CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
One cannot accurately claim that compressed air as energy and locomotion vector i...
1.2 What? An Air Powered Car?

Tata Motors, India is ready to introduce the Air Car...Will it be the next big thing?
Tata ...
As a viable alternative, the car carries a small compressor which can be connected to
any main power source (220v - 380v) ...
CHAPTER 2

BRIEF HISTORY
At the end of the 19th century the first approximations to what could one day become
a compressed...
Figure 2.2: MDI vehicles
In principle the technology is very similar to the internal combustion system in
that compressed ...
CHAPTER 3

COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY
Mankind has been making use of uncompressed airpower from centuries in different
appl...
materials are considerably lighter than metals but generally more expensive. Metal tanks can
withstand a large number of p...
· The engine has injection similar to normal, but uses special crankshaft and piston,
which remains at top dead centre for...
CHAPTER 4

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF AIR CAR
The following Table 4.1 shows The Technical Specifications of a MINICAT veh...
WORKING
5.1 HOW IT WORKS

Figure No:5.1 Working of Air Car
Our engines have attracted much curiosity and prompted many que...
pollutes air that's becoming increasingly unhealthy to breathe, and people no longer want
to pay the high prices that oil ...
Figure No.5.3: Compressed Air Engine
Its flywheel is equipped with a 5kW electric moto-alternator. This motor is
simultane...
Figure No 5.4 :-The graph shows the working

The CAT's 34 P04 engine is equipped with patented variable-volume butts and a...
CHAPTER 6

PARTS OF AIR CAR
6.1 COMPRESSED AIR TANK

Figure No.6.1 Compressed Air Tank & Materia Used
Figure 5.4 shows The...
6.3 THE BODY

Figure No.6.2:- The Body Of Air Car
The car body is built with fibre and injected foam, as are most of the c...
6.4 THE AIR FILTER

Figure No.6.3:- The Air Filter

The engine works with both air taken from the atmosphere and air pre-c...
6.5 THE CHASSIS

Figure No.6.4:- The chassis for Air Car
Fig. no.6.4 The chassis for Air Car.
Based on its experience in a...
6.7 DISTRIBUTION AND VALVES
To ensure smooth running and to optimize energy efficiency, air engines use a simple
electroma...
CHAPTER 7

REFILLING OF AIR
7.1 Three modes for fueling tank:
7.1.1 Air Stations
7.1.2 Domestic electric plug
7.1.3 Dual-e...
Figure shows .7.1 Refuelling Air Car At Air Stations
Figure shows 7.2 Refueling Air Car by Air Compressor at home.
As thes...
CHAPTER 8

SPECIAL FEATURES

8.1 Computer Screen Showing the speed the car
8.2 Internet Connection
8.3 GPS device

Figure ...
· No engine cooling system is required, like water Pump, radiator, and water
Circulating pipes. It was measured practicall...
CHAPTER 9

COMPARISON WITH COMPITITION
The following table No. 9.1 shows the Comparison with Compitition.
Table no.9.1 sho...
CHAPTER 10

ADVANTAGES OF AIR POWERED CAR
10.1 ADVANTAGES OF ENGINE

Figure No.10.1:- Modern Air Cars by MDI.
· less costl...
· The air tank may be refilled more often and in less time than batteries can be
recharged, with re-filling rates comparab...
What will happen if an air car suffers damage in an accident? After all, compressed air tanks
can be dangerous. To reduce ...
CHAPTER 11

FUTURE SCOPE
11.1 THE DUAL ENERGY SYSTEM
The Series 34 CAT's engines can be equipped with and run on dual ener...
11.3 AIR CAR IN INDIA BY TATA MOTORS
AIR CAR IN INDIA
Tata Motors has signed an agreement with Moteur Development Internat...
CHAPTER 12

CONCLUSION
The Air Car Which Is The Result Of A Long Research And Development Is A Clean,
Easy To Drive, High ...
CHAPTER 13

REFERENCES
[1]. Gizmag.com. "French auto runs on compressed air technology." December 2,
2004. (9/30/2008)http...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

3 "AIR POWERED CAR" BY SAINATH GANGADHAR PASHAWAR (BE INSTRUMENTATION)

1,849 views

Published on

This file gives the brief report of AIR POWERED CAR ,It include introduction ....... to Conclusion & References Parts.
Thank you.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,849
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
314
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

3 "AIR POWERED CAR" BY SAINATH GANGADHAR PASHAWAR (BE INSTRUMENTATION)

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction One cannot accurately claim that compressed air as energy and locomotion vector is recent technology. At the end of the 19th century, the first approximations to what could one day become a compressed air driven vehicle already existed, with the arrival of the first pneumatic locomotives. In fact, two centuries before that Dennis Pippin apparently came up with the idea of using compressed air (Royal Society London, 1687). In 1872 the Mekarski air engine was used for street transit, consisting of a single stage engine. It represented an extremely important advance in terms of pneumatic engines, due to its forward thinking use of thermodynamics, which ensured that the air was heated, by passing it through tanks of boiling water, which also increased its range between fill-ups. Numerous locomotives were manufactured and a number of regular lines were opened up (the first in Nantes in 1879). In 1892, Robert Hardie introduced a new method of heating that at the same time served to increase the range of the engine. We know that world is facing fuel crisis now. All kinds of conventional fuel sources of fuel are on the verge of exhaustion. Gasoline which has been the main source of fuel for the history of cars is becoming more and more expensive and impractical. These factors are leading car manufacturers to develop car fuelled by alternative energy. The cost is not only the problem it is also damaging the environment eventually. Out of all alternatives air powered car is one possible alternative. Air powered Cars run on compressed air instead of gasoline. This car is powered by 2 gas cylinder engines. Compressed air is stored in glass or fiber tank at a pressure of approximately 4351 psi. This would most likely be the evolution of zero pollution cars. Compressed Air Technology is now widely preferred for research by different industries for developing different drives for different purposes. The Compressed Air Technology is quite simple. If we compress normal air into a cylinder the air would hold some energy within it. This energy can be utilized for useful purposes. When this compressed air expands, the energy is released to do work. So this energy in compressed air can also be utilized to displace a piston. This is the basic working principle of the Air Driven Engine. It uses the expansion of compressed air to drive the pistons of the engine. So an Air Driven Engine is basically a pneumatic actuator that creates useful work by expanding compressed air. This work provided by the air is utilized to supply power to the crankshaft of the engine. In the case of an Air Driven Engine, there is no combustion taking place within the engine. So it is non-polluting and less dangerous. It requires lighter metal only since it does not have to withstand elevated temperature 1
  2. 2. 1.2 What? An Air Powered Car? Tata Motors, India is ready to introduce the Air Car...Will it be the next big thing? Tata Motors is taking giant strides and making history for itself. First the Land Rover/Jaguar deal, then the world’s cheapest car, and now it is also set to introduce the car that runs on compressed air. India’s largest automaker, Tata Motors, is set to start producing the world’s first commercial, air-powered vehicle. This will be the World’s First Air Powered Car with Zero Emissions ready by next summer. This six-seater, which should be available in India nextyear, is powered entirely by a tank filled with compressed air. The Air Car, developed by ex-Formula One Engineer Guy Negre for Luxenbourg-based MDI uses compressed air, as opposed to the gas-andoxygen explosions of internal combustion models, to push its engine’s pistons. Some 6000 zero-emissions Air Cars are scheduled to hit Indian streets by August 2012. The Air Car, called the “MiniCAT” could cost around $8177 (in India RS 3,475,225) and would have a range of around 300 km between refuels. The cost of a refill would be about RS 85 ($2). The MiniCAT which is a simple, light urban car, with a tubular chassis that is glued, not welded, and a body of fiberglass powered by compressed air, with microcontrollers used in every device in the car, so that one tiny radio transmitter sends instructions to the lights, indicators, etc. There are no keys—just an access card which can be read by the car from your pocket. Its mileage is about double that of the most advanced electric car (200 to 300 km or 10 hours of driving), a factor which makes a perfect choice in cities where 80% of motorists drive at less than 60 km. According to the designers, it costs less than 50 rupees per 100 km (about a tenth of that of a petrol car). The car has a top speed of 105 mph. Actually the car will, once the market develops, go to adapted petrol stations to administer compressed air. In 2 or 3 minutes, and at a cost of approximately 100 rupees, the car will be ready to go another 200-300 kilometers. 2
  3. 3. As a viable alternative, the car carries a small compressor which can be connected to any main power source (220v - 380v) and refills the tank in 3-4 hours. Due to the absence of combustion, changing the oil (1 litre of vegetable oil) is necessary only every 50,000 km. The temperature of the clean air expelled by the exhaust pipe is between 0-15 degrees below zero, which makes it suitable for use by the internal air conditioning system with no need for gases or loss of power. Exciting to say the least! 3
  4. 4. CHAPTER 2 BRIEF HISTORY At the end of the 19th century the first approximations to what could one day become a compressed air driven vehicle already existed, through the arrival of the first pneumatic locomotives. Yet even two centuries before that Dennis Papin came up with the idea of using compressed air (Royal Society London, 1687). The first recorded compressed-air vehicle in France was built by the Frenchmen Andraud and Tessie of Motay in 1838. A car was tested in 1840, and worked well, but the idea was not pursued further. Figure 2.1 shows the some early compressed air vehicles. Figure 2.2 shows MDI vehicles . Figure 2.1: Some early compressed air vehicles 4
  5. 5. Figure 2.2: MDI vehicles In principle the technology is very similar to the internal combustion system in that compressed air is used to drive a piston in a barrel. The secret of the engine lies in the way it efficiently converts the energy stored in the tanks of compressed air. By way of explanation, it has long been known that to compress air to high pressures a staged process should be used, compressing air to first 50 bars, then to 150 bars then three hundred and so on. This technique, commonly employed by the air and gas liquefaction industries, uses a fraction of the energy used to compress the gas in one operation. The secret of the compressed air motor is simply to reverse the process - decompress the air in stages and in so doing efficiently release energy at each point in the chain. To compensate for the cooling effect that takes place, a thermal exchanger heats the compressed air using the warmth of external air. This process is repeated as many times as possible to extract the maximum energy efficiency from the compressed air. 5
  6. 6. CHAPTER 3 COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY Mankind has been making use of uncompressed airpower from centuries in different application viz., windmills, sailing, balloon car, hot air balloon flying and hang gliding etc. The use of compressed air for storing energy is a method that is not only efficient and clean, but also economical and has been used since the 19th century to power mine locomotives, and was previously the basis of naval torpedo propulsion. The laws of physics dictate that uncont*ained gases will* fill any given space. The easiest way to see this in action is to inflate a balloon. The elastic skin of the balloon holds the air tightly inside, but the moment you use a pin to create a hole in the balloon's surface, the air expands outward with so much energy that the balloon explodes. Compressing a gas into a small space is a way to store energy. When the gas expands again, that energy is released to do work. That's the basic principle behind what makes an air car go. The air compressors are built into them. The principle of compressed-air propulsion is to pressurize the storage tank and then connect it to something very like a reciprocating steam engine of the vehicle. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it in the engine to drive pistons with hot expanding gases, compressed air vehicles (CAV) use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons. Thus, making the technology free from difficulties, both technical and medical, of using ammonia, petrol, or carbon disulphide as the working fluid. Manufacturers claim to have designed engine that is 90 percent efficient. The air is compressed at pressure about 150 times the rate the air is pressurized into car tyres or bicycle. The tanks must be designed to safety standards appropriate for a pressure vessel. The storage tank may be made of steel, aluminium, carbon fiber, Kevlar or other materials, or combinations of the above. The fiber 6
  7. 7. materials are considerably lighter than metals but generally more expensive. Metal tanks can withstand a large number of pressure cycles, but must be checked for corrosion periodically. A company has stated to store air in tanks at 4,500 pounds per square inch (about 30 MPa) and hold nearly 3,200 cubic feet (around 90 cubic metres) of air. The tanks may be refilled at a service station equipped with heat exchangers, or in a few hours at home or in parking lots, plugging the vehicle into an on-board compressor. The cost of driving such a car is typically projected to be around Rs. 60 per 100 km, with a complete refill at the "tank-station" at about Rs. 120 only. The compression, storage and release of the air together are termed as the Compressed Air Technology. This technology has been utilized in different pneumatic systems. This technology has been undergoing several years of research to improve its applications. Compressed air is regarded as the fourth utility, after electricity, natural gas, and water. Compressed air can be used in or for: · Pneumatics, the use of pressurized gases to do work. · Vehicular transportation using a compressed air vehicle · Scuba diving · To inflate buoyancy devices. · Cooling using a vortex tube. · Gas dusters for cleaning electronic components that cannot be cleaned with water. · Air brake (rail) systems · Air brake (road vehicle) systems · starting of diesel engines (an alternative to electric starting) · compressed air breathers (such as Suisse Air) · Pneumatic air guns · Pneumatic screwdrivers It uses the expansion of compressed air to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine. Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank. This nonadiabatic expansion has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the machine. The only exhaust gas is cold air (−15 °C), which may also be used for air conditioning in a car. The source for air is a pressurized glass or carbon-fiber tank holding air at around 3,000 lbf/in² (20 MPa). Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional injection system. Unique crank design within the engine increases the time during which the air charge is warmed from ambient sources and a two stage process allows improved heat transfer rates. The properties of air car engine are: · Approximately 90m3 of compressed air is stored in fiber tank in the vehicle. · The engine is powered by compressed air, stored in a carbon-fiber tank at 30MPa. The tank is made of carbon fiber in order to reduce its weight. 7
  8. 8. · The engine has injection similar to normal, but uses special crankshaft and piston, which remains at top dead centre for about 700 of crankshaft rotation. · The expansion of this air pushes the piston and creates movement. The atmospheric temperature is used to reheat the engine and increase the road coverage. · The air condition system makes use of the expelled cold air. We only needed a simple piston-cylinder arrangement with an outlet and an exhaust. But as we know a normal two stroke engine contained several ports and it also had the spark plug which we didn’t require. So, several modifications had to be done on the engine to suit our purpose. The modifications comprised of: · Closing the transfer port · Closing the inlet port · Removing the spark plug from the cylinder head · Providing an inlet at the place of the spark plug · Providing a suitable connector at the cylinder head. 8
  9. 9. CHAPTER 4 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF AIR CAR The following Table 4.1 shows The Technical Specifications of a MINICAT vehicle Table 4.1: Technical specifications of a Minicat vehicle M M M Number of seats Luggage compartment Volume DUALENERGY 2 2.65 1.62 1.66 DUALENERGY 4 2.65 1.62 1.66 - LENGTH Width Height MONOENERGY 2.65 1.62 1.66 3 3 3 500/700 500/700 500/700 Dm3 Weight Engine Kg - 550 - 41P03 520 - 41P01 Power cv 25 25 50 Km/h 110 125 140 Urban range (zero pollution) Km 140/150 50 50 CO2 emission in urban use g/Km 0 0 0 Non-urban range Km 80 1650 1500 1. 8 2 35 40 Max. speed Non-urban consumption (petrol) Litres CO2 emission in non-urban use g/Km 540 41P01/4 0 Price (from) taxes included € 9200 CHAPTER 5 9
  10. 10. WORKING 5.1 HOW IT WORKS Figure No:5.1 Working of Air Car Our engines have attracted much curiosity and prompted many questions. For various reasons, one of which is industrial secrecy, we haven't published all technical details on this site. Figure 5.1 shows Working of Air Car. However, over the coming months, just before we begin serial production, we've decided to reproduce an unprecedented amount of information and data on the famous "MDI Air Car". After ten years of research and development of pollution-free engines and cars powered by compressed air, MDI is proud to present: Gasoline is already the fuel of the past. It might not seem that way as you fill up on your way to work, but the petroleum used to make it is gradually running out. It also 10
  11. 11. pollutes air that's becoming increasingly unhealthy to breathe, and people no longer want to pay the high prices that oil companies are charging for it. Automobile manufacturers know all of this and have spent lots of time and money to find and develop the fuel of the future. The search is on, but what will this fuel of the future be? Ready-made fuels like petroleum are becoming more difficult to find and automobile manufacturers are turning to greener energy sources like batteries. These batteries can be charged with energy and placed in a car where that energy can be released. As good as that idea might seem, some manufacturers think air could become an even better energy source. Air? At first glance, the idea of running a car on air seems almost too good to be true. If we can use air as fuel, why think about using anything else? Air is all around us. Air never runs out. Air is nonpolluting. Best of all, air is free. 5.2 THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE CAT'S 34 ENGINE Figure 5.2 shows working compressed Air Engine (CAE). Figure 5.3 shows compressed Air Engine. Figure 5.2:Fig Shows working Compressed Air Engine 11
  12. 12. Figure No.5.3: Compressed Air Engine Its flywheel is equipped with a 5kW electric moto-alternator. This motor is simultaneously: • • • • • the motor to compress air the starting motor the alternator for recharging the battery an electric moderator/brake a temporary power supply (e.g. for parking) No clutch is necessary. The engine is idle when the car is stationary and the vehicle is started by the magnetic plate which re-engages the compressed air. Parking manoeuvres are powered by the electric motor. 12
  13. 13. Figure No 5.4 :-The graph shows the working The CAT's 34 P04 engine is equipped with patented variable-volume butts and a dynamic variable-volume volumetric reducer. The Graph 5.4 shows the Working of Compressed Air Engine. 13
  14. 14. CHAPTER 6 PARTS OF AIR CAR 6.1 COMPRESSED AIR TANK Figure No.6.1 Compressed Air Tank & Materia Used Figure 5.4 shows The Compressed Air Tank. Compressed air tank are one of the most important part of these cars. These tanks hold 90m3 of air to 300 bars. It is similar to the tanks used to carry the liquid gas. The tank enjoys the same technology developed to containing natural gas. These tanks do not explode in case of accidents since there are no metals in them. 6.2 BRAKE POWER RECOVERY The MDI vehicles will be equipped with a range of modern systems. For example, one mechanism stops the engine when the car is stationary (at traffic lights, junctions etc). Another interesting feature is the pneumatic system which recovers about 13% of the power used. 14
  15. 15. 6.3 THE BODY Figure No.6.2:- The Body Of Air Car The car body is built with fibre and injected foam, as are most of the cars on the market today. This technology has two main advantages: cost and weight. Nowadays the use of sheet steel for car bodies is only because of cost - it is cheaper to serially produce sheet steel bodies than fibre ones. However, fibre is safer (it doesn´t cut like steel), is easier to repair (it is glued), doesn´t rust etc. Figure 5.5 shows Body Of Air Car 15
  16. 16. 6.4 THE AIR FILTER Figure No.6.3:- The Air Filter The engine works with both air taken from the atmosphere and air pre-compressed in tanks. Air is compressed by the on-board compressor or at service stations equipped with a highpressure compressor. Before compression, the air must be filtered to get rid of any impurities that could damage the engine. Carbon filters are used to eliminate dirt, dust, humidity and other particles which, unfortunately, are found in the air in our cities. This represents a true revolution in automobiles - it is the first time that a car has produced minus pollution, i.e. it eliminates and reduces existing pollution rather than emitting dirt and harmful gases. The exhaust pipe on the cars produces clean air, which is cold on exit (between -15º and 0º) and is harmless to human life. With this system the air that comes out of the car is cleaner than the air that went in. Figure 5.6 shows the Air Filter 16
  17. 17. 6.5 THE CHASSIS Figure No.6.4:- The chassis for Air Car Fig. no.6.4 The chassis for Air Car. Based on its experience in aeronautics, engine has put together highly-resistant, yet light, chassis, aluminium rods glued together. Using rods enables to build a more shockresistant chassis than regular chassis. Additionally, the rods are glued in the same way as aircraft, allowing quick assembly and a more secure join than with welding. This system helps to reduce manufacture time. 6.6 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Guy Nègre, inventor of the MDI Air Car, acquired the patent for an interesting invention for installing electrics in a vehicle. Using a radio transmission system, each electrical component receives signals with a microcontroller. Thus only one cable is needed for the whole car. So, instead of wiring each component (headlights, dashboard lights, lights inside the car, etc), one cable connects all electrical parts in the car. The most obvious advantages are the ease of installation and repair and the removal of the approximately 22 kg of wires no longer necessary. What more, the entire system becomes an anti-theft alarm as soon as the key is removed from the car. 17
  18. 18. 6.7 DISTRIBUTION AND VALVES To ensure smooth running and to optimize energy efficiency, air engines use a simple electromagnetic distribution system, which controls the flow of air into the engine. This system runs on very little energy and alters neither the valve phase nor its rise. No clutch is necessary. The engine is idle when the car is stationary and the vehicle is started by the magnetic plate, which re-engages the compressed air. Parking manoeuvres are powered by the electric motor. The P04 engine is equipped with patented variable- volume butts and a dynamic variable-volume volumetric reducer. The engines can be equipped with and run on dual energies - fossil fuels and compressed air - and incorporate a reheating mechanism between the storage tank and the engine. This mechanism allows the engine to run exclusively on fossil fuel, which permits compatible autonomy on the road. While the car is running on fossil fuel, the compressor refills the compressed air tanks. The control system maintains a zero-pollution emission in the city at speeds up to 60 km/h. 6.8 THE SOLENOID VALVE A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid coil. Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas. For controlling the air flow in and out of the engine we use a 3/2 pilot operated normally closed valve. The symbol of the 3/2 valve is as shown: The specifications of the valve are the following: · Orifice: 12mm. · Operating pressure range: 2-10bar · Flow rate: 3000Litres/minute · Coil width: 32mm. · Voltage: 24V DC · Duty cycle: Continuous 18
  19. 19. CHAPTER 7 REFILLING OF AIR 7.1 Three modes for fueling tank: 7.1.1 Air Stations 7.1.2 Domestic electric plug 7.1.3 Dual-energy mode Figure No.7.1:- Refuelling Air Car At Air Stations Figure No.7.2 :- Refueling Air Car by Air Compressor 19
  20. 20. Figure shows .7.1 Refuelling Air Car At Air Stations Figure shows 7.2 Refueling Air Car by Air Compressor at home. As these energies are so easy to store Filling stations are setup as for petrol and diesel. The filling of tank of an air car nearly takes 3 to 4 minutes for cars. 1. The air can be filled at our home by using Air Compressor ,but it requires 3 to 4 hours. 2. And the air can be filled in Air Stations and it requires just 2 to 3 minutes. 3.And we can use the fuel for more than 70 km/hr. 20
  21. 21. CHAPTER 8 SPECIAL FEATURES 8.1 Computer Screen Showing the speed the car 8.2 Internet Connection 8.3 GPS device Figure No. 8.1:- Facilities of the Air Car · There is absolutely no fuel required and no combustion in the engine cylinder. · There is no pollution at all as only air is taken in and air is ejected out. · No Heat is generated, as there is no combustion. 21
  22. 22. · No engine cooling system is required, like water Pump, radiator, and water Circulating pipes. It was measured practically that the engine exhaust is a cooled air; its temperature was measured as low as 5 degrees Celsius. · No air conditioning system in the car is required if used, the exhaust chilled and clean air can be recirculated partly in the car to cool it. · The atmospheric temperature can fall down, as the exhaust is a clean and chilled air, so the problem of pollution can be permanently eradicated. · Very less maintenance is required as there won’t be any soot formation. · Very low cost materials can be used, as there is no heat involvement. · Weight of the engine can be reduced in the absence of cooling system and because of lightweight material, which will improve the mileage and efficiency. · In case of leakage or accident, there won’t be any fire. · Engine vibrations were very less and sound pollution was also very low. · Operating cost is ten times less than that of gasoline engine. The following table 8.1 gives the comparison with competition. 22
  23. 23. CHAPTER 9 COMPARISON WITH COMPITITION The following table No. 9.1 shows the Comparison with Compitition. Table no.9.1 shows The Comparison with Comppetition. 9.1 RUNNING COST ANALYSIS Preliminary analysis based on the prototype calculations shows that around three cubic meter of air at a pressure more than 30bar can give a mileage equivalent to one liter of petrol. In India one-liter petrol is Rs 52, and cost of production of one cubic meter of air at a pressure of 50bar is Rs 3. Hence air of Rs 9 can give the mileage of Rs 52 of petrol. However if air is mass compressed and produced the cost will further come down. 23
  24. 24. CHAPTER 10 ADVANTAGES OF AIR POWERED CAR 10.1 ADVANTAGES OF ENGINE Figure No.10.1:- Modern Air Cars by MDI. · less costly and more effective · The air engine is an emission-free piston engine that uses compressed air as a source of energy. · Simple in construction. The engine can be massively reduced in size · Easy to maintain and repair. · No fire hazard problem due to over loading. Air, on its own, is non-flammable. · Low manufacture and maintenance costs · Comparatively the operation cost is less. · Light in weight and easy to handle. The engine runs on cold or warm air, so can be made of lower strength light weight material such as aluminium, plastic, low friction Teflon or a combination · Compressed-air tanks can be disposed of or recycled with less pollution than batteries. · Compressed-air engines are unconstrained by the degradation problems associated with current battery systems. 24
  25. 25. · The air tank may be refilled more often and in less time than batteries can be recharged, with re-filling rates comparable to liquid fuels. · Lighter vehicles cause less damage to roads · The price of filling air tanks is significantly cheaper than petrol, diesel or bio fuel. If electricity is cheap, then compressing air will also be relatively cheap · Quick response is achieved. 10.2 ADVANTAGES OF ALL COMPRESSED AIR CAR 1. The costs involved to compress the air to be used in a vehicle are inferior to the costs involved to fuel a normal combustion engine. 2. Air is abundant, economical, transportable, storable and, most importantly, nonpolluting. 3. The technology involved with compressed air reduces the production costs of vehicles by 20% because it is not necessary to assemble a refrigeration system, a fuel tank, spark plugs or silencers. 4. Air itself is not flammable 5. The mechanical design of the motor is simple and robust 6. It does not suffer from corrosion damage resulting from the battery. 7. Less manufacturing and maintenance costs. 8. The tanks used in an air compressed motor can be discarded or recycled with less contamination than batteries. 9. The tanks used in a compressed air motor have a longer lifespan in comparison with batteries, which, after a while suffer from a reduction in performance. 10. Some of the air used is returned to the air tank. 10.3 DISADVANTAGES Distance could also become a disadvantage, depending on your travel habits. The distance that an air car can cover without refueling is crucial because very few filling stations will have compressed air pumps available at first. If you only plan to use your air car for short commutes -- distances less than 100 miles --will be fine. However, the one-to-two hour wait for the car's built-in air compressor to compress a tank full of air could become a problem on cross-country trips. Zero Pollution Motors -- the American arm of MDI and the company likeliest to produce the first air car for the U.S. market -- aims to have a car available soon able to travel between 800 and 1,000 miles on one tank of air plus 8 gallons of gas [source: Cornell]. Early prototypes, however, have traveled distances closer to 120 miles – good enough for your daily commute, but not quite adequate for longer trips [source: Motavalli]. 25
  26. 26. What will happen if an air car suffers damage in an accident? After all, compressed air tanks can be dangerous. To reduce this danger, the air tanks are made of carbon fiber and are designed to crack, rather than shatter, in a crash. This crack would allow the "fuel" to escape harmlessly into the surrounding air. Manufacturers feared that air escaping from one end of the tank could produce a rocket-like effect and propel the car on a jet of air. The valve on the cars' fuel tanks has been placed on the side to minimize this effect. 26
  27. 27. CHAPTER 11 FUTURE SCOPE 11.1 THE DUAL ENERGY SYSTEM The Series 34 CAT's engines can be equipped with and run on dual energies - fossil fuels and compressed air - and incorporate a reheating mechanism (a continuous combustion system, easily controlled to minimize pollution) between the storage tank and the engine. This mechanism allows the engine to run exclusively on fossil fuel which permits compatible autonomy on the road. While the car is running on fossil fuel, the compressor refills the compressed air tanks. The control system maintains a zero-pollution emission in the city at speeds up to 60 km/h. 11.2 FEW MODELS Figure No. 11.1:- Few models by MDI co. France 27
  28. 28. 11.3 AIR CAR IN INDIA BY TATA MOTORS AIR CAR IN INDIA Tata Motors has signed an agreement with Moteur Development International of France to develop a car that runs on compressed air, thus making it very economical to run and almost totally pollution free. Although there is no official word on when the car will be commercially manufactured for India, reports say that it will be sooner than later. The car MiniCAT - could cost around Rs 350,000 in India and would have arange of around 300 km between refuels. The cost of a refill would be about Rs 90. In the single energy mode MDI cars consume around Rs 45 every 100 km. Figure 6 shows the proposed air car for India. The smallest and most innovative (three seats, minimal dimensions with the boot of a saloon), it is a great challenge for such a small car which runs on compressed air. The MiniCAT is the city car of the future. Figure 11.2 shows the Air Car in India by TATA MOTORS. Figure No.11.2:- Shows The Air Car India by TATA MOTORS 28
  29. 29. CHAPTER 12 CONCLUSION The Air Car Which Is The Result Of A Long Research And Development Is A Clean, Easy To Drive, High Performance Car. The End Product Is A Light Weight Vehicle That Can Reach Speeds Up To 220 Km/H (Even Though The Legal Limit Is 120), A Product That Does Not Pollute Like Twentieth Century Vehicles And Does Not Take A Lifetime To Pay Off. Essentially, MDI Has Developed A Modern, Clean, And Cheap Car That Meets Most People’s Needs.  Air cars is a realization of latest technology in automobile field. The air car is a clean, easy to drive, light weight and high performance car.  It eliminates the use of non-renewable fuels and Thereby preventing pollution and step to a healthier environment. The Mexico government scheduled to replace 45000 cars by air car in highly polluted area of their country  The end product is a light weight vehicle that can reach speeds up to 220 km/h (even though the legal limit is 120), does not pollute like twentieth century vehicles and does not take a lifetime to pay off. The Principle Advantages For An Air Powered Vehicle Are: · Fast Recharge Time · Long Storage Lifetime (Electric Vehicle Batteries Have A Limited Useful Number Of Cycles, And Sometimes A Limited Calendar Lifetime, Irrespective Of Use). · Potentially Lower Initial Cost Than Battery Electric Vehicles When Mass Produced. The Emission Benefits Of Introducing This Zero Emission Technology Are Obvious. At The Same Time The Well To Wheels Efficiency Of These Vehicles Need To Be Improved. 29
  30. 30. CHAPTER 13 REFERENCES [1]. Gizmag.com. "French auto runs on compressed air technology." December 2, 2004. (9/30/2008)http://www.gizmag.com/go/3523 [2]. Sullivan, Matt. "Air-Powered Car Coming to U.S. in 2009 to 2010 at Sub$18,000, Could Hit 1000-Mile Range." Popular Mechanics. February 22, 2008. (9/28/2008) http://www.popularmechanics.com/automotive/new_cars/4251491.html [3]. Chapa, Jorge. "MDI Compressed Air Car." Inhabitat.com. June 1, 2007. (accessed 9/30/2008)http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/06/01/tata-motors-air-car/ [4]. http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-air-driven engine#ixzz26axpHVyy [5]. Internet website www.theaircar.com [6]. Internet website www.hawstuffworks.com [7]. Internet website www.zeropollutuion.com [8]. Internet website, www.peswiki.com [9] .http://www.guynegre.net/ [10].http://www.zevcat.com/media/MDI_History.pdf [11].http://www.theaircar.com/acf/ [12].http://www.gizmag.com/go/7000/ [13].http://www.engineair.com.au/index.htm [14].http://zeropollutionmotors.us/ [15].http://gas2.org/2008/07/15/an-air-car-you-could-see-in-2009-zpms[16].106-mpg-compressed-air-hybrid/ [17].http://www.metacafe.com/watch/1248351/car_runs_on_compresse _air/ 30

×