3 "AIR POWERED CAR" BY SAINATH GANGADHAR PASHAWAR (BE INSTRUMENTATION)
One cannot accurately claim that compressed air as energy and locomotion vector is
recent technology. At the end of the 19th century, the first approximations to what could one
day become a compressed air driven vehicle already existed, with the arrival of the first
In fact, two centuries before that Dennis Pippin apparently came up with the idea of
using compressed air (Royal Society London, 1687). In 1872 the Mekarski air engine was
used for street transit, consisting of a single stage engine. It represented an extremely
important advance in terms of pneumatic engines, due to its forward thinking use of
thermodynamics, which ensured that the air was heated, by passing it through tanks of boiling
water, which also increased its range between fill-ups. Numerous locomotives were
manufactured and a number of regular lines were opened up (the first in Nantes in 1879). In
1892, Robert Hardie introduced a new method of heating that at the same time served to
increase the range of the engine.
We know that world is facing fuel crisis now. All kinds of conventional fuel sources
of fuel are on the verge of exhaustion. Gasoline which has been the main source of fuel for
the history of cars is becoming more and more expensive and impractical. These factors are
leading car manufacturers to develop car fuelled by alternative energy. The cost is not only
the problem it is also damaging the environment eventually. Out of all alternatives air
powered car is one possible alternative. Air powered Cars run on compressed air instead of
gasoline. This car is powered by 2 gas cylinder engines. Compressed air is stored in glass or
fiber tank at a pressure of approximately 4351 psi. This would most likely be the evolution of
zero pollution cars.
Compressed Air Technology is now widely preferred for research by different
industries for developing different drives for different purposes. The Compressed Air
Technology is quite simple. If we compress normal air into a cylinder the air would hold
some energy within it. This energy can be utilized for useful purposes. When this compressed
air expands, the energy is released to do work. So this energy in compressed air can also be
utilized to displace a piston. This is the basic working principle of the Air Driven Engine. It
uses the expansion of compressed air to drive the pistons of the engine. So an Air Driven
Engine is basically a pneumatic actuator that creates useful work by expanding compressed
air. This work provided by the air is utilized to supply power to the crankshaft of the engine.
In the case of an Air Driven Engine, there is no combustion taking place within the engine.
So it is non-polluting and less dangerous. It requires lighter metal only since it does not have
to withstand elevated temperature
1.2 What? An Air Powered Car?
Tata Motors, India is ready to introduce the Air Car...Will it be the next big thing?
Tata Motors is taking giant strides and making history for itself. First the Land
Rover/Jaguar deal, then the world’s cheapest car, and now it is also set to introduce the
car that runs on compressed air. India’s largest automaker, Tata Motors, is set to start
producing the world’s first commercial, air-powered vehicle. This will be the World’s First
Air Powered Car with Zero Emissions ready by next summer. This six-seater, which
should be available in India nextyear, is powered entirely by a tank filled with compressed
air. The Air Car, developed by ex-Formula One Engineer Guy Negre for Luxenbourg-based
MDI uses compressed air, as opposed to the gas-andoxygen explosions of internal
combustion models, to push its engine’s pistons. Some 6000 zero-emissions Air Cars are
scheduled to hit Indian streets by August 2012. The Air Car, called the “MiniCAT” could
cost around $8177 (in India RS 3,475,225) and would have a range of around 300 km
between refuels. The cost of a refill would be about RS 85 ($2). The MiniCAT which is a
simple, light urban car, with a tubular chassis that is glued, not welded, and a body of
fiberglass powered by compressed air, with microcontrollers used in every device in the car,
so that one tiny radio transmitter sends instructions to the lights, indicators, etc. There are no
keys—just an access card which can be read by the car from your pocket. Its mileage is
about double that of the most advanced electric car (200 to 300 km or 10 hours of driving), a
factor which makes a perfect choice in cities where 80% of motorists drive at less than 60
km. According to the designers, it costs less than 50 rupees per 100 km (about a tenth of that
of a petrol car). The car has a top speed of 105 mph. Actually the car will, once the market
develops, go to adapted petrol stations to administer compressed
air. In 2 or 3 minutes, and at a cost of approximately 100 rupees, the car will be ready to go
another 200-300 kilometers.
As a viable alternative, the car carries a small compressor which can be connected to
any main power source (220v - 380v) and refills the tank in 3-4 hours. Due to the absence of
combustion, changing the oil (1 litre of vegetable oil) is necessary only every 50,000 km. The
temperature of the clean air expelled by the exhaust pipe is between 0-15 degrees below zero,
which makes it suitable for use by the internal air conditioning system with no need for gases
or loss of power. Exciting to say the least!
At the end of the 19th century the first approximations to what could one day become
a compressed air driven vehicle already existed, through the arrival of the first pneumatic
locomotives. Yet even two centuries before that Dennis Papin came up with the idea of using
compressed air (Royal Society London, 1687). The first recorded compressed-air vehicle in
France was built by the Frenchmen Andraud and Tessie of Motay in 1838. A car was tested
in 1840, and worked well, but the idea was not pursued further.
Figure 2.1 shows the some early compressed air vehicles.
Figure 2.2 shows MDI vehicles .
Figure 2.1: Some early compressed air vehicles
Figure 2.2: MDI vehicles
In principle the technology is very similar to the internal combustion system in
that compressed air is used to drive a piston in a barrel. The secret of the engine lies in the
way it efficiently converts the energy stored in the tanks of compressed air. By way of
explanation, it has long been known that to compress air to high pressures a staged
process should be used, compressing air to first 50 bars, then to 150 bars then three
hundred and so on. This technique, commonly employed by the air and gas liquefaction
industries, uses a fraction of the energy used to compress the gas in one operation. The
secret of the compressed air motor is simply to reverse the process - decompress the air in
stages and in so doing efficiently release energy at each point in the chain. To compensate
for the cooling effect that takes place, a thermal exchanger heats the compressed air using
the warmth of external air. This process is repeated as many times as possible to extract
the maximum energy efficiency from the compressed air.
COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY
Mankind has been making use of uncompressed airpower from centuries in different
application viz., windmills, sailing, balloon car, hot air balloon flying and hang gliding etc.
The use of compressed air for storing energy is a method that is not only efficient and clean,
but also economical and has been used since the 19th century to power mine locomotives,
and was previously the basis of naval torpedo propulsion. The laws of physics dictate that
uncont*ained gases will* fill any given space. The easiest way to see this in action is to
inflate a balloon. The elastic skin of the balloon holds the air tightly inside, but the moment
you use a pin to create a hole in the balloon's surface, the air expands outward with so much
energy that the balloon explodes. Compressing a gas into a small space is a way to store
energy. When the gas expands again, that energy is released to do work. That's the basic
principle behind what makes an air car go. The air compressors are built into them.
The principle of compressed-air propulsion is to pressurize the storage tank and then
connect it to something very like a reciprocating steam engine of the vehicle. Instead of
mixing fuel with air and burning it in the engine to drive pistons with hot expanding gases,
compressed air vehicles (CAV) use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons.
Thus, making the technology free from difficulties, both technical and medical, of using
ammonia, petrol, or carbon disulphide as the working fluid. Manufacturers claim to have
designed engine that is 90 percent efficient. The air is compressed at pressure about 150 times
the rate the air is pressurized into car tyres or bicycle. The tanks must be designed to safety
standards appropriate for a pressure vessel. The storage tank may be made of steel,
aluminium, carbon fiber, Kevlar or other materials, or combinations of the above. The fiber
materials are considerably lighter than metals but generally more expensive. Metal tanks can
withstand a large number of pressure cycles, but must be checked for corrosion periodically.
A company has stated to store air in tanks at 4,500 pounds per square inch (about 30 MPa)
and hold nearly 3,200 cubic feet (around 90 cubic metres) of air. The tanks may be refilled at
a service station equipped with heat exchangers, or in a few hours at home or in parking lots,
plugging the vehicle into an on-board compressor. The cost of driving such a car is typically
projected to be around Rs. 60 per 100 km, with a complete refill at the "tank-station" at about
Rs. 120 only.
The compression, storage and release of the air together are termed as the Compressed
Air Technology. This technology has been utilized in different pneumatic systems. This
technology has been undergoing several years of research to improve its applications.
Compressed air is regarded as the fourth utility, after electricity, natural gas, and
water. Compressed air can be used in or for:
· Pneumatics, the use of pressurized gases to do work.
· Vehicular transportation using a compressed air vehicle
· Scuba diving
· To inflate buoyancy devices.
· Cooling using a vortex tube.
· Gas dusters for cleaning electronic components that cannot be cleaned with water.
· Air brake (rail) systems
· Air brake (road vehicle) systems
· starting of diesel engines (an alternative to electric starting)
· compressed air breathers (such as Suisse Air)
· Pneumatic air guns
· Pneumatic screwdrivers
It uses the expansion of compressed air to drive the pistons in a modified piston
engine. Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal
temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank. This nonadiabatic expansion has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the machine.
The only exhaust gas is cold air (−15 °C), which may also be used for air
conditioning in a car. The source for air is a pressurized glass or carbon-fiber tank holding air
at around 3,000 lbf/in² (20 MPa). Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional
injection system. Unique crank design within the engine increases the time during which the
air charge is warmed from ambient sources and a two stage process allows improved heat
The properties of air car engine are:
· Approximately 90m3 of compressed air is stored in fiber tank in the vehicle.
· The engine is powered by compressed air, stored in a carbon-fiber tank at 30MPa.
The tank is made of carbon fiber in order to reduce its weight.
· The engine has injection similar to normal, but uses special crankshaft and piston,
which remains at top dead centre for about 700 of crankshaft rotation.
· The expansion of this air pushes the piston and creates movement. The atmospheric
temperature is used to reheat the engine and increase the road coverage.
· The air condition system makes use of the expelled cold air.
We only needed a simple piston-cylinder arrangement with an outlet and an exhaust.
But as we know a normal two stroke engine contained several ports and it also had the spark
plug which we didn’t require. So, several modifications had to be done on the engine to suit
our purpose. The modifications comprised of:
· Closing the transfer port
· Closing the inlet port
· Removing the spark plug from the cylinder head
· Providing an inlet at the place of the spark plug
· Providing a suitable connector at the cylinder head.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF AIR CAR
The following Table 4.1 shows The Technical Specifications of a MINICAT vehicle
Table 4.1: Technical specifications of a Minicat vehicle
Number of seats
Urban range (zero
CO2 emission in
CO2 emission in
5.1 HOW IT WORKS
Figure No:5.1 Working of Air Car
Our engines have attracted much curiosity and prompted many questions. For various
reasons, one of which is industrial secrecy, we haven't published all technical details on this
Figure 5.1 shows Working of Air Car.
However, over the coming months, just before we begin serial production, we've
decided to reproduce an unprecedented amount of information and data on the famous "MDI
After ten years of research and development of pollution-free engines and cars
powered by compressed air, MDI is proud to present:
Gasoline is already the fuel of the past. It might not seem that way as you fill up on
your way to work, but the petroleum used to make it is gradually running out. It also
pollutes air that's becoming increasingly unhealthy to breathe, and people no longer want
to pay the high prices that oil companies are charging for it. Automobile manufacturers
know all of this and have spent lots of time and money to find and develop the fuel of the
The search is on, but what will this fuel of the future be? Ready-made fuels like
petroleum are becoming more difficult to find and automobile manufacturers are turning
to greener energy sources like batteries. These batteries can be charged with energy and
placed in a car where that energy can be released. As good as that idea might seem, some
manufacturers think air could become an even better energy source.
Air? At first glance, the idea of running a car on air seems almost too good to be true.
If we can use air as fuel, why think about using anything else? Air is all around us. Air
never runs out. Air is nonpolluting. Best of all, air is free.
5.2 THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE CAT'S 34
Figure 5.2 shows working compressed Air Engine (CAE).
Figure 5.3 shows compressed Air Engine.
Figure 5.2:Fig Shows working Compressed Air Engine
Figure No.5.3: Compressed Air Engine
Its flywheel is equipped with a 5kW electric moto-alternator. This motor is
the motor to compress air
the starting motor
the alternator for recharging the battery
an electric moderator/brake
a temporary power supply (e.g. for parking)
No clutch is necessary. The engine is idle when the car is stationary and the vehicle is
started by the magnetic plate which re-engages the compressed air. Parking manoeuvres are
powered by the electric motor.
Figure No 5.4 :-The graph shows the working
The CAT's 34 P04 engine is equipped with patented variable-volume butts and a
dynamic variable-volume volumetric reducer.
The Graph 5.4 shows the Working of Compressed Air Engine.
PARTS OF AIR CAR
6.1 COMPRESSED AIR TANK
Figure No.6.1 Compressed Air Tank & Materia Used
Figure 5.4 shows The Compressed Air Tank.
Compressed air tank are one of the most important part of these cars. These tanks hold
90m3 of air to 300 bars. It is similar to the tanks used to carry the liquid gas. The tank enjoys
the same technology developed to containing natural gas. These tanks do not explode in case
of accidents since there are no metals in them.
6.2 BRAKE POWER RECOVERY
The MDI vehicles will be equipped with a range of modern systems. For example,
one mechanism stops the engine when the car is stationary (at traffic lights, junctions etc).
Another interesting feature is the pneumatic system which recovers about 13% of the power
6.3 THE BODY
Figure No.6.2:- The Body Of Air Car
The car body is built with fibre and injected foam, as are most of the cars on the
market today. This technology has two main advantages: cost and weight. Nowadays the use
of sheet steel for car bodies is only because of cost - it is cheaper to serially produce sheet
steel bodies than fibre ones. However, fibre is safer (it doesn´t cut like steel), is easier to
repair (it is glued), doesn´t rust etc.
Figure 5.5 shows Body Of Air Car
6.4 THE AIR FILTER
Figure No.6.3:- The Air Filter
The engine works with both air taken from the atmosphere and air pre-compressed in tanks.
Air is compressed by the on-board compressor or at service stations equipped with a highpressure compressor. Before compression, the air must be filtered to get rid of any impurities
that could damage the engine. Carbon filters are used to eliminate dirt, dust, humidity and
other particles which, unfortunately, are found in the air in our cities.
This represents a true revolution in automobiles - it is the first time that a car has
produced minus pollution, i.e. it eliminates and reduces existing pollution rather than emitting
dirt and harmful gases. The exhaust pipe on the cars produces clean air, which is cold on exit
(between -15º and 0º) and is harmless to human life. With this system the air that comes out
of the car is cleaner than the air that went in.
Figure 5.6 shows the Air Filter
6.5 THE CHASSIS
Figure No.6.4:- The chassis for Air Car
Fig. no.6.4 The chassis for Air Car.
Based on its experience in aeronautics, engine has put together highly-resistant, yet
light, chassis, aluminium rods glued together. Using rods enables to build a more shockresistant chassis than regular chassis. Additionally, the rods are glued in the same way as
aircraft, allowing quick assembly and a more secure join than with welding. This system
helps to reduce manufacture time.
6.6 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Guy Nègre, inventor of the MDI Air Car, acquired the patent for an interesting
invention for installing electrics in a vehicle. Using a radio transmission system, each
electrical component receives signals with a microcontroller. Thus only one cable is needed
for the whole car. So, instead of wiring each component (headlights, dashboard lights, lights
inside the car, etc), one cable connects all electrical parts in the car. The most obvious
advantages are the ease of installation and repair and the removal of the approximately 22 kg
of wires no longer necessary. What more, the entire system becomes an anti-theft alarm as
soon as the key is removed from the car.
6.7 DISTRIBUTION AND VALVES
To ensure smooth running and to optimize energy efficiency, air engines use a simple
electromagnetic distribution system, which controls the flow of air into the engine. This
system runs on very little energy and alters neither the valve phase nor its rise. No clutch is
necessary. The engine is idle when the car is stationary and the vehicle is started by the
magnetic plate, which re-engages the compressed air. Parking manoeuvres are powered by
the electric motor. The P04 engine is equipped with patented variable- volume butts and a
dynamic variable-volume volumetric reducer. The engines can be equipped with and run on
dual energies - fossil fuels and compressed air - and incorporate a reheating mechanism
between the storage tank and the engine. This mechanism allows the engine to run
exclusively on fossil fuel, which permits compatible autonomy on the road. While the car is
running on fossil fuel, the compressor refills the compressed air tanks. The control system
maintains a zero-pollution emission in the city at speeds up to 60 km/h.
6.8 THE SOLENOID VALVE
A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas. The valve is
controlled by an electric current through a solenoid coil. Solenoid valves are the most
frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose,
distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas.
For controlling the air flow in and out of the engine we use a 3/2 pilot operated
normally closed valve. The symbol of the 3/2 valve is as shown:
The specifications of the valve are the following:
· Orifice: 12mm.
· Operating pressure range: 2-10bar
· Flow rate: 3000Litres/minute
· Coil width: 32mm.
· Voltage: 24V DC
· Duty cycle: Continuous
REFILLING OF AIR
7.1 Three modes for fueling tank:
7.1.1 Air Stations
7.1.2 Domestic electric plug
7.1.3 Dual-energy mode
Figure No.7.1:- Refuelling Air Car At Air Stations
Figure No.7.2 :- Refueling Air Car by Air Compressor
Figure shows .7.1 Refuelling Air Car At Air Stations
Figure shows 7.2 Refueling Air Car by Air Compressor at home.
As these energies are so easy to store Filling stations are setup as for petrol and diesel.
The filling of tank of an air car nearly takes 3 to 4 minutes for cars.
1. The air can be filled at our home by using Air Compressor ,but it requires 3 to 4
2. And the air can be filled in Air Stations and it requires just 2 to 3 minutes.
3.And we can use the fuel for more than 70 km/hr.
8.1 Computer Screen Showing the speed the car
8.2 Internet Connection
8.3 GPS device
Figure No. 8.1:- Facilities of the Air Car
· There is absolutely no fuel required and no combustion in the engine cylinder.
· There is no pollution at all as only air is taken in and air is ejected out.
· No Heat is generated, as there is no combustion.
· No engine cooling system is required, like water Pump, radiator, and water
Circulating pipes. It was measured practically that the engine exhaust is a cooled air; its
temperature was measured as low as 5 degrees Celsius.
· No air conditioning system in the car is required if used, the exhaust chilled and
clean air can be recirculated partly in the car to cool it.
· The atmospheric temperature can fall down, as the exhaust is a clean and chilled air,
so the problem of pollution can be permanently eradicated.
· Very less maintenance is required as there won’t be any soot formation.
· Very low cost materials can be used, as there is no heat involvement.
· Weight of the engine can be reduced in the absence of cooling system and because
of lightweight material, which will improve the mileage and efficiency.
· In case of leakage or accident, there won’t be any fire.
· Engine vibrations were very less and sound pollution was also very low.
· Operating cost is ten times less than that of gasoline engine.
The following table 8.1 gives the comparison with competition.
COMPARISON WITH COMPITITION
The following table No. 9.1 shows the Comparison with Compitition.
Table no.9.1 shows The Comparison with Comppetition.
9.1 RUNNING COST ANALYSIS
Preliminary analysis based on the prototype calculations shows that around three
cubic meter of air at a pressure more than 30bar can give a mileage equivalent to one liter of
petrol. In India one-liter petrol is Rs 52, and cost of production of one cubic meter of air at a
pressure of 50bar is Rs 3. Hence air of Rs 9 can give the mileage of Rs 52 of petrol. However
if air is mass compressed and produced the cost will further come down.
ADVANTAGES OF AIR POWERED CAR
10.1 ADVANTAGES OF ENGINE
Figure No.10.1:- Modern Air Cars by MDI.
· less costly and more effective
· The air engine is an emission-free piston engine that uses compressed air as a source
· Simple in construction. The engine can be massively reduced in size
· Easy to maintain and repair.
· No fire hazard problem due to over loading. Air, on its own, is non-flammable.
· Low manufacture and maintenance costs
· Comparatively the operation cost is less.
· Light in weight and easy to handle. The engine runs on cold or warm air, so can be
made of lower strength light weight material such as aluminium, plastic, low friction Teflon
or a combination
· Compressed-air tanks can be disposed of or recycled with less pollution than
· Compressed-air engines are unconstrained by the degradation problems associated
with current battery systems.
· The air tank may be refilled more often and in less time than batteries can be
recharged, with re-filling rates comparable to liquid fuels.
· Lighter vehicles cause less damage to roads
· The price of filling air tanks is significantly cheaper than petrol, diesel or bio fuel. If
electricity is cheap, then compressing air will also be relatively cheap
· Quick response is achieved.
10.2 ADVANTAGES OF ALL COMPRESSED AIR CAR
1. The costs involved to compress the air to be used in a vehicle are inferior to the costs
involved to fuel a normal combustion engine.
2. Air is abundant, economical, transportable, storable and, most importantly,
3. The technology involved with compressed air reduces the production costs of vehicles
by 20% because it is not necessary to assemble a refrigeration system, a fuel tank,
spark plugs or silencers.
4. Air itself is not flammable
5. The mechanical design of the motor is simple and robust
6. It does not suffer from corrosion damage resulting from the battery.
7. Less manufacturing and maintenance costs.
8. The tanks used in an air compressed motor can be discarded or recycled with less
contamination than batteries.
9. The tanks used in a compressed air motor have a longer lifespan in comparison with
batteries, which, after a while suffer from a reduction in performance.
10. Some of the air used is returned to the air tank.
Distance could also become a disadvantage, depending on your travel habits. The distance
that an air car can cover without refueling is crucial because very few filling stations will
have compressed air pumps available at first. If you only plan to use your air car for short
commutes -- distances less than 100 miles --will be fine. However, the one-to-two hour wait
for the car's built-in air compressor to compress a tank full of air could become a problem on
cross-country trips. Zero Pollution Motors -- the American arm of MDI and the company
likeliest to produce the first air car for the U.S. market -- aims to have a car available soon
able to travel between 800 and 1,000 miles on one tank of air plus 8 gallons of gas [source:
Cornell]. Early prototypes, however, have traveled distances closer to 120 miles – good
enough for your daily commute, but not quite adequate for longer trips [source: Motavalli].
What will happen if an air car suffers damage in an accident? After all, compressed air tanks
can be dangerous. To reduce this danger, the air tanks are made of carbon fiber and are
designed to crack, rather than shatter, in a crash. This crack would allow the "fuel" to escape
harmlessly into the surrounding air. Manufacturers feared that air escaping from one end of
the tank could produce a rocket-like effect and propel the car on a jet of air. The valve on the
cars' fuel tanks has been placed on the side to minimize this effect.
11.1 THE DUAL ENERGY SYSTEM
The Series 34 CAT's engines can be equipped with and run on dual energies - fossil
fuels and compressed air - and incorporate a reheating mechanism (a continuous combustion
system, easily controlled to minimize pollution) between the storage tank and the engine.
This mechanism allows the engine to run exclusively on fossil fuel which permits
compatible autonomy on the road.
While the car is running on fossil fuel, the compressor refills the compressed air
tanks. The control system maintains a zero-pollution emission in the city at speeds up to
11.2 FEW MODELS
Figure No. 11.1:- Few models by MDI co. France
11.3 AIR CAR IN INDIA BY TATA MOTORS
AIR CAR IN INDIA
Tata Motors has signed an agreement with Moteur Development International of
France to develop a car that runs on compressed air, thus making it very economical to run
and almost totally pollution free. Although there is no official word on when the car will be
commercially manufactured for India, reports say that it will be sooner than later. The car MiniCAT - could cost around Rs 350,000 in India and would have arange of around 300 km
between refuels. The cost of a refill would be about Rs 90. In the single energy mode MDI
cars consume around Rs 45 every 100 km. Figure 6 shows the proposed air car for India. The
smallest and most innovative (three seats, minimal dimensions with the boot of a saloon), it is
a great challenge for such a small car which runs on compressed air. The MiniCAT is the city
car of the future. Figure 11.2 shows the Air Car in India by TATA MOTORS.
Figure No.11.2:- Shows The Air Car India by TATA MOTORS
The Air Car Which Is The Result Of A Long Research And Development Is A Clean,
Easy To Drive, High Performance Car. The End Product Is A Light Weight Vehicle That Can
Reach Speeds Up To 220 Km/H (Even Though The Legal Limit Is 120), A Product That
Does Not Pollute Like Twentieth Century Vehicles And Does Not Take A Lifetime To Pay
Off. Essentially, MDI Has Developed A Modern, Clean, And Cheap Car That Meets Most
Air cars is a realization of latest technology in automobile field. The air car is a clean,
easy to drive, light weight and high performance car.
It eliminates the use of non-renewable fuels and Thereby preventing pollution and
step to a healthier environment.
The Mexico government scheduled to replace 45000 cars by air car in highly polluted
area of their country
The end product is a light weight vehicle that can reach speeds up to 220 km/h (even
though the legal limit is 120), does not pollute like twentieth century vehicles and
does not take a lifetime to pay off.
The Principle Advantages For An Air Powered Vehicle Are:
· Fast Recharge Time
· Long Storage Lifetime (Electric Vehicle Batteries Have A Limited Useful Number
Of Cycles, And Sometimes A Limited Calendar Lifetime, Irrespective Of Use).
· Potentially Lower Initial Cost Than Battery Electric Vehicles When Mass Produced.
The Emission Benefits Of Introducing This Zero Emission Technology Are Obvious.
At The Same Time The Well To Wheels Efficiency Of These Vehicles Need To Be
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. Sullivan, Matt. "Air-Powered Car Coming to U.S. in 2009 to 2010 at Sub$18,000, Could Hit 1000-Mile Range." Popular Mechanics. February 22, 2008. (9/28/2008)
. Chapa, Jorge. "MDI Compressed Air Car." Inhabitat.com. June 1, 2007.
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. Internet website www.theaircar.com
. Internet website www.hawstuffworks.com
. Internet website www.zeropollutuion.com
. Internet website, www.peswiki.com