approach a Catholic minister, that it is a case of real need or spiritual benefit, and that the danger of error or indifferentism is avoided.[10] The Catholic Church thus clearly distinguishes between Churches whose celebration of the Eucharist it recognizes as valid and other Christian communities.[11] It does not allow a Catholic to receive communion in a Protestant church, since it does not consider Protestant ministers to be priests ordained by bishops in a line of valid succession from the apostles. It applies this rule also to the Angli- can Communion, pursuant to Apostolicae curae, a posi- tion that the Church of England disputed in Saepius offi- cio. 3.1.2 Lutheranism Confessional Lutheran churches, including the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, practice closed communion and require catechetical instruction for all people before receiving the Eucharist.[12][13][14][15] Failing to do so is condemned by these Lutherans as the sin of unionism.[16] This teaching comes[17] from 1 Corinthians 10:16-17 which says, “Is not the cup of thanksgiving for which we give thanks a participation in the blood of Christ? And is not the bread that we break a participation in the body of Christ? Be- cause there is one loaf, we, who are many, are one body, for we all share the one loaf” and Paul’s teaching of fel- lowship in 1 Corinthians 1:10, “I appeal to you, brothers and sisters, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you agree with one another in what you say and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be per- fectly united in mind and thought.” These Lutherans also take seriously God’s threat in 1 Corinthians 11:27,29 that “Whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of sinning against the body and blood of the Lord. A man ought to examine himself before he eats of the bread and drinks of this cup. For anyone who eats and drinks without recognizing the body of the Lord eats and drinks judgment on himself.” Therefore, the belief is that, inviting those forward who have not been first instructed would be unloving on the church’s part, because they would be inviting people for- ward to sin.[18] This is described as akin to letting some- one drink poison without stopping him. [19] The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), the largest Lutheran Church in America, however, does not practice closed communion, but rather “eucharistic hospitality.”[20] In terms of guests receiving the Sacra- ment, according to this practice, the burden of decision of admittance to the Sacrament is not on the host con- gregation, but on its guests. The invitation to the Sacra- ment is extended to “all baptized persons,” along with “a brief written or oral statement in worship which teaches Christ’s presence in the sacrament.” In terms of members receiving the Sacrament, reception of the Sacrament is al- ways to include “continuing catechesis [which] include[s] instruction for Holy Communion,” but this is not a pre- requisite for first communion, and even infants may be permitted to receive the Sacrament at or after the service of their baptism.[20][21] 3.1.3 Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, comprising 14 or 15 autocephalous Orthodox hierarchical churches, is even more strictly a closed-communion Church. Thus, a member of the Russian Orthodox Church attend- ing the Divine Liturgy in a Greek Orthodox Church will be allowed to receive communion and vice versa but, although Protestants, non-Trinitarian Christians, or Catholics may otherwise fully participate in an Ortho- dox Divine Liturgy, they will be excluded from commu- nion. In the strictest sense, non-Orthodox may be present at the Divine Liturgy only up to the exclamation “The doors! The doors!" and ought to leave the church after that. However, this attitude has been relaxed in most Or- thodox churches; a non-communicant may stay and par- ticipate in the Divine Liturgy but may not partake of the Eucharist.[22] Thus, while in certain circumstances the Catholic Church allows its faithful who cannot approach a Catholic minister to receive the Eucharist from an East- ern Orthodox priest, the Eastern Orthodox Church does not admit them to receive the Eucharist from its ministers. At the very end of the Divine Liturgy, all people come up to receive a little piece of bread, called antidoron, which is blessed but not consecrated, being taken from the same loaf as the bread used in the consecration. Non-Orthodox present at the Liturgy are not only permitted but even en- couraged to receive the blessed bread as an expression of Christian fellowship and love. 3.1.4 Baptists Some Baptists practice closed communion even more strictly than the Catholic Church, Lutheran Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They restrict communion (or the Lord’s Supper) to members of the local church observing the ordinance. So thus, members from other churches, even members of other local churches of the same Baptist group are excluded from participating in the communion. The Strict Baptists in the United King-
  13. 13. 10 CHAPTER 3. CLOSED COMMUNION dom derive their name from this practice. In the United States, it is usually, but not exclusively, associated with Landmark ecclesiology. For a similar practice by some others, see “Close Communion”, below. The closed communion practiced by Primitive Baptists admits participation by Primitive Baptists who do not be- long to the local church.[23] 3.1.5 Other groups The Orthodox Presbyterian Church, the Reformed Pres- byterian Church, the Reformed Seventh-day Adventist Church, Exclusive Brethren, the Apostolic Christian Church, the Church of the Brethren, Mennonites, Amish, some Anglicans, the Church of God in Christ, the Church of God of Prophecy, and some other churches in the Reformed tradition such as Calvinists also practice closed communion. Jehovah’s Witnesses hold that only the 144,000 should receive communion. Other nontrinitar- ian Christians that practice closed communion include the Church of God (Seventh Day), Christadelphians, and Oneness Pentecostals such as the True Jesus Church.[24] 3.1.6 Latter Day Saints The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) serves communion to its members only al- though without forbidding others to participate, but the Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) practices open com- munion. 3.2 “Close Communion” Among the modern descendants of the Anabaptists, the Amish, Old Order Mennonites and Conservative Men- nonites all practice what they term close communion, re- stricting communion to members of a local congregation only. The term close communion normally means the same thing as closed communion. However, some make a dis- tinction, so the terms can be a source of confusion. The most prominent distinction (which in some circles may be called “cracked communion”) is one where a member of a congregation holding the “same faith and practice” as the hosting congregation (generally meaning being a member of a congregation in the same or a sim- ilar denomination) may participate in the service, but a member of another denomination may not. For example, a Southern Baptist congregation practicing close commu- nion might allow a member of another Southern Baptist congregation to participate, on the premise that both con- gregations are of the “same faith and practice” as they are both in the same denomination. Similarly, the Southern Franz Pieper, June 27, 1852 - June 3, 1931 Baptist congregation might allow a member of an Inde- pendent Baptist congregation to participate; though the congregations are of different denominations the differ- ences between them are mainly in the area of church or- ganization and not in doctrinal issues, thus falling under the “same faith and practice” rule. However, the con- gregation would thus exclude a Catholic, on the basis that Baptists and Catholics are not of the “same faith and practice”.[25] The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Australia allows communion to those who can assent to the first three terms of its church covenants, and discuss this with the elders ahead of time. They don't appear to distinguish the term “close communion” from “closed communion”, though. The earliest use of close communion comes from a mis- translation of the Lutheran theologian Franz August Otto Pieper’s Christian Dogmatics. The term has since spread, although both the first edition and later translations cor- rected the error to “closed communion.” [26] 3.3 Supporting belief Complex reasons underlie the belief. In 1 Corinthians 10, it is written: “The chalice of benediction which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread which we break, is it not the partaking of the body of the Lord? For we, being many, are one bread, one body: all that partake of one bread.” Since all Christians are now no longer of a unity that would al-
  14. 14. 3.5. COMMUNION TOKENS 11 low common celebration of the Eucharist between them all, the bread being a visible sign of union, communion is not taken together between separated Churches and communities. Additionally as described in 1Co 11:29: “For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord’s body.” It is deemed better to prevent outsiders from tak- ing communion than to risk them taking communion “un- worthily”. Catholics thus see the communion as sinful for those who do not recognise the Real Presence or who are otherwise 'unworthy', i.e. who are not in the 'right place' to accept the Eucharist (free of mortal sin). Christian communities that keep close communion often also have accountability within those members that partake of the communion, so that they do not run afoul of this problem. Such communities will also delay taking communion un- til the members (the church body) can take communion in Christian unity, as required by 1Co 11:33 “Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one for another.” Justin Martyr indicated that the second-century Chris- tian Church had three requirements for sharing in the Eu- charist: identity of belief, Christian baptism, and moral life. “No one may share in the eucharist except those who believe in the truth of our teachings and have been washed in the bath which confers forgiveness of sins and rebirth, and who live according to Christ’s commands” (First Apology, 66). Corporate responsibility is another argument often used in favour of closed communion. The Heidelberg Cate- chism, for example, says that those who “by confession and life, declare themselves unbelieving and ungodly” are not to be admitted to the Lord’s Supper, for then “the covenant of God would be profaned, and his wrath kin- dled against the whole congregation.” Church leaders are obliged to do all they can to ensure that this does not hap- pen, and hence “exclude such persons... till they show amendment of life,” (Q & A 82). 3.4 Fenced table In Protestant theology, a fenced table is a communion table which is open only to accredited members of the Christian community. Fencing the table is thus the op- posite of open communion, where the invitation to the sacrament is extended to “all who love the Lord” and members of any denomination are welcome at their own discretion. The phrase goes back to early Scottish Calvinism, where the communion table literally had a fence around it, with a gate at each end. The members of the congregation were allowed to pass the gate on showing their communion to- ken, a specially minted coin which served as an admission ticket and was given only to those who were in good stand- ing with the local congregation and could pass a test of the catechism. Examples of this kind of church furnishing are still to be seen in a very few highland churches. A communion token from South Leith Parish Church. The phrase “fencing the table” is also used metaphori- cally for other kinds of group demarcation and restrictive practices. 3.5 Communion tokens Main article: Communion token Many Scottish Protestant churches used to give tokens to members passing a religious test prior to the day of com- munion, then required the token for entry. Some US and other churches also used communion tokens. 3.6 See also • Open communion • Sister Churches (ecclesiology) 3.7 References [1] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §2 [2] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §3 [3] Directory for the Application of Principles and Norms on Ecumenism, 125
  15. 15. 12 CHAPTER 3. CLOSED COMMUNION [4] Directory for the Application of Principles and Norms on Ecumenism, 131 [5] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §4 [6] Code of Canon Law, canon 842 §1 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 675 §2 [7] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §1 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 671 §1 [8] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §3 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 671 §3 [9] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §4 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 671 §4 [10] Code of Canon Law, canon 844 §2 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 671 §2 [11] Communion of Non-Catholics or Intercommunion [12] WELS Topical Q&A: Romans 16:17 - What Kind of Warning Is This?, Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod [13] “Closed Communion” @ www.lcms.org. Retrieved 2010- 01-17. [14] Understanding Closed Communion, stating "Therefore, our Congregation and our Denomination practices what is called ‘close or closed Communion’, meaning that before you take Communion at our Churches, we ask you to take a Communion Class first to properly learn what Commu- nion is all about.", by Archive.org [15] Holy Communion - A Guide for Visitors [16] Christian Encyclopedia: Unionism. Retrieved 2014-06- 21. [17] “Need help explaining simply to Catholic the closed com- munion”. WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 27 Sep 2009. Retrieved 29 Jan 2015. [18] “Communion - Both “close” and “closed"". Forward in Christ. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 29 Jan 2015. [19] “Fellowship and Worship principles”. WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Retrieved 29 Jan 2015. [20] Use of the Means of Grace: A Statement on the Practice of Word and Sacrament, ELCA, 1997). [21] At what age do ELCA congregations allow members their first Communion?. Retrieved 2010-01-17. [22] Timothy Ware, “The Orthodox Church” 1963. [23] http://marchtozion.com/church/ 134-why-primitive-baptists-practice-closed-communion [24] http://www.cerm.info/bible_studies/Apologetics/ Oneness_pentecostalism.htm [25] Finn, Nathan (September 2006). “Baptism as a Prereq- uisite to the Lord’s Supper” (PDF). The Center for Theo- logical Research. p. 10. [26] Text from Minister to Minister, Sept. 1997 - Gerald Ki- eschnick, President Texas District 3.8 External links 3.8.1 Lutheran perspective • A closer look at close communion - Confessional Lutheran perspective • Close Communion: Its Basis and Practice, a Confes- sional Lutheran view, by Wisconsin Lutheran Sem- inary Library • What about Fellowship Official Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod statement regarding closed/close communion • The Biblical Practice of Closed Communion (PDF) - a Lutheran church-Missouri Synod view 3.8.2 Apostolic Christian Church perspec- tive • Closed Communion 3.8.3 Eastern Orthodox perspective • Ecclesiology and Communion 3.8.4 Baptist perspective • The Case for Closed Communion • Covenant Communion - a variation of the Closed Communion emphasis 3.8.5 Anabaptist perspective • The Lord’s Supper 3.8.6 Reformed perspective • Close Communion - American Presbyterian view • Terms of Communion - Reformed Presbyterian / Associate Presbyterian / United Presbyterian views 3.8.7 Roman Catholic perspective • Why does the Catholic Church have a closed Com- munion? and Who can receive Communion? • Relative part of the Roman Catholic Directory for the Application of Principles and Norms on Ecu- menism
  16. 16. Chapter 4 Koinonia For other uses, see Koinonia (disambiguation). Koinonia {coy NO nyah / coin IN ee ah) is a transliterated form of the Greek word, κοινωνία, which means com- munion, joint participation; the share which one has in anything, participation, a gift jointly contributed, a col- lection, a contribution, etc. It identifies the idealized state of fellowship and unity that should exist within the Christian church, the Body of Christ. 4.1 New Testament usage of koinonia The essential meaning of the koinonia embraces concepts conveyed in the English terms community, communion, joint participation, sharing and intimacy. Koinonia can therefore refer in some contexts to a jointly contributed gift.[1] The word appears 19 times in most editions of the Greek New Testament. In the New American Standard Bible, it is translated “fellowship” twelve times, “sharing” three times, and “participation” and “contribution” twice each.[2] In the New Testament, the basis of communion begins with a joining of Jesus with the community of the faith- ful. This union is also experienced in practical daily life. The same bonds that link the individual to Jesus also link him or her with other faithful. The New Testament letters describe those bonds as so vital and genuine that a deep level of intimacy can be experienced among the members of a local church.[3] The first usage of koinonia in the Greek New Testament is found in Acts 2:42-47, where a striking description of the common life shared by the early Christian believers in Jerusalem is given: Communion itself was the breaking of bread and the form of worship and prayer. It was in the breaking of the bread that the Apostles “recognized” Christ and it was in the breaking of bread, called Communion, that they cele- brated Christ’s Passion, Death and Resurrection in obedi- ence to his Last Supper instruction: “Do this in memory of me.” A special New Testament application of the word koinonia is to describe the Communion that existed at the celebration of the Lord’s Supper or sacrament of the Eucharist. For example, 1 Corinthians 10:16 (KJV) use the English word “communion” to represent the Greek word koinonia. “The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?" Any common meal certainly could represent a “sharing”. The koinonia is viewed as much deeper, how- ever, when the meal is associated with a spiritual purpose. Joining in the Lord’s Supper is uniting oneself with other believers in the objective reality of Christ’s death.[4] 4.2 The spiritual meaning of koinonia The word has such a multitude of meanings that no single English word is adequate to express its depth and richness. It is a derivative of “koinos”, the word for “common”. Koinonia is a complex, rich, and thoroughly fascinating Greek approach to building community or teamwork. Koinonia embraced a strong commitment to “kalos k'agathos” meaning “good and good”, an inner goodness toward virtue, and an outer goodness toward social re- lationships. In the context of outer goodness, translated into English, the meaning of koinonia holds the idea of joint participation in something with someone, such as in a community, or team or an alliance or joint venture. Those who have studied the word find there is always an implication of action included in its meaning. The word is meaning-rich too, since it is used in a variety of related contexts. 4.2.1 Sharing Koinonos means 'a sharer' as in to share with one another in a possession held in common as Christ would have it. It implies the spirit of generous sharing or the act of giv- ing as contrasted with selfish getting. When koinonia is present, the spirit of sharing and giving becomes tangible. In most contexts, generosity is not an abstract ideal, but 13
  17. 17. 14 CHAPTER 4. KOINONIA a demonstrable action resulting in a tangible and realistic expression of giving. In classical Greek, koinonein means “to have a share in a thing,” as when two or more people hold something, or even all things, in common. It can mean “going shares” with others, thereby having “business dealings” such as joint ownership of a ship. It can also imply “sharing an opinion” with someone, and therefore agreeing with him, or disagreeing in a congenial way. Only participation as a contributive member allows one to share in what oth- ers have. What is shared, received or given becomes the common ground through which Koinonia becomes real. 4.2.2 Relationships Koinonos in classical Greek means a companion, a part- ner or a joint-owner. Therefore, koinonia can imply an association, common effort, or a partnership in com- mon. The common ground by which the two parties are joined together creates an aligned relationship, such as a “fellowship” or “partnership”. In a papyrus announce- ment, a man speaks of his brother “with whom I have no koinonia”, meaning no business connection or com- mon interest. In the New Testament, (Luke 5:10) James, John, and Simon are called “partners” (koinonia). The joint participation was a shared fishing business. Two people may enter into marriage in order to have “koinonia of life”, that is to say, to live together a life in which everything is shared. Koinonia was used to refer to the marriage bond, and it suggested a powerful common interest that could hold two or more persons together. The term can also relate to a spiritual relationship. In this sense, the meaning something that is held and shared jointly with others for God, speaking to man’s “relation- ship with God”. Epictetus talks of religion as ‘aiming to have koinonia with Zeus". The early Christian commu- nity saw this as a relationship with the Holy Spirit. In this context, koinonia highlights a higher purpose or mission that benefits the greater good of the members as a whole. The term “enthusiasm” is connected to this meaning of koinonia for it signifies “to be imbued with the Spirit of God in Us.” To create a bond between comrades is the meaning of koinonia when people are recognized, share their joy and pains together, and are united because of their common experiences, interests and goals. Fellowship creates a mu- tual bond which overrides each individual’s pride, vanity, and individualism, fulfilling the human yearning with fra- ternity, belonging, and companionship. This meaning of koinonia accounts for the ease by which sharing and gen- erosity flow. When combined with the spiritual implica- tions of koinonia, fellowship provides a joint participation in God’s graces and denotes that common possession of spiritual values. Thus early Greco-Roman had a fellowship God, sharing the common experience of joys, fears, tears, and divine glory. In this manner, those who shared believed their true wealth lay not in what they had, but in what they gave to others. Fellowship is never passive in the meaning of koinonia, it is always linked to action, not just being to- gether, but also doing together. With fellowship comes a close and intimate relationship embracing ideas, commu- nication, and frankness, as in a true, blessed interdepen- dent friendship among multiple group members. 4.2.3 Community The idea of community denotes a “common unity” of pur- pose and interests. By engaging in this united relation- ship a new level of consciousness and conscience emerges that spurs the group to higher order thinking and action, thus empowering and encouraging its members to exist in a mutually beneficial relationship. Thus community and family become closely intertwined, because aiming at a common unity strives to overcome brokenness, di- visiveness, and, ultimately gaining wholeness with each of the members, with their environment, and with their God. By giving mutual support, friendship and family merge. Both fellowship and community imply an inner and outer unity. Nowhere in the framework of commu- nity is there implied a hierarchy of command and control. While there is leadership, the leader’s task is to focus en- ergy, and align interests, not impose control. Koinonia creates a brethren bond which builds trust and, especially when combined with the values of Wisdom, Virtue and Honor, overcomes two of humanity’s deep- est fears and insecurities: being betrayed and being de- meaned. Whether working collectively or individually, the inno- vators of ancient Greece worked for the greater good of the whole — to propel their community forward, to share their understanding with others so that all ships would rise on a rising tide. Thus loftier goals and dreams are more easily manifested in the mind and achieved in reality. The team’s sense of Purpose became manifest.[5] 4.3 The sacramental meaning of koinonia The Eucharist is the sacrament of communion with one another in the one body of Christ. This was the full meaning of eucharistic koinonia in the early Catholic Church.[6] St. Thomas Aquinas wrote, “the Eucharist is the sacrament of the unity of the Church, which results from the fact that many are one in Christ.”[7]
  18. 18. 4.8. BIBLIOGRAPHY 15 4.4 The problem associated with the etymological meaning of koinonia In his book Communitas (1998), Roberto Esposito sug- gests that “koinonia” is not “completely equivalent” to “communitas”, “communio”, or “ekklesia": “Indeed, one could argue that it is the ar- duous relation that the 'koinonia' has with the originary form of 'munus’ that distances it from its strictly ecclesiastical inflection.”[8] 4.5 See also • Communion (Christian) • Koinonia Partners (formerly Koinonia Farm), an intentional community founded on principles of koinonia 4.6 References [1] Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 352. [2] NAS Exhaustive Concordance [3] Richards, Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, p. 275- 276. [4] Robinson, “Communion; Fellowship,” in Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, pp. 752-753. [5] Lynch, “How the Greeks created the First Golden Age of Innovation”. [6] Hertling, L. Communion, Church and Papacy in Early Christianity Chicago: Loyola University, 1972. [7] ST III, 82. 2 ad 3; cf. 82. 9 ad 2. [8] ESPOSITO, Roberto ([1998]2010). Communitas. The Origin and Destiny of Community, tr. by Timothy Camp- bell, Standford: Stanford University Press, p.10 Read the full introduction Introduction: Nothing In Common 4.7 Further reading • Lewis-Elgidely, Verna. Koinonia in the Three Great Abrahamic Faiths: Acclaiming the Mystery and Di- versity of Faiths, Cloverdale Books, 2007. ISBN 978-1-929569-37-3 4.8 Bibliography • NAS Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible with Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Dictionaries. The Lockman Foundation. 1998 [1981]. • Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1979). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Grand Rapids, Michi- gan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. • Lynch, Robert Porter; Ninon Prozonic (2006). “How the Greeks created the First Golden Age of Innovation” (Word document). p. 14. Retrieved 2007-04-08. • Richards, Lawrence O. (1985). Expository Dictio- nary of Bible Words. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zon- dervan Corporation. • Thayer, Joseph H. (1885). Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zon- dervan Publishing House. 4.9 External links • Lexicon entry for koinonia, common domain
  19. 19. 16 CHAPTER 4. KOINONIA 4.10 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses 4.10.1 Text • Communion (Christian) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communion_(Christian)?oldid=682183559 Contributors: Fubar Obfusco, Michael Hardy, Choster, DonPaolo, Tom harrison, Andycjp, Lima, Pearle, Alansohn, Arthena, Isnow, Dodo78, Search4Lancer, ABot, Paul foord, RexNL, Chobot, YurikBot, Chooserr, Bota47, PTSE, Pukepail, Carabinieri, Luk, Tyr Anasazi, Rrburke, Tktktk, Dicklyon, Briancua, WeggeBot, Vaquero100, Cydebot, Gazzster, Epbr123, Lostcaesar, JAnDbot, Albany NY, Escarlati, Nyttend, NoychoH, DerHexer, Itohacs, Mufka, VolkovBot, SieBot, Bertelin, Steven Crossin, Techman224, ClueBot, Shark96z, CounterVandalismBot, Alexbot, Editor2020, Nel- lieBly, Addbot, Proofreader77, Some jerk on the Internet, Granpuff, Ptbotgourou, AnomieBOT, IRP, Kingpin13, James500, Danb11, FrescoBot, Esoglou, EmausBot, Zfish118, ChuispastonBot, ClueBot NG, Curb Chain, BattyBot, Iloilo Wanderer, Monkbot, Communion Pastor, Narky Blert and Anonymous: 62 • Open communion Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_communion?oldid=680574401 Contributors: Rmhermen, Stevertigo, Michael Hardy, Pseudo daoist, Kaihsu, Mxn, Wooster, Choster, UninvitedCompany, EdwinHJ, JHCC, Irpen, Herzen, Bender235, Lima, KitHutch, ParticleMan, Rockhopper10r, ADM, Alai, Aliceinlampyland, Lkjhgfdsa, Rchamberlain, Essjay, KHM03, BD2412, Lasun- ncty, Chekaz, RussBot, Icarus3, Veledan, Homagetocatalonia, Sjharte, Jackturner3, SmackBot, Raedwulf16, Bluebot, Radagast83, Pwjb, Prenna, Robofish, Dl2000, CmdrObot, Anupam, Alexander Domanda, Lord Pheasant, Jim.henderson, Rev. John, ULC, TXiKiBoT, Ksv~enwiki, PMAOpus, Synthebot, Swliv, CathyinTX, Binksternet, BoBoMisiu, Shark96z, Ohsimone, Srvfan84, Elizium23, Addbot, Tarheelz123, Fraggle81, Rsquire3, Enchantedeve, AnomieBOT, DrilBot, Kyledi, Steve03Mills, Esoglou, Mgrate, ZéroBot, Brandmeister, Marcocapelle, Khazar2, Penglish86, Ashbeckjonathan, WisconsinBoyClevelandRocks228844, Monkbot and Anonymous: 42 • Closed communion Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed_communion?oldid=683117825 Contributors: Rmhermen, Michael Hardy, Pseudo daoist, Darkwind, Charles Matthews, CTSWyneken, Choster, UninvitedCompany, Rlvaughn, Exonumia, Trc, JHCC, Gary D, Didactohedron, Kate, Herzen, Lima, RazorChicken, Tom Yates, Ciaran H, Preost, Ron Ritzman, UFu, KHM03, Mandarax, Lawrence King, Afterwriting, Musical Linguist, Carolynparrishfan, TimNelson, Veledan, Kitabparast, Deville, Ray Chason, Jackturner3, SmackBot, Quidam65, Bistropha, Kingdon, Radagast83, Zen611, MainBody, Epiphyllumlover, Taram, InfernoXV, ERAGON, Pseudo-Richard, Cy- debot, Thijs!bot, Anupam, Seaphoto, ARTEST4ECHO, Instinct, Magioladitis, AuburnPilot, Gtg204y, TAU Croesus, Synthebot, StAnselm, Bertelin, Ptolemy Caesarion, Vanished user ewfisn2348tui2f8n2fio2utjfeoi210r39jf, Anchor Link Bot, James2c19v, BoBoMisiu, Shark96z, Ohsimone, Elizium23, John Paul Parks, Bazj, Addbot, Tarheelz123, Yobot, AnomieBOT, Schetm, SD5, Routerone, Novaseminary, Boy- wiz, Kyledi, Einie101, Steve03Mills, Esoglou, Hazhk, BG19bot, HGK745, Jfhutson, FoCuSandLeArN, Ashbeckjonathan, AsteriskStar- Splat and Anonymous: 58 • Koinonia Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koinonia?oldid=680442910 Contributors: Amillar, Smith03, DJ Clayworth, Mike Rosoft, Lima, Viriditas, I9Q79oL78KiL0QTFHgyc, SidP, SDC, BD2412, FlaBot, CarolGray, RussBot, BOT-Superzerocool, Schultkl, SmackBot, Sbender, Bluebot, Madmedea~enwiki, Timoricha, Shadowlynk, CmdrObot, Audiori, Amalas, Cydebot, Robert Porter Lynch, Samwisep86, Luna Santin, Gkoehler70, Nyttend, Itohacs, NewEnglandYankee, Parneix, Dampinograaf, Zainaldin, Gimlic, Ferengi, LovedByYesu, Billy- hftang, Xerzes, Oxymoron83, El bot de la dieta, Catalographer, Koinoniamusiccenter, Addbot, Sanelsp, LemmeyBOT, 1oddbins1, Brochan, Blcasey, Jason.Cook599, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, KarlsenBot, Rabanus Flavus, Wbm1058, Mathisdt, Jfhutson, BattyBot, Mikeprescott, AstrophysicistTheologian, Monkbot, Narky Blert and Anonymous: 41 4.10.2 Images • File:Ambox_globe_content.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Ambox_globe_content.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, using File:Information icon3.svg and File:Earth clip art.svg Original artist: penubag • File:Ambox_important.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Ambox_important.svg License: Public do- main Contributors: Own work, based off of Image:Ambox scales.svg Original artist: Dsmurat (talk · contribs) • File:FranzPieper.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/FranzPieper.jpg License: Public domain Contribu- tors: American Lutheran biographies, http://books.google.com/books?id=yI0cAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA589&dq Original artist: Jens Chris- tian Roseland • File:Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0 Contributors: Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. 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